Appendix:Uto-Aztecan Swadesh lists

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This is a Swadesh list of Uto-Aztecan languages, specifically Nahuatl, Yaqui, Hopi, Shoshone, O'odham, Cahuilla and Gabrielino-Fernandeño, compared with that of English.

This list includes:

  • Nahuatl (Aztecan branch; Central and Southern Mexico)
  • Yaqui (Taracahitic branch; Sonora, Northern Mexico)
  • Hopi (Hopi branch; Northeastern Arizona, United States) — Third Mesa dialect
  • Shoshone (Central Numic branch; Idaho and Nevada, United States) — mostly Fort Hall dialect (Western Shoshone occasionally used)
  • O'odham, Tohono (Tepiman branch; Southern Arizona, United States) — Saxton orthography used
  • Cahuilla (Takic branch, Cupan sub-branch; Southern California) — Morongo variant
  • Tongva (Gabrielino, Fernandeño) (Takic branch, Seran sub-branch; Southern California)
  • Ute (Colorodo River) (Southern Numic; Utah, United States)
  • Pipil (Aztecan branch; El Salvador)

Note: Additional vocabulary words have been added after word no. 207 ("name"), since the original lengths of Swadesh lists are either 100 or 207 words. Note: (poss.) nouns which require possession.

Uto-Aztecan Family Tree.jpg

List[edit]

English Nahuatl Yaqui Hopi Shoshone O'odham Cahuilla Tongva Ute Pipil
1 I ne, nehuatl; no- inepo nu', nuy ne 'a꞉ñi, , né' noo(m), ne- as prefix neh, nĭ-nĭe naja; nu-
2 you
(singular)
te, tehuatl; mo- empo 'um, 'ung enne 'a꞉pi:, -m 'é' 'oo(m) oom-mē taja; mu-
3 he ye, yehuatl; i- aapo pam, put iden 'i:da, hegai pé' poo' yaja; i-
4 we tehuan, tehuantin; to- itepo 'itam, 'itamuy nehwe 'a:cim, -c chém(em) 'eyoomo tejemet; tu-
5 you
(plural)
amehuan, amehuantin; anmo- eme’e 'uma, 'umuy memme 'a:pim 'ém(em) 'omoo anmejemet; anmu-
6 they yehuan, yehuantin; in- bempo puma, pumuy sidee' hegam, 'i:dam hém momooma' yejemet; in-
7 this inin junu’u i' u, ma, ika 'i:da manee', mayeete', paara ini
8 that inon inimi’i pam soka, odei' hegai maraa, maree' uni
9 here nican junumu’u ep saiki 'ihab 'ípa 'ekwaa, monaa nikan
10 there ompa seenu pep aku 'abai, pénga murooma' unkan, ka né, ikuni
11 who aquin jabesa hak hagaaden heḍai, ḍo꞉ hakii ká, kaj
12 what tleh, tlein jita himu hinni hab hitaa Tay, Tey
13 where canin jaksa haqam haga' hebai, bo꞉ haaype' kan
14 when ihcuac jakko hisat himbai', -gu hekid hamiingkope' ijkwak, kwak, keman (used for questions)
15 how quenin jachinia hin hagai' has i masma 'avaa, heniike' (how much), ken
16 not ah, ahmo, macamo ini’i qa gai pi kíll xaay teasu, tesu, te, inte
17 all mochi, ixquich si’ime sòosoy oyo'go we:s 'wee, taaw muchi
18 many miectin, miequin, miyac ousi hìisa' soonde mu'i 'ayoo'en, ma'eete' miak
19 some aca, cequi, cequinti jita hìisa' ha'i sejse
20 few achitzitzin iliiki hìisa'hoya, tsaa' heeteese chiupi, achi
21 other oc seenu ayamwat noondea' aigo, go'ol 'ashoo', showoo seyuk
22 one ce seenu suukya' seme' hema súplli pokuu' soos se
23 two ome woi lööyö' wahatehwe go:k wíh wehee' wī-ūne ume
24 three yei, eyi vahi pàayo' bahaitee' waik páh paahe' pī-ūne yey
25 four nahui naiki naalöyö' watsewite gi'ik wíchiw wachaa' wäts-ū-ēnē nawi
26 five macuilli mamni tsivot manegite hetasp namaqwánang mahaar măn-ī-gĭn makwil
27 big huey bwe’u wuko-, wuuyoq'a biaichi' ge'e wariixre', yo'ooyt wey
28 long hueiyac, piaztic, huihuiyac teebe wuupa gebedaande cew kahoo' weyak
29 wide patlahuac, cocoyactic bweeka puutsi biawai'gi taḑan patawak
30 thick chamahuac, tilahuac ousi maachi pööngala bohondande ṣawaḍ chamawak, tilawak
31 heavy etic bette putu betende we:c etek
32 small tepitzin, tzotzocotzin ilitchi tsay, -hoya deide' cum chinuuho' chikitik
33 short tichtic, achihueyac pochilai hìisava, tsaava gebinde' ṣopol kutu
34 narrow tzoltic na’ulai puutsi kapijk uchulnaj
35 thin canahuac, pitztic wakila tsapöngala ganabe komal, aj pitzawak
36 woman cihuatl jamut wùuti wa'aipe' ogs ñíchill tokoor siwat
37 man
(adult male)
oquichtli o’ou taaqa dainape' ceoj náxanish worooyt takat, ukich
38 man
(human being)
tlacatl bato’i hopi newe 'o'odham táxliswet taax, toongve', toongvet takat
39 child
(a youth)
conetl, pilli uusi tsay deaipede 'ali kí'at -taarxen, chinuuho' ('baby', literally 'little one') kunet
40 wife zohuatl, cihuatl jubi nööma gwehe -siwaw (poss.)
41 husband oquichtli, namictli kuuna koongya('at) guhape' kun wél'isewill -shulejyu (poss.)
42 mother nantli maala, ae yu('at) bia', pii je'e -ye -ook -nan (poss.)
43 father tahtli achai na('at) ape' alid, ogol -na, táata -naak tata, -teku
44 animal yolcatl animaal himu takwalmet (wild), tapiyalmet (domesticated)
45 fish michin kuchu paakiw baingwi watopi kíyul kyuur michin
46 bird tototl wiikit tsiro huchuu' u'uwhig wíkikmal (small bird) cheyuu' tutut
47 dog chichi, itzcuintli chuu’u pòoko sadee' gogs 'áwal wushii' pelu
48 louse atemitl ete atu busi'a a:'ac sá'wal 'aar atimet
49 snake coatl baakot taaho basinu'yu wamaḍ séwet (rattlesnake) shawt (rattlesnake) kuat
50 worm ocuilli chumkuria aahu watopi ko'aar kwilin
51 tree cuahuitl juya himutski sohoo'bi u:s kélawat kwawit
52 forest cuauhtlah juya -qlö kwawital
53 stick
(of wood)
tlacotl buja (branch) koho huupi gakimcul náxat kwawit
54 fruit xocotl taakam toko('at) bahi tú'ish -takil (poss.)
55 seed xinachtli bachia poosi, sivosi paihai kai púchill, qáx'a ish, shinachti
56 leaf xihuitl saawa nàapi ha:hag pálat iswat
57 root nelhuatl naawa nga('at) tatk nelwat
58 bark
(of tree)
tlaxipehualli, ehuayotl beea tsìipu'at bo'ambi elidag táchal ewat
59 flower xochitl seewa sihu donziape heosig sé'ish shuchit
60 grass zacatl baso tuusaqa buhipe waṣa'i sámat, símut shaamat sakat
61 rope mecatl wikia wikpangwa demuku wu:ḍ, wu:lṣp píita mekat
62 skin
(of a person)
cuetlaxtli beea puukya poan elkon sával kwetashti
63 meat
(as in flesh)
nacatl waakas, tekua sikwi duku cu:kug wá'ish hungiiy nakat
64 blood eztli ojbo ungwa beepi e:'eḍ 'éwill esti
65 bone omitl ota ööqa tsuhni o:'o té'ill umit
66 fat
(noun)
pochquiotl, chiahuitli awira wihu yuhu gi:gi wíll -tumakka (poss.)
67 egg totoltetl, atetl kabam nöhu no'yo nonha wéevu' (from Spanish) teksisti
68 horn cuacuahuitl aawam aala aa' a'ag 'áwal -kwawyu (poss.)
69 tail cuitlapilli bwasia suru('at) gwashi bahi -kwas tyuaimukowre'etii -kwitapil (poss.)
70 feather
(rather not down)
ihhuitl, quetzalli boa homasa binoope a'an wíkill -ujmiyu (poss.)
71 hair tzontli choonim höömi bambipe mo'o yúlukal -pwaan -tzunkal (poss.)
72 head cuaitl, tzontecomatl koba qötö ba'mbi mo'o yúlukal -pwaan tzuntekumat, -tzuntekun (poss.)
73 ear nacaztli nakam naqvu naingi na:k náqal -nakas (poss.)
74 eye ixtli, ixtelolohtli, ixpolotl puusim poosi('at) buih wuhi púchill -choochon -ish (poss.)
75 nose yacatl yeka yaqa('at) muu'bi da:k -mul -yak (poss.)
76 mouth camatl teeni mo'a('at) dembai ciñ támal toongen -ten (poss.)
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
tlantli tamim tama daa'wa ta:tami támal -tan (poss.)
78 tongue nenepilli nini lengi('at) ai'go ñe:ñ nángill -nenepil (poss.)
79 fingernail iztitl sutum malatssoki masido' sálul istit
80 foot icxitl wokim kuku('at) nambai taḍ -'i -neev -ikshi (poss.)
81 leg metztli macham hokya huzidoo' kahio -'i -metzkuyu (poss.)
82 knee tlancuaitl tonom tamö('at) dannape to:n -tewajka (poss.)
83 hand mayitl mamam maa('at) mo' ma:wua, nowi -mal -maan -mey, -may (poss.)
84 wing atlapalli masam masa('at) kasa a'an wákat -ejtapal (poss.)
85 belly ihtitl to’ona pono sape wo:k té'il -ijti (poss.)
86 guts cuitlaxcolli siiam siihu kohai hihij, eḏawek sa'ill -kwitashkul (poss.)
87 neck quechtlantli kutanaa kwàapi('at) doo'yo kuswo, a:d -kechkuyu (poss.)
88 back tepotztli joo’o hòota('at) gwahain o: húlul -teputz (poss.)
89 breast elpantli pipim piihu pitsi wipi: pill -elpan (poss.)
90 heart yolotli jiapsi unangwa bihyi i:bdag súnil -yulu (poss.)
91 liver elli, eltapachtli jeemam nuuma bu'i nemaj -ném'a -noom -eltapach (poss.)
92 to drink oni, i je’e hiiko hiibi- i:'e -pá- uni, i
93 to eat cua bwa’e nöösa deka- ko'a -kwá'- kwa
94 to bite tlancua, tetequi ke’e kuuki geka'-, getsia- ke'e -ké'- tankwa
95 to suck chichina che’e, chuune tsòotsona pitsi- si'i -chúng- chichina
96 to spit chihcha chikwatte töha(k-) dushi- siswua chijcha
97 to vomit ihzotla bisata naayö'a weto'ai- wihot isuta
98 to blow
(as wind)
pitza pujta, pujte hukba (wind), poovoya (mouth) neai- (wind), buuhki- (mouth) hewed ishpitza
99 to breathe ihiyotia jiabijte(i) hìikwista suakai- ihbheni ijyukwi
100 to laugh huetzca aache tayati yahnai a'as, hehem- wetzka
101 to see itta,tlachiya bicha tuwa bui- ñeid ita, tachiya
102 to hear caqui jikkaja navota nananga- (passive) chehg, kah kaki
103 to know
(a fact)
mati ju’unea tuwi'yta sua- mahch mati
104 to think nemilia ea wuuwa suhanni- chegito yultaketza
105 to smell
(sense odor)
ihnecui winjuba hova'ikwa gwana hewagith ijnekwi, ajnekua
106 to fear mahuilia, imacaci majairi màmqasi de'ee'ya- ehbith makasi
107 to sleep cochi koche puuwi epuih- kohsig -kúp- kuchi
108 to live yolli jiapsa qatu na- thaha nemi
109 to die miqui muuke mooki deyai- muhk miki
110 to kill mictia me’a, sua niina baika- me'a miktia
111 to fight icali nassua naayawi nikkumpah cheggia héeñewqa suma
112 to hunt
(transitive)
ami aamu maqto deegai- wia itzkia
113 to hit tlatzotzona, pachilia beba wuvàata, sávikna do- gewi- chalua
114 to cut tlacotona, tlatequi, xima chukta tuku tsika'- hihk kutuna, teki
115 to split xeloa chukta saha(k-) wepahka- tahpan tzayana, sheshelua
116 to stab
(or stick)
soa, kuchi’isoa sö`ökwikna doo'na- tzunteki
117 to scratch
(an itch)
huahuana wo’oke pélekna huk- wawana
118 to dig tataca ji’ibweje hangwa hoo'da- hiabog -wálin- talichkwa
119 to swim maneloa, acui bajume momori bahabi- wachchui manelua
120 to fly patlani ne’e puuyàlti -yeeze- tha'a 'á'awet patani
121 to walk nehnemi weye waynuma mi'a- him nejnemi
122 to come huallauh a’abo weye pew -kui', ya'ibiide- ab him witz
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
motecacolihui, bo’ote, to’ote qaatsi kwapi wo'iwua -qál- muteka
124 to sit motlaliamocehui yejte qatu gade-, yegwika- habadk mutalia
125 to stand quehquetza (get up), ihcatoc (to be standing) kikte, japte wunu wee'ne- kehk muketza (to stand up), ejkatuk (to be standing)
126 to turn
(change direction)
cuepa kuakta ponìlti go'aih nod ishkwepa
127 to fall
(as in drop)
huetzi, temo kom weche pòosi a'nni- gehsh -púli- wetzi
128 to give maca maka maqa utu-, maaga- (feed) mahk -máx- maka
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
piyatlatzitzquia jippue, machu’ute, bwisi yawta, ngu'yta tsai' piya
130 to squeeze eucxoa, tilinia, patzoa piike pootsa (squeeze out) wak'e -cheñúchay- pitzinia
131 to rub xacualoa ruuse ruurukwa, maamapri masu'nai- chelwin puyawa, matilua
132 to wash paca baksia (tuu)vahoma gozho'hai- wakon paka
133 to wipe chipahuapohpohua hööna thagion pupua
134 to pull tilana wike lölökinta -noih wanimun tilana
135 to push topehua yu’a na'atsqökna -ka'ih nu'i ishtupewa
136 to throw tlaza, tlamayahui jimaa tuuva wiitai'i- tha'ichuth tamuta
137 to tie ilpia suma soma wul ilpia
138 to sew ihtzoma, iquiti ji’ika tuu'iha tsakeena- shohm ijtzuma
139 to count pohua jina’ikia pòotoyla dezee'- kuint puwa
140 to say iluia, ihtoa tejwa pàngqawu niikwi-, nipshua- ahg ina, ilwia, ilia
141 to sing cuica bwiika tawta, kuyna denito'ai ne'e takwika
142 to play mahuiltia yeewe naataplawu nui chichwi 'í'ikqa awiltia
143 to float ba’apo cha’asisime paayàlti bandoyaa- tzunpanu
144 to flow yeyeco bwite muuna ogwai- med mutalua
145 to freeze cehuetzi sapa weche tuusungwti de'asenge- seseya
146 to swell poxauti bajila pösti bai'gwi- toskoni, kopoth suluni
147 sun tona taa’a taawa da'bai tash támit taamet tunal
148 moon metztli meecha muuyaw mea' mashath ménill muwaar metzti
149 star citlalin choki soohu da'ziyumbi hu'u sú'wet shuur, shuyoot sital
150 water atl ba’am paahu, kuuyi baa', paa wa'ig, shuhthagi pál paara' at
151 rain quiyahuitl yuku yooyangwl; yokva (verb) ba'emma- juhki wéwnish 'akwaakin wetzti at
152 river atoyaatl batwe, jakia paayu okaipin akimel wánish paxaayt apan
153 lake atezcatl bauba’a patupha piapaa, paakate kahchk lagoj
154 sea
(as in ocean)
hueyatl, ilhuicaatl baawe paatuwaqatsi kahchk pál múumat moomot weyat
155 salt iztatl oona öönga onapin onmath íngill istat
156 stone tetl teta owa dembi hothai qáwish toota' tet
157 sand xalli see’e tuuwa basiwambi o'ohia ngáchish 'uxweet ashal, shal
158 dust teuhtli toochia qö'angw hukumbe kuhbsmath múlish tewti, tejti
159 earth
(as in soil)
tlalli bwia tutskwa sogope chuthwua témal 'ooxor tal
160 cloud mixtli naamu 'omaw dowope chewagi wéwnish mishti
161 fog ayahuitl bajewa pamösi baagenaipe kohmhai páyish kotiit mishti
162 sky iluicatl teeka tokpela dugumbaa'nna thahm kahchim túkvash tokuupar wilkal, ilwikat
163 wind
(as in breeze)
ehecatl jeeka huukyangw hewel yá'i 'ahiikan ejekat
164 snow cepayahuitl sapam nuva daka'bi gew yúyat yoaat nievej
165 ice cetl sapam patusngwa baahekape gew pál tépawkash sekti
166 smoke poctli bwichia kwiitsingw gwiipe jehniktham mí'at pukti
167 fire tletl taji qööhi, uuwingw gotoo, kuna nahtha kút chaavot tit
168 ash nextli naposa qötsvi gutusipe matai nísxish neshti
169 to burn
(intransitive)
tlania taya qöyna mehith, mei (intr.) -chút- tatia
170 road ohtli boo’o pöhu bo'ai wohg pít ujti
171 mountain tepetl kawi tuukwi doo'ya tho'ag qáwish xaayy tepet
172 red chichiltic sikili paalà(ngpu) ainga(bite) wegi selek(ish) kwahooxa' chiltik
173 green xoxoctic siali mokì(ngpu) buhi(bite) chehthagi tukvashnek(ish) takaape' shushuwik, shushuknaj
174 yellow coztic sawali sikyà(ngpu) oha(pite) oam tesnek(ish) payuuhowe' tultik, kustik
175 white iztac tosali qöötsa dosa(bite) toha tevishnek(ish) rawaata' istak
176 black tliltic, cacatzactli chukuli qömvi duhu(bite) chuk tulek(ish) yomaaxa' tiltik
177 night yohualli tukaa tookila dugaani chuhug túkmiyat yaawket tayuwa, yuwal
178 day
(daytime)
tonalli, ilhuitl taewai taawa, taala dabai'yi tash támit taamet tunal
179 year xihuitl wasuktia yàasangw ahithag shiwit
180 warm
(as in weather)
totonqui, yamanqui suka, taata muki yu'wainge- (verb) huhk -roo- tutunik
181 cold
(as in weather)
cecec, itztic sebe iyoho'o se-, eitsei hehpi -choo- sesek
182 full tenqui tapunia opo- depaigea- shuhthk, kohwog tentuk, ishwi (to be full of food)
183 new yancuic bemela puuhu ege- hemuchkam, wechij yankwik
184 old huehue o’ora wuy beaitembe ge'ecu pala
185 good cualli tu’i lolma, tuwy'ita tsaa' 'ap, ke꞉g 'ácha'e yek
186 bad amocualli kaa tu’i qa lolma gizhaan(de) pad 'elélema inteyek, teyek
187 rotten
(as, a log)
palactic, palanqui bikala peekyewpu, aavu jew palantuk
188 dirty catzactix jaiti maachi itsehe'e duchaa- uam, bihtagi puknaj
189 straight memelahuac lutulai sutskwipu dunaan(de) shelini melaktik
190 round ololtic lobolai póngokpu bonzanite sikol ululnaj, yawalnaj
191 sharp
(as a knife)
tenitztic bwaawi qala gemape mu'uk tamej
192 dull
(as a knife)
rumui tsúkuplöti gai gemape tzuntulupu
193 smooth xipetztli, alactic chitabetalai suphìngpu pahen thahpk petztik
194 wet ciahuac, paltic ba’ari mowa'iwta baagwichipe wadag, wa'u ajwituk
195 dry
(adjective)
huac wakia laaki basakwai- (verb) gaki waktuk
196 right
(correct)
nelli, melahuac tua sú'anta debiizhi ap melawak
197 near nahuac kaa mekka -qlaq mia nawak
198 far huehca mekka haq maanankwah mehkotham wejka
199 right
(side)
yeccapan batam putve(q) apko pwaar yekkan
200 left
(side)
opochtli mikko’im suyvaqw kwii ohgig kaano' ukse ladoj
201 at -pan -chi ep ga ab, am pa, -nga tik
202 in -ihtic -po -peq, -ve gupa eda, -ko tik
203 with
(accompanying)
ica naabujtia akw, -mum ma'i wehm pish iwan
204 and iuan into -niqw deasen kch, ku- wan
205 if tla -ko -kur -p, sha asu, su
206 because ica bwe’ituk taq ade'uka hekaj ika
207 name tocayitl team tungwni nanihai chehgig téwal -tukay (poss.)
208 house calli kari kiihu gahnin kih kísh kiiy kal
209 wall tepantli sapti tùupela tepana kolhaidag kíwnish tepanti
210 deer mazatl maaso sowi'yngwa deheya' sihki súkat shukaat masat
211 mouse quimichin tori pöösa bo'naih nahagio pákash pa'aash kimichin
212 rabbit tochtli taabu taavo daa'bu tohbi sú'ish, távut tuchti
213 eagle cuauhtli suluma kwaahu gwi'yaa' ba'ag 'áswet 'ashaawut kwawti
214 spider tocatl jubaje kookyangw awaso'atsi tokithhud xwálxwal wereechey tukat
215 face xayacatl pujba taywa('at) kopai mo'o púchill -ishkalyu (poss.)
216 body tlactli takaa toko duku hon táxawill -taatax -weyka (poss.)
217 navel xictli siiku sipna siigu hik -'ul -shik (poss.)
218 finger mapilli pusiam malatsi maseweeki' -ma tú'i -mapipil (poss.)
219 sick
(painful)
cocoyac ko’okoe tuutuya neetsiigwa- mumki- kukushtuk
220 needle huitzmallotl ji’ikiam mosta wii'yu ho'ibad agujaj
221 clothing quemitl, tilmatli tajo’ori yuwsi oyo'de eniga xéllal -kwajkwach (poss.)
222 thunder tlatlatziniliztli yuku jimaari úmuki dowoyagaide kopki táwval tikwini
223 lightning tlapetlanilli yuku be’oktia talwìipiki aingagwikwizhapunde wepgih, wuihun takipini
224 above aco bepa -tsva ba'a thahm ajku
225 below tlani betuku -tpiq duka wecho itan
226 to cough tlatlaci tase 'öhö ohni- i'ihog tatasi
227 to buy cohua jinu tu'i demee- nolawt, ṣa'awai kuwa
228 to choose pehpena yeu pua namorta gawulkad ishpejpena
229 to grow cueponi, mozcalti yo’otu hòyta, wungwa maseah- ge'eda weya, mutiskalia
230 to open tlapohua etapo höta tsatefa- kuhpi'ok, jeg (intr.) -'áqi-, -hákush- tapuwa, pelua
231 to steal tlanahuaya, ichtequi etbwa sokopta, uu'uyna dedeka- e꞉s- ichteki
232 to dream temiqui tenku tuumoklawu nabushi'a'i ce꞉ck temiki
233 to cry choca bwaana pakmumuya yaa'gai- ṣoak, ṣoṣa chuka
234 to yawn cochcamachaloa wa’awa’akte havìitàangwti ekkehsah chinniak kuchkamachalua
235 to cook huicci, tlacualchihualia bwasa noovata degumahanni- hidod, baha mana, takwalchiwa
236 six chicuace takaa navay naafaite cu꞉dp qunsúplli' pavaahe' chikwasen
237 seven chicome huubi/hamut tsange' daatsewiti wewa'ak qunwíh wachaa' kavyaa' chikume
238 eight chicuei taa'a nanal nawiwatsewitse gigi'ik qunpáh weheesh wachaa' chikwey
239 nine chiconahui meecha pept seemonowemihyande humukt qunwíchiw mahaar kavyaa' chiknawi
240 ten mahtlactli vaa'am pakwt seemoten west-ma꞉m nemichúmi weheesh mahaar majtakti

Sources[edit]

  • Fernández, Zarina Estrada. 2009. "Yaqui vocabulary" In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 1384 entries. http://wold.livingsources.org/vocabulary/32
  • Yoeme-English English-Yoeme: with a comprehensive grammar of Yoeme language. David Leedom Shaul, Felipe S. Molina. Hippocrene Books, 1999. (Yoeme is an alternate name for Yaqui.)
  • Hopi Dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni. University of Arizona Press: 1998.
  • Tohono O'odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O'odham/Pima Dictionary. Dean Saxton, Lucille Saxton, et al. University of Arizona Press: 1998.
  • Cahuilla Dictionary. Hansjakob Seiler, Kojiro Hioki. Malki-Ballena Press: June 1, 1979.
  • Munro, Pamela, et al. Yaara' Shiraaw'ax 'Eyooshiraaw'a. Now You're Speaking Our Language: Gabrielino/Tongva/Fernandeño. Lulu.com: 2008.
  • Shoshoni Online Dictionary

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