Appendix:Paleosiberian Swadesh lists

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This is a Swadesh list of Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Yukaghir and Yupik languages, specifically Chukchi, Koryak, Itelmen, Kerek, Northern Yukaghir and Southern Yukaghir and one or more others, compared with that of Ainu and Nivkh, as well as English.

These are known as Paleosiberian languages, not a family proper but a term of convenience that includes some language isolates.

Note: Additional vocabulary words have been added after word no. 207 ("name"), since the original lengths of Swadesh lists are either 100 or 207 words.

English Ainu
(isolate)
Nivkh
(isolate)
Yukaghir
(family consisting of Southern and Northern Yukaghir)
Chukchi
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Koryak
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Aliutor
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Kerek
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Itelmen
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Yupik
(family consisting of various languages)
1 I ku-, kani ɲi met ɣəm ɣəmmo umŋu[1] kəmma kuinga, kwiinga
2 you
(singular)
e-, eani cʰi tet ɣət ɣəčči hennu kəzza elpet
3 he Φ-, sinuma if (Amur)
jaŋ (Sakhalin)
тудел (tudel) ənkəŋ ("to him") ənno ennu ənna
4 we a-/-an (incl.), aoka, ci-/-as (excl.), coka ɲɨŋ (excl.)
mer ("we and you-PL.")
megi ("we and thou")
mit muri muji (du.), muju (pl.) muza'n
5 you
(plural)
eci-, ecioka cʰɨŋ тит (tit) turi tuji (du.), tuju (pl.) meey tuza'n
6 they Φ-, oka imŋ титтел (tittel) əčči (du.), əčču (pl.) teey itχ
7 this tanpe
tu, tun (Sakhalin)
tuŋ (adj.) wuččin- ičči ty'n, ty'nnu
8 that toanpe hɨ, hu (adj.)
hɨʤ, hud (pron.)
taŋut (pron.) əɲɲin (med.), ŋajen (dist.) nu
9 here te tur, tus
tunx
tuin
ten wutku nuxqene, ɳu'n
10 there toan uske hur, hus taŋudeŋ ("thither") ŋanko χu
11 who nen
hunna
aŋ, aŋa kin meŋin, mikəne meki k'e (singular), k'nəntx (plural)
12 what nep
hemanta
sidʒ leme, lem-, neme, nem-
qa, qaj, qo, qoj, (V-)ʁa
rʔenut jənnə ɐɳqa
13 where hunak řajn, rajn qadungə, qado:ngə
qol, qoʎ (before -ʎə "be")
miŋki, məʔenno/menno (pred.) ma'
14 when henpara ɨɣr, ɨɨr, ɨɨř qaɲin, qajin, qajn tite tite it'e
15 how makanak jaʁoc, jaɣodʒ, jaɣut, jagut, jangur
sidʒ-ɣir
qodo, qod, qoda:
qojt ("why")
miŋkri miŋkəje last
16 not somo qʰau ("be not") el
øjʎə, øjʎ(-V), øjʎe:- ("be not, have not")
qa'm (present and past simple), xenʔtʃ (future time), zaq (imperative mood)
17 all opitta sɨk jawner (subj.), jawnuo (obj.), jawnej (adj.)
c͡çumu, c͡çumut
ym- əməŋ miɫ
18 many poronno tam ("numerous")
malʁo ("much")
erʁali
poj(-uol) ("multiple")
ningə, ning(-V), ninge:(-ʎəl)
myk- mk-, ŋənvəq mejim, mejeŋ, ptos, əmptova, estʃaq
19 some ponno ɲoɲuq, niɲaq ("a bit") i:le la'lsxe'nʔtʃ
20 few moyo hɨsk- ("to be few in number") alʁamla teʔi uʎuq
21 other oya ena jien qullu qula
22 one sine ɲaqr (generic) ma:rq(-uo), ma:rqa(-n)
irk(-i), irki:, irkin
ənnen ənnen qniŋ atauciq
23 two tu meqr (generic)
mor (animals)
ataqun ŋireq ŋəččeq kasχ malluk
24 three re caqř ja:n (adj.) ŋəjoq tʃoq pingayun
25 four íne nəkř ŋəjaq tʃaq staamat
26 five asikne tʰokř məlləŋen kuvumnuk talliman
27 big poro pil-, pila, pilkar cam(-uol), cama-
c͡çomo, c͡çom(-V), c͡çomm(-V:)
mejŋ- plaχ, esqtʃin
28 long tanne kɨl-, kɨlkar̥ iwl- ivlaχ
29 wide sep ver- paw- kotlaχ
30 thick ironne ŋarla- nomqen (a thick human)
31 heavy pase pjer- kɐzlaχ
32 small pon maʧki-, maʧka-, mɨʧkɨlk (as a child) juk(-uol), juku-, ʎuku- im- ppuʎu- uʎuʎaχ
33 short takne mχaq-, hum ikɘmʎaχ
34 narrow hutne nok- ("small; narrow")
puski- ("tight")
quŋɫaχ
35 thin ane ktʃonʔaχ, oɫveɫaχ
36 woman menoko umgu (Amur)
řaq, řaŋq (Sakh.)
paj
apanala: ("old woman")
terikə ("old woman; wife")
ŋewəsqet ŋavəčŋən ŋaw, ŋawħan mimsx aʁnaq
37 man
(adult male)
okkayo utku (Amur)
utkun (N Sakh.)
azməʨ (E Sakh.)
azmʨ (S Sakh.)
køj ("young man")
pulut, pulun- ("old man; husband")
qlavol iχɫχ
38 man
(human being)
aynu
kur
ɲivx kode, gode, gøde, kol(-le), køn(-die) (dim.) (Tu)
ʃoromə, ʃoromo (Ko)
ci:, ɟi: (Tu: "people")
ʔujemtewilʔən ku tʃamzaɲɫχ angun
39 child
(a youth)
hekaci oɣla, oʁla (Amur & N Sakh.)
eɣlŋ, eʁlŋ (E Sakh.)
eχlŋ (S Sakh.)
uo, uor
ø:, ø:r, ø:rə
kəmiŋən p'etʃ
40 wife mat umgu ("woman, wife") terikə ŋevətqet ŋytʃ
41 husband hoku utku ("man, husband") pulut, pulun- 'uwequc qlavol qamzan
42 mother hapo, unu ɨmɨk emej əlla, ajella əmme, əlləʔ- amma laχsχ
43 father mici, aca, ona ɨtɨk ama:
eçe:
ytlyg-
appa
eɲpič appa isx
44 animal siknup ŋa enʝo:ŋ, enʝo:d (literally, "one that lives") ilvila heynik kɫale'an
45 fish cep ʧʰo
ma ("dried fish")
anil, ani- ynnyt, ənneen ənnəʔən əɲtʃ
46 bird cikap pɨjŋa, pɨjɨŋa ("flying animal")
cevrq ("little songbird")
ɲolel, nodo, noda: pəčiqa halli
47 dog seta qan
ŋajqnonq, ŋajq ("puppy")
nonoq, nonk ("puppy, cub")
la:me ʔəttʔən ʕətʕən qosχ
48 louse ki, urki, rayoki
49 snake tannekamuy (literally, "long deity") kɨlɨŋa ("long animal")
tɕavda ("serpent")
umlaŋ ("angry one, malicious one," E Sakh.)
50 worm kikir keliʝə
51 tree ni ʨiɣr, ʨi:r (Amur, also "forest" or "firewood")
ʨiɣř (N Sakh.)
jugul
jollə (fallen or rotten tree)
ʃa:l, ʃa:-, ʃa- (as a material)
uttəut u'
52 forest nítay pal sa:nmonile (Tu)
jo:bi: (Ko)
uttət umkən, uttəlwən uxt (birch forest), stoval (cedar forest), kskəzzal (alder forest), lylum (mixed forest)
53 stick
(of wood)
nítek tɕoz ("twig")
ʨiɣř
jaʁiʝə u'
54 fruit níkaop als ("berry, acorn, mushroom")
tʰoʁs ("pine nut")
kɨp ("bird cherry")
lebejdi: ("berry")
55 seed pi, tane xem ("pip, kernel, a grain (of roe)")
56 leaf ham comr polʒiçə xoxongat wətwət pəllapəl
57 root nísinrit vizlɨx larqul kimgʔaxaj kinmakin
tatqup
pŋylpŋyl
58 bark
(of tree)
níkap om
hivs ("birch bark")
ʃanʁa:r ilqəlɣən, ilxelgin ilal
59 flower nonno eŋvak
eɲq, eɲk
eŋv comr
papak
wətwət, məčan tŋa-čhan tʃiɲeketʃχ
60 grass kina ʧŋər uʎegə w'aj, wʔaɣləŋən, vaganling vəʕaj sysal
61 rope tus heβa
kʰjeχ
igeje ("cord") ŋilŋən fɐsχt
62 skin
(of a person)
kap, kamka hal qa:r kylvyɫχ
63 meat
(as in flesh)
kam ʧus c͡çu:l kinuŋi, kinuŋvan tχaltχal
64 blood kem ŋar leppul, leppu, lepul, lepu mulləmul mɫim
65 bone pone ŋəɲf amun 'ym- ʔətʔəm ktχɐm
66 fat
(noun)
kirpu
sum ("oil")
ŋoχ
tʰom ("oil")
ʃo:nbə, ʃoŋdə
poŋiçə
ačʔən mtkemet xamɫx (of an seal), katʃ'x (of an bear)
67 egg nok ŋojq, ŋojeq
ŋojχxu ("eggs")
hɨɣr ("roe")
liwliw, liɣliɣ lvilx
68 horn kiraw muřki unmu, unmut ("reindeer antler") əntəŋ
69 tail sar ŋɨki ŋosx (of an animal, fish), tʃopxtʃ (of an bird)
70 feather
(rather not down)
rap ŋɨrɣɨř
tupr ("feather, down")
tegel tʃeɫxtʃeɫx
71 hair otop, etop ("hair of the head")
numa ("body hair")
rek ("beard, whiskers")
ŋɨŋk
ɨf ("whiskers")
majlə kyr- k'imi'n
72 head sapa
pake
coŋř jo: (of a human)
kø:kə (of an animal)
lewət ktxyŋ (human), tʃaqol (animal, bird), xevlytʃ (fish)
73 ear kisar nos, noz- (_#V) unemə, unumə vilu- i'l
74 eye sik ɲaχ aŋʝə ləla- l'ul
75 nose etu mix, vix, ux joʁul ʔiŋətʔəm qeqeŋ
76 mouth par amx, ɨŋk
ɨl ("into one's mouth")
aŋa jəkiŋən qesχ
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
nimak ŋɨɣs, ŋɨːs saʎʁari:
todi:
rytyn wann- kəpkəp
78 tongue parunpe hilx jilə- ɫtʃel
79 fingernail am təkɲ veɣ- k'ufk'uf
80 foot ure ŋaʧx nojl, noj- ɣətka-
81 leg kema ŋɨʧx, ŋaʧχ nojl, noj- ɣətka- qtχaŋ
82 knee kokkasapa pix poʁo sezeŋ
83 hand tek tamk, tɨmk nugen mənɣ- xk'itʃ
84 wing tekkup uje tiltil seseŋ
85 belly hon qoχ iril, iri-, iɣř- ("stomach") qeɫtq
86 guts kankan
87 neck rekut qʰos ɲami:(-da)
jomul, jomu-, imil, imi-
xejten
88 back setur kɨdr
ŋɨski ("spine")
joboʁə, jouʁə k'avatʃ
89 breast totto ("teat")
penram ("chest")
mɨcik, mock, mot ibiʃi:
90 heart sanpe ŋif ʃubeʝə liŋliŋ liŋtʃ
91 liver kinop tʰivs kudeʝə pontapont
92 to drink ku(tr.), iku(intr.) ra lawi(-te), law(-je)
o:ʒə, o:ʒ-, oʒ-, o:ʒa:-
iwwit͡ɕik velkas
93 to eat e(tr.), ipe(intr.) ɲi (tr.), iɲ (intr.) løgi, leg(-uo), lew(-ŋu)
leg, leu, lej(-d), lek(-k), lem(-m), leŋ(-ŋ)
jukkə akkuik nokas, stʃ'elkas
94 to bite kupa neri pəlkas
95 to suck ni momo, momu, momɨ ib əlx'es
96 to spit topse hurtvaj (mulʎə) peʃʃəj ciŋketure icciɲcəva, icciŋtəva ilfəntus
97 to vomit atu vɨks, hurtvaj
98 to blow
(as wind)
as teʁ puj spəlkas
99 to breathe hése tʰa ju:çi:, ju:çə ftʃetkas
100 to laugh mina haʁa nø:
qaʝilb
at͡ɕat͡ɕɣatək ɫŋezekas
101 to see nukar(tr.), inkar(intr.) ɲřə, idə
(j)ama, (j)ajma ("look, watch")
ʎuo, juo, juø, jø:
icuo ("watch, notice")
ləʔuk əɫtʃkos
102 to hear nu mɨ, mi mor(-mori)
mød
valomək
103 to know
(a fact)
eraman(single), eramuoka(plural) jiim, jim, jəjm ("know how to v.")
hajm
lej
mød ("feel, understand")
lii leŋki xiq eɫes
104 to think ramu(tr.), yaynu(intr.) eːz, ez
kʰɨmla
lej
ønmə-gə ej ("to get in one's mind" > "to remember, to recall, to think of")
ivək, t͡ɕet͡ɕkejuŋək k'enezekas
105 to smell
(sense odor)
húrarapkar nuɣju peʝel, peʝe ("stench") tykek nesk'e'ɫkas
106 to fear sitoma hlud
iŋlə, iŋli:, iŋl- ("afraid, frightened")
jimɣəmɣetək xtekas
107 to sleep mokor qʰo- joŋʒə, joŋʒa:-, joŋʒ(-V), iŋʒ(-V), uŋʒ(-V) (also means "forget")
mal ("to fall asleep, to get to sleep")
jylqyjyl jəlqetək yake, čhiya ŋekɫkas
108 to live siknu hum- ("to be in a certain place, to dwell, to reside")
mořqa-, morqa- ("to be alive")
en, eʝ(-V), eʎ(-ʎ)
modo ("to occupy, inhabit, to dwell, to reside")
junetək soɲɫkas
109 to die ray mu jabe
am
viʔək ezakas
110 to kill rayke(single), ronnu(plural) kʰu (def. obj.)
iɣ (indef. obj.)
buɲi(-l), puɲ, pun(-nun)
kude, kud-
təmək təmək uiyŋa iččik ɫmekas
111 to fight tumikor əɣmə, u:mu kimʝ(-V), kimʝə, kimʝe:, kimʝi: taɲŋəčetək ɫetekas
112 to hunt
(transitive)
ramante ŋɨŋ qaŋi: ("to chase") taɣəjɲiŋək promosɫaɫkas, neskas
113 to hit kik paj
ʃapa, ʃaba ("to strike (a log) with an ax")
evəklək ozeles
114 to cut tuye(single), tuypa(plural) haq ("to cut [fish]")
řa-, -tʰa- ("to chop [firewood, etc.]")
c͡çoʁ, c͡çou, c͡çaʁ(-a:), c͡çoq(-k), c͡çoŋ(-ŋ)
c͡çoln
c͡ça:qi: ("to shave off slices of frozen fish")
c͡çine ("to chop")
čəvik əmpχes
115 to split perpa əmpχes
116 to stab
(or stick)
otke řɨ-, -tʰɨ- ("to stick something through something") kigie
117 to scratch
(an itch)
kerkeri aje: k'ules
118 to dig ouri(single), ourpa(plural) quqluk satokas, satos
119 to swim ma řɨm jara: alʔiqatək
120 to fly hopuni(single), hopunpa(plural) pɨj mere, mer(-V) riŋek jiŋek iŋak seŋkas
121 to walk apkas nɨŋ
amam
eg, ej(-rə) təlek ɫalekas, eɫkas
122 to come ek(single), arki(plural) pʰrɨ, prɨ
pʰrɨivu, prɨivu
kel, ke:(-j), keʎ(-ʎ) jetək, pəkijək yat k'oɫkas
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
hotke poz-, por-, pʰor- abud ("lie down; sleep with (a person)")
qud(-uol)
qodoo, qodo, qod(-V), qot(-t) ("lie in a certain place" (less active, more stative than abud)
sŏlkas
124 to sit a(single), rok(plural) hurtiv, hurtɨv saʁan, saʁane(-l)
modo, mod(-V), moda:-, mad(-a:), mot(-t)
ɫakas
125 to stand as(single), roski(plural) oz ("stand up, rise")
kɨpr, kɨpř ("be standing")
ege, eg(-e:/-ej), oʁ(-o:) tχzokas
126 to turn
(change direction)
sikari pʰirk ɲuo ("to be twisted"), ɲuore ("to spin (fibers)")
jodo, jod(-V), joddə, jot(-t) ("to twist")
jømgə, jømg(-i:) ("to go around (a tent, etc.)")
127 to fall
(as in drop)
hácir tɨmz- ([v.i.] "drop")
kut-
pol- ("someone falls")
kɨ- ("to fall (as precipitation)")
ɲoʁo
je:, ej- ("to fall (as snow), to come to a rest (as a projectile)")
tsɐlkas
128 to give kore iːmɨ-, imɨ-, imɣ-, im-
-xim-, -kʰim-
ki:(-l)
kej
tadi:, tad-
zylles
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
ani(single), anpa(plural) vo, ev moj, mo(-j) inenretyk ənlos
130 to squeeze nunpa t'k'nekas
131 to rub siru c͡çaʁ ("touch with a hand")
132 to wash huraye(single), huraypa(plural) tʃXojtʃu ləməs
133 to wipe piru(single), pirpa(plural) xedr, hedr
ɲev
ɫxas
134 to pull etaye(single), etaypa(plural) irlɨ, ilɨ ju:tə ("to pull in; to inhale")
abudu ("to pull out or through")
txoŋes
135 to push oputuye(single), oputuypa(plural) erq
van
tneɫes
136 to throw eyapkir(tr.), yapkir(intr.) vɨks, vɨkz, pɨjz, pɨz, paz
fɨɲ-, -pʰɨɲ- ("to throw something in/at someone/something")
su:sej
pejʒi:
peʃʃəj, peʃʃə-
tketes
137 to tie sina jup
rov-, -tov-, -dov- ("to tie something to something")
ifk- ("to tie something, to harness something")
uldə, uld-, ultə, ult-, ulte:- pəzes, omtes
138 to sew ninninu pʰot, joʧ- ("to sew something")
jaɣ-, -aɣ- ("to sew something on something")
ik, i:(-d)
iŋʝə, iŋʝi:
tyni-, waŋek tʃe'nŋetes
139 to count piski uru- ("to count; to read") c͡çuŋ ɫnes
140 to say ye(tr.), itak(intr.) it-
xez-, -kʰez- ("to tell someone something")
mon
nie(ʝi)
pundu
iwyk χenekas
141 to sing sinotcaki lu jaqtə, jaqt(-V), jaqta:- tʃaqa'ɫkas
142 to play sinot ler- juore
jo:də, jo:d(-V), jo:da:-
uiyna ma'ɫkas
143 to float pékanke lerk- je:, e- pvatkas
144 to flow mom vi- ("to go") ojʎ, oj- ("stream") xskas
145 to freeze rupus kɨŋ (as fish)
hoʁo, hoʁ
qiwjek qetekas
146 to swell putke tʰɨ puke:
147 sun cup, tókap cup kʰeŋ jeʎo:ʝə pellan latʃ macaq
148 moon cup, kunne cup loŋ kinʝə mesits iraluq
149 star nociw uɲɣɨř, uɲɣř ŋezzetʃχ, eŋezetʃχ
150 water wakka cʰaχ o:ʒi: miməl miməl i' emeq
151 rain apto lɨx tibo, tib(-V) roitti, roiti muqemuq ("rain")
muqet- ("to rain")
tʃuftʃuf
152 river pet ("large river")
nay ("small river, stream, brook")
eri unuŋ, un- vejem, weem wejem kiv
153 lake to tu jalʁil, jalʁi- kəɫf
154 sea
(as in ocean)
atuy keřqŋ, kerq, kʰeřq, kerͪq ("seaside, beach, by the sea")
tol ("sea(water), ocean")
cawul aŋkala qyχ
155 salt sippo taftʃ tʔejutəej čol (< Russian?)
jamjam
soʎ
156 stone suma paχ
tɕeɣraf ("rock")
qajl
ʃøjl, ʃejl, ʃej- ("small stone")
pe: ("large stone; hill, mountain")
wykwylgyn ukkuŋa vapk'ol, vatʃ
157 sand ota maχ cəɣej səɣajjə, səɣaj, sɣaj siɣaj tosx
158 dust pana piŋesχq
159 earth
(as in soil)
toytoy mif luku(-n)
lebe:, lebie
nute- ktxym
160 cloud niskur jajaŋ, ŋyzzal
161 fog úrar tʃʰɨlɨ
162 sky nisor lɨx ("the look of the sky, weather") kuʒu: qysχtʃaχ
163 wind
(as in breeze)
réra la ilejə spəl
164 snow upas ŋaqř pukeʎə
aŋʁəjə ("snowstorm")
qəllal
165 ice konru lur jarqə, jarq(-V) ketvol
166 smoke supuya tʰuf ju:l, ju:- (also "breath; a rest") nilnin ipiʔip t'it'im, ŋatʃəs
167 fire ape tʰuɣř, tʰuɣr, tʰuːř, tʰuř loçil, losil (also means "firewood") milɣəmil ("a match") milɣən
milɣəmil
ximɫx
168 ash úna tʃinzusx
169 to burn
(intransitive)
uhuy u pe:də, pe:d, ped lokas
170 road ru tif, dif, tʃif
klɨ ("street")
c͡çugø ktχɐs
171 mountain nupuri, kim pal
tir, tʃʰir ("bare peak")
pe: ("mountain, hill; large stone") ŋej- ŋay ŋejŋe
172 red húre paʁ- ("to be red"), paʁla, paːlɨ
helu
kejlə, kejl(-V) tʃ'atʃ'alaχ
173 green siwnin tʃŋɨr vala
qala
fɫlaχ
174 yellow siwnin evřq vala ʃaqalə (also means "fox") ʒoltoj
175 white retar qonu
qalʁalɨ
ʧʰaŋ- (as a pelt)
pojnə, pojɲa:-, poɲ(-qə) atxlaχ
176 black kunne vɨlvɨlɨ, vɨlvɨl
piu- (as hair or skin)
embə ktvelaχ
177 night kunne paf, parf ("evening")
uːrk, ɨrk
ciŋice
emil, emi- ("night")
em ("to be/get dark")
emiçə ("darkness; dark spots (on the Moon)")
amməl ("to spend a night, to stay overnight")
joulə ("evening")
kɫfiŋle
178 day
(daytime)
to muɣf, muːf, muf cajle
poʝorqə, poʝerqə
qɫχɐl
179 year pa ɲəmolʁil, ɲəmolʁiʎ(-J), ɲəmolʁi(-n) god
180 warm
(as in weather)
(sir-)popke ("to be warm")
(sir-)sesek ("to be hot")
qʰav
tak
puge, pug- nətɣəlqin, nitilxin tigeljet-, *təɣəlʲʕet- omlaχ
181 cold
(as in weather)
méan tuz
tiv-, tivla, tivlɨ (as wind or tea)
c͡çel, c͡çe:(-j) qiwjen lqlaχ
182 full sik saru-, -ʧʰaru- ("to fill something with something") ktχnu'in
183 new asir tʃuz iʎʎə, ilʎel novoj
184 old husko mrolv (as footwear)
hɨjm (as a person)
lige (as a person) staroj
185 good pirka ur-, urla, urlɨ
nama- ("to be appropriate, to fit someone; to be good (as one's life, business, etc.)"), namɨ, ŋama
amu(-ce), am(-uo), ama(-qa:)
omo:, omo(-j)
nəmelqin nəmelqin bravoj, mellaχ, teŋlaχ
186 bad wen ɨki
ɨkis
ɨkila
er, eru: ʔetkiŋ, ʔerkiŋ ("bad")
axali ("malicious, evil")
ʕatkeŋ χeqelaχ, etʃk'elaχ
187 rotten
(as, a log)
munin pollə, poll-(V) ksuqknen
188 dirty icakkere ŋalʁo əlk'sylaχ
189 straight owpeka mɨkr vetvalaχ
190 round sikari pulbuluk qadmudul ("a ring") krugloj
191 sharp
(as a knife)
een tʰuɲ vostroj
192 dull
(as a knife)
enukar mɨj isxemtlaχ
193 smooth rárak laqlaq polʒiçə ("a leaf; a slippery surface") iɫχlaχ
194 wet teyne tʃʰaftʃʰava, tʃʰeftʃʰeva, čefčevɨ oŋunbe ("to get soaked, to get wet")
oŋ, oʁ(-V)
tʃqlaχ
195 dry
(adjective)
sat tʃʰe, tʃe
tʃʰevu, tʃetʃfur
kʰau ("to dry out [as the ground]")
teʎie ("to get dry")
silʁaʎa: ("to dry out")
ke:ʎə
k'izvilaχ
196 right
(correct)
owpeka mɨks ("honest, truthful, right")
aχt ("reliable")
197 near hanke ma- ("to be near, to be a short way"), mala-
laʁa, laʁas
me:kə, me:klə-, melʁəl, migi
arqaa ("vicinity")
cymce tmal'an
198 far tuyma tʰɨ-, tʰɨlf, tʰɨlv ju:kə jaal metʃ'a'an
199 right
(side)
símoysam xtoŋan
200 left
(side)
harkisam sitʃ'eŋ'an
201 at ta olla
202 in ta mi ("inside")
203 with
(accompanying)
tura -kʰrɨ, -xrɨ
204 and wa i
205 if yakun
206 because kusu xejneɫ
207 name re qʰa ɲu: χelaŋ
208 house cise tɨf (Amur), taf (Sakh.) nime, nimie-ɲ, numø, nume jaraŋə
aɣra
yaa, yaaŋa kist
209 wall cisetumam ŋaɣs, ŋa:s
210 deer yuk ʧʰolŋaj ("stag")
tʰoχ ("elk")
talaw (Tu: "wild deer"), tolou (Ko: "wild reindeer")
ile (Tu: "domestic deer or horse")
a:çə, a:ça:- (Ko: "domestic reindeer or horse")
kuya, kuy qos ("domestic deer")
211 mouse ermu ɲaɣr, ɲaɣř ("rat") ʃøjʎbul
jukuɲme:jə
pipiqəlɣən pipiqəlʲŋən ʎeɫk'otʃ
212 rabbit isepo osq
hɨjk ("hare")
c͡çolʁərə, c͡çolʁəra:- milute milut
213 eagle sícikap qanil, qani- sletʃ
214 spider yáoskep sik'k'aj
215 face nan ɲa:çə, ɲa:ça:- fevaŋ
216 body netopa kedel (Tu)
ʃure (Ko)
217 navel hanku
218 finger askepet pe:diçə rylg-
219 sick
(painful)
arka qo ("to hurt; to be ill") juoɟen(-ɟe) ("sick")
jo:ʎə, jo:ʎ(-V) ("ill")
joʁ, jo:(-ç) ("hurt")
220 needle ay nux mideʝə
221 clothing amip ɲe:r, ɲe:(-n) ewir'yn
222 thunder kamuyhum
223 lightning imeru
224 above ka
225 below corpok
226 to cough omke
227 to buy hok ke- tkur-
228 to choose numke
229 to grow tuk, sukup tyŋ-ek tŋak
230 to open maka əlx
231 to steal eikka(tr.) ikka(intr.)
232 to dream wentarap
233 to cry cis to ("to weep")
qaɣjo ("to cry [e.g. as a child]")
234 to yawn mawsok
235 to cook ci
236 six íwan ŋax
237 seven arwan ŋamg
238 eight tupesan minr
239 nine sinepesan ɲəɲbin, ɲəɲben
240 ten wan mχoqr (generic)
241 spring paykar
242 summer sak tʰolf
243 fall cuk
244 winter mata
245 depart
246 which
247 how many
248 wolf
249 money
250 take vo
ŋa ("to pick [berries]")
251 run
252 bull, cow peko (cf. dialectal Japanese beko, bego, etc.) eɣa (Amur), eʁa, eʁaŋ (E Sakh), eXaŋ (E-S Sakh) (cf. Manchu ihan)
253 horse umma (cf. Japanese uma) mur (Amur), murŋ (E Sakh) (cf. Mongolian mori(-n), Manchu morin, Korean mɔr > mal)
254 rib
255 bear (kim-un) kamuy
siyuk ("male animal")
kucan ("female bear")
heper ("bear cub")
256 beer
257 soul, spirit
258 thanks
259 hello
260 bye
261 why
262 yes
263 no
264 worker
265 grass
266 garlic
267 onion
268 pig
269 chicken
270 bow
271 health
272 bee
273 arrow
274 east
275 west
276 south
277 north
278 dark, dawn kunne vukvuku ("to be dark")
279 dream tarap
ʧinita
280 god kamuy
281 religion
282 people
283 history
284 realm
285 sleep
(noun)
286 song
287 work, labor
288 one hundred ɲřaŋɢ
289 trace
290 time
291 ten thousand meqř nemqaŋ
292 brain
293 eternal
294 lone, lonely
295 light peker ("to be/grow light, to dawn; to be bright; to be clear, to be limpid") qalʁal, qalʁala ("to become bright")
296 camel
297 ant itunnap, itunap
iʧiris
298 son ak, akka, akkaŋa
299 daughter ŋawak
300 brother yup, yupi, yupo ("elder brother")
ak, aki ("younger brother")
ɨkɨn ("elder brother")
aqi ("elder brother")
301 sister sa, sapo ("elder sister"); matak, mataki ("a female's younger sister"); matapa ("a male's younger sister"); tures, turesi ("a male's younger sister") nanak, nank, nanx ("older sister; paternal aunt") kiaui
302 to call

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic:  (Standard Arabic, Cypriot, Egyptian, Moroccan, Palestinian, Tunisian) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Berber:  (Tashelhit) – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese:  (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch  (Limburgish, Zealandic) – Egyptian – English:  (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Faroese – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – Fongbe – French  (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek:  (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian  (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jeju - Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Low Saxon – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian:  (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese  (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani  (Caló) - Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Siberian Tatar – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Yiddish – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afroasiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Arabic – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Pama-Nyungan – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan:  (Raji-Raute, Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Germanic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Italic – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin