Appendix:Ido Swadesh list

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Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

No. English Ido
Ido
1 I me
2 you (singular) tu
3 he ilu
4 we ni
5 you (plural) vi
6 they li
7 this ica
8 that ita
9 here hike
10 there ibe
11 who qua
12 what quo
13 where ube
14 when kande
15 how quale
16 not ne
17 all omna
18 many multe
19 some kelka
20 few poka
21 other altra
22 one un
23 two du
24 three tri
25 four quar
26 five kin
27 big granda
28 long longa
29 wide larja
30 thick dika
31 heavy pezoza
32 small mikra
33 short kurta
34 narrow streta
35 thin dina
36 woman muliero
37 man (adult male) viro
38 man (human being) homo
39 child infanto
40 wife spozino
41 husband spozulo
42 mother matro
43 father patro
44 animal animalo
45 fish fisho
46 bird ucelo
47 dog hundo
48 louse lauso
49 snake serpento
50 worm vermo
51 tree arboro
52 forest foresto
53 stick bastono
54 fruit frukto
55 seed semino
56 leaf folio
57 root radiko
58 bark (of a tree) kortico
59 flower floro
60 grass herbo
61 rope kordo
62 skin pelo
63 meat karno
64 blood sango
65 bone osto
66 fat (noun) graso
67 egg ovo
68 horn korno
69 tail kaudo
70 feather plumo
71 hair haro
72 head kapo
73 ear orelo
74 eye okulo
75 nose nazo
76 mouth boko
77 tooth dento
78 tongue (organ) lango
79 fingernail unglo
80 foot pedo
81 leg gambo
82 knee genuo
83 hand manuo
84 wing alo
85 belly ventro
86 guts intestini
87 neck kolo
88 back dorso
89 breast mamo
90 heart kordio
91 liver hepato
92 to drink drinkar
93 to eat manjar
94 to bite mordar
95 to suck sugar
96 to spit sputar
97 to vomit vomar
98 to blow suflar
99 to breathe respirar
100 to laugh ridar
101 to see vidar
102 to hear audar
103 to know savar
104 to think pensar
105 to smell flarar
106 to fear timar
107 to sleep dormar
108 to live vivar
109 to die mortar
110 to kill mortigar
111 to fight kombatar
112 to hunt chasar
113 to hit batar
114 to cut tondar
115 to split dividar, fendi
116 to stab pikar
117 to scratch skrachar
118 to dig fodar
119 to swim natar
120 to fly flugar
121 to walk marchar, promenar
122 to come venar
123 to lie (as in a bed) jacar
124 to sit sidar
125 to stand stacar
126 to turn (intransitive) jirar
127 to fall falar
128 to give donar
129 to hold tenar
130 to squeeze ekpresar
131 to rub frotar, fricionar
132 to wash lavar
133 to wipe vishar
134 to pull tirar
135 to push pulsar
136 to throw jetar
137 to tie ligar
138 to sew sutar
139 to count contar
140 to say dicar
141 to sing kantar
142 to play ludar
143 to float flotacar
144 to flow fluar
145 to freeze frostar
146 to swell inflar
147 sun suno
148 moon luno
149 star astro
150 water aquo
151 rain pluvo
152 river rivero
153 lake lago
154 sea maro
155 salt salo
156 stone stono
157 sand sablo
158 dust polvo
159 earth tero
160 cloud nubo
161 fog nebulo
162 sky cielo
163 wind vento
164 snow nivo
165 ice glacio
166 smoke fumuro
167 fire fairo
168 ash cindro
169 to burn brular
170 road strado
171 mountain monto
172 red reda
173 green verda
174 yellow flava
175 white blanka
176 black nigra
177 night nokto
178 day jorno
179 year yaro
180 warm varma
181 cold kolda
182 full plena
183 new nova
184 old olda
185 good bona
186 bad mala
187 rotten putrar
188 dirty sordida
189 straight rekta
190 round ronda
191 sharp (as a knife) akuta
192 dull (as a knife) obtuza
193 smooth glata
194 wet humida
195 dry sika
196 correct korekta
197 near proxim
198 far for
199 right dextra
200 left sinistra
201 at an
202 in en
203 with kun
204 and e, ed
205 if se
206 because pro
207 name nomo