Appendix:Japonic Swadesh lists

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This is a Swadesh list of Japonic languages, specifically Proto-Japonic, Japanese, Proto-Ryukyuan, Kikai, Kunigami, Miyako, Northern Amami-Oshima, Oki-No-Erabu, Okinawan, Southern Amami-Oshima, Toku-No-Shima, Yaeyama, Yonaguni and Yoron, compared with that of English.

Lists[edit]

English Proto-Japonic Japanese Proto-Ryukyuan Kikai Kunigami Miyako Northern Amami-Oshima Oki-No-Erabu Okinawan Southern Amami-Oshima Toku-No-Shima Yaeyama Yonaguni Yoron
1 I *wa (わ, wa) *wanu [Term?] 我ぬー (わぬー, wanū) 我ん (ばん, ban) [Term?] [Term?] 我ん (わん, wan) [Term?] [Term?] 我ぬ (ばぬ, banu) 我ぬ (あぬ, anu) (わぬ, wanu)
2 you
(singular)
*na (なれ, nare), あなた (anata) *na, *ura [Term?] [script needed] (), うんじゅ (unju) [script needed] (vva) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (), うんじゅ (unju) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] () んだ (nda) [Term?]
3 he *ka (かれ, kare, あれ, are) *kare [Term?] [script needed] (arī) [script needed] (kari) [Term?] [Term?] (あり, ari) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (kari) [script needed] (kari) [Term?]
4 we *wata 我等 (warera), 私達 (watashitachi) *wareta, *wanuta [Term?] [script needed] (wattā) 我ん達 (ばんた, banta) [Term?] 我達 (わきゃ, wakya) 我達 (わったー, wattā) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (bandā) [script needed] (banu), [script needed] (banta) [Term?]
5 you (plural) *nata 貴方達 (あなたたち, anatatachi) *nata, *urata [Term?] [script needed] (nattā), [script needed] (ittā) [script needed] (vvata) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (nattā), いったー (ittā) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (wadā) [script needed] (ndi), [script needed] (ndinta) [Term?]
6 they *kata 彼等 (karera) *kareta [Term?] [script needed] (arittā) [script needed] (kaita) [Term?] [Term?] 彼達 (あったー, attā), [script needed] (uttā) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (karittā) [script needed] (kantati), [script needed] (untati) [Term?]
7 this [Term?] これ (kore) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] くり (kuri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ふり (furi)
8 that *ka, *sə あれ (are), それ (sore) *kare, *ore [Term?] [script needed] (ari), [script needed] (uri) [script needed] (kari), [script needed] (uri) [Term?] [Term?] あり (ari), うり (uri) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (kari), [script needed] (uri) [script needed] (kari) [Term?]
9 here *kəkə ここ (koko) *koma [Term?] [script needed] (fumā) [script needed] (kuma) [Term?] [Term?] くま (kuma) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (kuma) くみ (kumi) ふま (fuma)
10 there *səkə そこ (soko) *kama, *ama, *oma [Term?] [script needed] (amā), [script needed] (umā) [script needed] (kama) [Term?] [Term?] あま (ama), [script needed] (uma) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (kama), [script needed] (uma) [script needed] (kama) [Term?]
11 who *ta (dare) *tare, *taro (たる, taru) [script needed] (tarū) (たる, taru) [Term?] [Term?] (たー, tā), [script needed] (taru) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] () (たー, tā) [Term?]
12 what *na, *nə (なに, nani) *nawo, *nowo [Term?] [script needed] () [script needed] () [Term?] [Term?] (ぬー, nū) [Term?] [Term?] (のー, nō) [script needed] () [Term?]
13 where *entu どこ (doko) *ezu [Term?] [script needed] () [script needed] (nza) [Term?] [Term?] まー () [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] () んま (nma) [Term?]
14 when *etu 何時 (いつ, itsu) *etu [Term?] [script needed] (hichī) [script needed] (itsï) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (ichi) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (itsï) [script needed] (ichi) [Term?]
15 how *eka 如何 (どう, dō) *eka [Term?] [script needed] (chā) [script needed] (ikya) [Term?] [Term?] 如何 (ちゃー, chā) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (ikya) [script needed] (iga) [Term?]
16 not *na, *nu 無い (nai) *nu [Term?] [script needed] (nēnu) [script needed] (nyān) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (nēn) [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (nēnu) [script needed] (minun) [Term?]
17 all [Term?] 全て (すべて, subete), (みな, mina) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] むる (muru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ぶる (buru), ぶーる (būru) [Term?]
18 many *əpə 多い (おおい, ōi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 多さん (うふさん, ufusan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
19 some [Term?] 少し (すこし, sukoshi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
20 few [Term?] 少ない (すくない, sukunai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
21 other [Term?] (ほか, hoka) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
22 one [Term?] (ひと, hito) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
23 two [Term?] (ふた) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
24 three [Term?] (み, mi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
25 four [Term?] (よ, yo) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
26 five [Term?] (いつ, itsu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
27 big *əpə 大きい (おおきい, ōkii) *opo [Term?] [Term?] [script needed] (upu) [Term?] [Term?] まぎさん (magisan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
28 long [Term?] 長い (ながい, nagai) [Term?] [Term?] 長はん (ながはん, nagahan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
29 wide *pirə 広い (ひろい, hiroi) *piro [Term?] 広ーせん (ぴ゚るーせん, pirūsen) (ぴぃす, pïsu) 広さり (ひるさり, hirusari) [Term?] 広さん (ふぃるさん, firusan) [Term?] [Term?] 広さん (ぴぃすさん, pïsusan) [Term?] [Term?]
30 thick [Term?] 厚い (あつい, atsui) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
31 heavy [Term?] 重い (おもい, omoi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
32 small [Term?] 小さい (ちいさい, chīsai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
33 short [Term?] 短い (みじかい, mijikai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
34 narrow [Term?] 狭い (せまい, semai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
35 thin [Term?] 細い (ほそい, hosoi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
36 woman [Term?] (おんな, onna) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 女子 (をぅなぐ, wunagu, いぃなぐ, yinagu) 女子 (ゐなぐ, winagu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 女ぬ子 (みぬか゚, minunga) 女子 (ふなぐ, funagu, をぅなぐ, wunagu)
37 man (adult male) [Term?] (おとこ, otoko) [Term?] [Term?] (いけが, ikega, うんが, unga) びきどぅん (bikidun) [Term?] (いぃんが, yinga) (ゐきが, wikiga, ゆきが, yukiga) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (びんが, binga) (をぅいが, wuiga)
38 man (human being) *pitə (ひと, hito) *pito (っちゅ, tchu) (ちゅー, chū) (ぴぃとぅ, psïtu) (ちゅー, chū) (ちゅー, chū) (っちゅ, tchu) [Term?] (ちゅー, chū) (ぴぃとぅ, pïtu) (っとぅ, ttu) (ぴちゅ, pichu)
39 child (youth) [Term?] 子供 (こども, kodomo) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
40 wife [Term?] (つま, tsuma) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ゆみ, yumi) [Term?] [Term?] 刀自 (とぅじ, tuji), (ゆみ, yumi) [Term?] [Term?] (ゆみ, yumi) (どぅみ, dumi) [Term?]
41 husband *woputə (おっと, otto) *wotto (をぅとぅ, wutu) (うと゚ぅー, utū, うっと゚ぅー, uttū) (ぶとぅ, butu) (うと゚ぅ, uθu) (をぅとぅ, wutu) (をぅとぅ, wutu) [Term?] (をぅとぅ, wutu) (ぶどぅ, budu) (ぶとぅ, butu) (をぅとぅ, wutu)
42 mother [Term?] (はは, haha) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] あっぱ (appa) あぶた (abuta), あぶだ (abuda) [Term?]
43 father [Term?] (ちち, chichi) [Term?] [Term?] すー () [Term?] [Term?] あちゃ (acha) すー (), たーりー (tārī) [Term?] [Term?] あーや (āya) [Term?] あちゃ (acha)
44 animal [Term?] 動物 (どうぶつ, dōbutsu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
45 fish [Term?] (うお, uo, さかな, sakana) [Term?] [Term?] (っゆー, 'yū) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (いう, iu, いゆ, iyu) [Term?] [Term?] いつぃ (itsï) (いゆ, iyu) (っゆー, 'yū)
46 bird [Term?] (とり, tori) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (とぅい, tui) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
47 dog [Term?] (いぬ, inu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (いん, in) (いん, in) [Term?] (いん, in) (いん, in) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
48 louse [Term?] (しらみ, shirami) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (しらん, shiran) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (つぁん, tsan) [Term?]
49 snake [Term?] (へび, hebi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 波布 (ぱゔ, pav) [Term?] (ひび, hibi) 波布 (はぶ, habu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
50 worm [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
51 tree *kəy (き, ki) *ke [Term?] (きー, khī) (きー, kī) [Term?] [Term?] (きー, kī) (きぃー, kɨɨ) [Term?] (きー, kī) (きー, kī) [Term?]
52 forest [Term?] (もり, mori) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
53 stick [Term?] (つえ, tsue) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
54 fruit [Term?] 果物 (くだもの, kudamono) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 生い (ない, nai), 生い物 (ないむん, naimun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 生い (ない, nai) [Term?]
55 seed *tanay (たね, tane) *tane (た゚にぃ, θanï) [Term?] (たに, tani) (た゚にぃ, θanï) (た゚に, θani) [Term?] [Term?] (た゚にぃ, θanï) (たに, tani) (たに, tani) (たに, tani)
56 leaf *pa (は, ha) *pa (ぱー, pā) (ぱー, phā) (ぱー, pā) (はー, hā) (はー, fā) (ふぁー, fā) [Term?] (はー, hā) (ぱー, pā) (はー, hā) (ぱー, pā)
57 root [Term?] (ね, ne) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
58 bark (from tree) [Term?] 木肌 (きはだ, kihada) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
59 flower *pana (はな, hana) *pana (ぱな, pana) (ぱなー, phanā) (ぱな, pana) (はな, hana) (はな, hana) (はな, hana) [Term?] (はな, hana) (ぱな, pana) (はな, hana) (ぱな, pana)
60 grass [Term?] (くさ, kusa) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ふさ, fusa) [Term?] [Term?] (くさ, kusa) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (っつぁー, ttsā, っつぁ, ttsa) [Term?]
61 rope *tuna (つな, tsuna) *tuna [Term?] (ちなー, chinā) (つぃな, tsïna) (つぃな, tsïna) [Term?] (ちな, china) [Term?] [Term?] (つぃな, tsïna) (んな, nna) [Term?]
62 skin [Term?] (かわ, kawa) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
63 meat [Term?] (にく, niku, しし, shishi) [Term?] (しん, shin) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (しし, shishi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
64 blood *ti (ち, chi) *ti (ちー, chī) (ちー, chī) (つぃー, tsïï) (ち, chi) (ちー, chī) (ちー, chī) [Term?] (ちー, chī) (つぃー, tsïï) (ちー, chī) (ちー, chī)
65 bone [Term?] (ほね, hone) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
66 fat *ampura (あぶら, abura) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
67 egg [Term?] (たまご, tamago) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] とぅなか (tunaka) [Term?] ふが (fuga) くーが (kūga) [Term?] [Term?] こーま (kōma) (かいく゚, kaingu) ふが (fuga)
68 horn *tuno (つの, tsuno) *tuno (とぅぬ, tunu) (ちぬー, chinū) (つぃぬ, tsïnu) (つぃの, tsïno) (ちぬ, chinu) (ちぬ, chinu) (とぃの, tïno) (つぃの, tsïno) (つぃぬ, tsïnu) (んぬん, nnun) (ちぬ, chinu)
69 tail [Term?] (お, o) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
70 feather *panay (はね, hane) *pane (ぱにぃ, panï) (ぱにー, phanī) (ぱに, pani) (はね, hane) (はに, hani) (はに, hani) [Term?] (はにぃ, hanï) (ぱに, pani) (はに, hani) (ぱに, pani)
71 hair [Term?] (かみ, kami) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] からず (karazu) [Term?] はらじ (haraji) からじ (karaji) [Term?] からーじ (karāji), からずぃんけぃ (karazïnkë) (Isenchou) [Term?] からん (karan) [Term?]
72 head [Term?] (あたま, atama) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] かなまㇲ゙ (kamanaz) (つぃぶる, tsiburu) (ちぶる, chiburu) (ちぶる, chiburu) (つぃぶる, tsiburu) [Term?] (つぶり, tsuburi, つぃぶる, tsiburu, つぃぶるぃ, tsiburi) みんぶる (minburu) (ちぶる, chiburu)
73 ear [Term?] (みみ, mimi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (みん, min) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
74 eye *may (め, me) *me (みー, mī) (みー, mī) (みー, mī) (みぃー, mïï) (みー, mī) (みー, mī) [Term?] (みぃー, mïï) (みー, mī) (みー, mī) (みー, mī)
75 nose *pana (はな, hana) *pana (ぱな, pana) (ぱなー, phanā) (ぱな, pana) (はな, hana) (はな, hana) (はな, hana) [Term?] (はな, hana) (ぱな, pana) 鼻ぶる (はなぶる, hanaburu) (ぱな, pana)
76 mouth *kutuy (くち, kuchi) *kuti [Term?] (くちー, khuchī) (ふつ, futsu) (く゚ち, xuchi) [Term?] (くち, kuchi) [Term?] [Term?] (ふつぃ, futsï) (ってぃ, tti) [Term?]
77 tooth *pa (は, ha) *pa [Term?] (ぱー, phā) (ぱー, pā) (はー, hā) (はー, hā) (はー, hā) [Term?] (はー, hā) (ぱー, pā) (はー, hā) [Term?]
78 tongue [Term?] (した, shita) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (しば, shiba) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ったー, ttā) [Term?]
79 fingernail [Term?] (つめ, tsume) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
80 foot [Term?] (あし, ashi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (はじ, haji) (ふぃさ, fisa) [Term?] [Term?] (ぱい, pai) (はん, han) (はぎ, hagi)
81 leg [Term?] (あし, ashi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (はじ, haji) (ふぃさ, fisa) [Term?] [Term?] (ぱい, pai) (はん, han) (はぎ, hagi)
82 knee [Term?] (ひざ, hiza) [Term?] つぃぶし (tsibushi) ちーんし (chīnshi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ちんし (chinshi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ちんし (chinshi)
83 hand *tay (て, te) *te [Term?] (てぃー, thī) (てぃー, tī) (てぃー, tïï) [Term?] (てぃー, tī) [Term?] [Term?] (てぃー, tī) (てぃー, tī) [Term?]
84 wing [Term?] (つばさ, tsubasa) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (はに, hani) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
85 belly [Term?] (はら, hara) *wata [Term?] (わた゚ー, watā) (ばた, bata) (わた゚, waθa) [Term?] (わた, wata) [Term?] [Term?] (ばた, bata) (ばだ, bada) (わた, wata)
86 guts *wata (わた, wata) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
87 neck [Term?] (くび, kubi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
88 back [Term?] (せ, se) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (くし, kushi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
89 breast *munay (むね, mune) *mune [Term?] (にー, nī) (っみ, mmi) (むにぃ, munï) [Term?] (んに, nni) [Term?] [Term?] (んに, nni) (んに, nni) (にー, nī)
90 heart [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
91 liver [Term?] (きも, kimo) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ちむ, chimu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
92 drink [Term?] 飲む (のむ, nomu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 飲むん (ぬむん, numun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
93 eat [Term?] 食べる (たべる, taberu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 食ぬん (かぬん, kanun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 食ん (ふん, fun) [Term?]
94 bite [Term?] 噛む (かむ, kamu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
95 suck [Term?] 吸う (すう, sū) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
96 spit [Term?] 唾を吐く (つばをはく, tsuba o haku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
97 vomit [Term?] 吐く (はく, haku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
98 blow [Term?] 吹く (ふく, fuku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
99 breathe [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
100 laugh [Term?] 笑う (わらう, warau) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 笑ん (ばーるん, bārun) [Term?] [Term?]
101 see *miu 見る (みる, miru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 見じゅん (んーじゅん, nnjun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
102 hear [Term?] 聞く (きく, kiku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 聞ちゅん (ちちゅん, chichun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 聞ん (くん, kun) [Term?]
103 know *siru 知る (しる, shiru) *siru [Term?] [Term?] 知ぃ (っしぃ, ssï) [Term?] [Term?] 知ゆん (しゆん, shiyun) [Term?] [Term?] 知ん (っすん, ssun) 知ん (ちゅん, chun) [Term?]
104 think [Term?] 思う (おもう, omou) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
105 smell [Term?] 嗅ぐ (かぐ, kagu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
106 fear [Term?] 恐れる (おそれる, osoreru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
107 sleep [Term?] 寝る (ねる, neru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 寝んじゅん (にんじゅん, ninjun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
108 live [Term?] 生きる (いきる, ikiru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
109 die *(s)inu 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
110 kill [Term?] 殺す (ころす, korosu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 殺すん (くるすん) (especially an animal) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
111 fight [Term?] 戦う (たたかう, tatakau) [Term?] [Term?] 戦ん (たた゚ーか゚ん, thatākan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 戦ゆん (たたかゆん, tatakayun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
112 hunt [Term?] 狩る (かる, karu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
113 hit [Term?] 叩く (たたく, tataku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 叩きぃ (たたきぃ, tataksï) [Term?] [Term?] 叩ちゅん (たたちゅん, tatachun) [Term?] [Term?] 叩ぐん (たたぐん, tatagun) [Term?] [Term?]
114 cut [Term?] 切る (きる, kiru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 切ん (ちーん, chīn) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
115 split [Term?] 割る (わる, waru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
116 stab [Term?] 刺す (さす, sasu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
117 scratch [Term?] 掻く (かく, kaku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
118 dig [Term?] 掘る (ほる, horu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
119 swim *əyənku 泳ぐ (およぐ, oyogu) *oyogu [Term?] 泳じゅん (ういじゅん, uijun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 泳じゅん (っゐーじゅん, 'wījun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 泳く゚ん (うく゚ん, ungun) [Term?]
120 fly [Term?] 飛ぶ (とぶ, tobu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 飛ぶん (とぅぶん, tubun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
121 walk [Term?] 歩く (あるく, aruku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
122 come [Term?] 来る (くる, kuru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
123 lie [Term?] 寝る (ねる, neru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
124 sit [Term?] 座る (すわる, suwaru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
125 stand [Term?] 立つ (たつ, tatsu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
126 turn [Term?] 回る (まわる, mawaru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
127 fall [Term?] 落ちる (おちる, ochiru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
128 give [Term?] 与える (あたえる, ataeru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
129 hold [Term?] 持つ (もつ, motsu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
130 squeeze [Term?] 絞る (しぼる, shiboru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
131 rub [Term?] 擦る (こする, kosuru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
132 wash [Term?] 洗う (あらう, arau) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
133 wipe [Term?] 拭く (ふく, fuku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
134 pull [Term?] 引く (ひく, hiku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
135 push [Term?] 押す (おす, osu) [Term?] [Term?] 押すん (ふすん, fusun) 押す (うす, usu) [Term?] [Term?] 押しゅん (うしゅん, ushun) [Term?] [Term?] 押すん (うすん, usun) [Term?] [Term?]
136 throw [Term?] 投げる (なげる, nageru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
137 tie [Term?] 結ぶ (むすぶ, musubu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
138 sew [Term?] 縫う (ぬう, nuu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
139 count [Term?] 数える (かぞえる, kazoeru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
140 say [Term?] 言う (いう, iu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
141 sing [Term?] 歌う (うたう, utau) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
142 play [Term?] 遊ぶ (あそぶ, asobu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
143 float [Term?] 浮く (うく, uku) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
144 flow [Term?] 流れる (ながれる, nagareru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
145 freeze [Term?] 凍る (こおる, kōru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
146 swell [Term?] 膨らむ (ふくらむ, fukuramu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
147 sun [Term?] (ひ, hi) [Term?] 天道 (てぃだ, tida) 天道 (てぃだ, tida) 天道 (てぃだ, tida) [Term?] [Term?] ふぃー (), 天道 (てぃーだ, tīda) [Term?] [Term?] 天道 (てぃだ, tida) 天道 (てぃだ, tida, てぃだん, tidan) 天道 (てぃだ, tida)
148 moon *tukuy (つき, tsuki) *tuki [Term?] (しちー, shichī) (つぃきぃ, tsïksï) (てぃき, tïki) [Term?] (ちち, chichi) (てぃき, tïki) [Term?] (つぃきぃ, tsïkï) (ってぃー, ttī) [Term?]
149 star *pəsi (ほし, hoshi) *posi [Term?] (ぷしー, phushī) (ぷす, pusu, busï) (ふし, fushi) (ふし, fushi) (ふし, fushi) [Term?] [Term?] (ぷしぃ, pusï) (ふち, fuchi) (ぷし, pushi)
150 water *mentu (みず, mizu) *mezu [Term?] (みじー, mijī) (みず, mizu) (みぃずぃ, mïzï) (みじ, miji) (みじ, miji) [Term?] [Term?] (みじぃ, mizï) (みん, min) (みじ, miji)
151 rain [Term?] (あめ, ame) [Term?] [Term?] (あみー, amī) (あみ, ami) [Term?] [Term?] (あみ, ami) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (あみ, ami) (あみ, ami)
152 river [Term?] (かわ, kawa) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ほー, hō), 川原 (ほーら, hōra) かーら (kāra) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
153 lake [Term?] (みずうみ, mizuumi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
154 sea *omi (うみ, umi) *omi [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (うみ, umi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] うんなが (unnaga) [Term?]
155 salt [Term?] (しお, shio) [Term?] [Term?] 真塩 (ましゅ, mashu, ます, masu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] 真塩 (まーす, māsu) [Term?] [Term?] 真塩 (まーす, māsu) [Term?] [Term?]
156 stone *esi (いし, ishi) *esi (いし, ishi) (いしー, ishī, しー, shī) (いす, isu) (いし, ishi) (いし, ishi) (いし, ishi) (いしっ, ish) (いすぃ, isï) (いしぃ, isï) (いち, ichi) (いし, ishi)
157 sand [Term?] (すな, suna) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] しな (shina) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ちな, china) (しな, shina)
158 dust [Term?] (ちり, chiri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ちり (chiri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
159 earth [Term?] (つち, tsuchi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] んちゃ (ncha) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
160 cloud [Term?] (くも, kumo) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (くむ, kumu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (んむ, nmu)
161 fog [Term?] (きり, kiri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ちり, chiri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
162 sky *suwara (そら, sora) *sora [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (てぃん, tin) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
163 wind *kansay (かぜ, kaze) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (はじ, haji) (かじ, kaji) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (かでぃ, kadi) (はでぃ, hadi)
164 snow *yoki (ゆき, yuki) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (ゆち, yuchi) [Term?] [Term?] (ゆきぃ, yukï) [Term?] [Term?]
165 ice [Term?] (こおり, kōri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] こーり (kōri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
166 smoke [Term?] (けむり, kemuri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (きぶし, kibushi, きぶい, kibui, ちむり, chimuri) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (きぶんち, kibunchi) [Term?]
167 fire *poy (ひ, hi) *pi [Term?] (ぴ゚ー, pī) (ぴぃー, psïï) (ひー, hī) [Term?] (ふぃー, fī) [Term?] [Term?] (ぴぃー, pïï) (ちー, chī) [Term?]
168 ash [Term?] (はい, hai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ふぇー () [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
169 burn [Term?] 燃える (もえる, moeru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] めーゆん (mēyun) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
170 road [Term?] (みち, michi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] みち (michi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
171 mountain [Term?] (やま, yama) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (むい, mui) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] (だま, dama) [Term?]
172 red [Term?] (あか, aka) [Term?] [Term?] (はか゚ー, hakā) (あか, aka) [Term?] [Term?] (あか, aka) [Term?] [Term?] (あか, aka) (あが, aga) [Term?]
173 green *awo (みどり, midori) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
174 yellow *koy (き, ki) *ki [Term?] 黄色 (ちーるー, chīrū) 黄色 (きぃーる, ksïïru) [Term?] [Term?] 黄色 (ちーるー, chīrū) [Term?] [Term?] (きぃー, kïï) [Term?] [Term?]
175 white *siro (しろ, shiro) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] しる (shiru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
176 black *kuro (くろ, kuro) *kuro [Term?] (く゚るー, kurū) (っふ, ffu) (くるー, kurū) [Term?] (くるー, kurū) [Term?] [Term?] (っふ, ffu) (ふる, furu) [Term?]
177 night *yo, *yoru (よ, yo, よる, yoru) [Term?] [Term?] (ゆー, yū, ゆるー, yurū) (ゆー, yū, ゆーㇲ゙, yūz) (ゆー, yū, ゆる, yuru) [Term?] (ゆー, yū, ゆる, yuru) [Term?] [Term?] (ゆー, yū, ゆうーりぃ, yūrï) (どぅー, dū, どぅる, duru) [Term?]
178 day [Term?] (ひ, hi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ふぃー () [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
179 year [Term?] (とし, toshi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] とぅし (tushi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
180 warm [Term?] 暖かい (あたたかい, atatakai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ぬくさん (nukuan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
181 cold [Term?] 寒い (さむい, samui) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ふぃーさん (fīsan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
182 full [Term?] 満ちた (みちた, michita) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
183 new *mipi (にい, nī) (prefix) *miwi [Term?] 新ーせん (みーせん, mīsen) (みㇲ゙, miz) [Term?] [Term?] 新ーさん (みーさん, mīsan) [Term?] [Term?] 新ーさん (みぃーさん, mïïsan) [Term?] [Term?]
184 old *puru 古い (ふるい, furui) *puru 古さい (ぷるさい, purusai) 古せん (ぷるせん, phurusen) (ふㇲ゙, fuz) 古さり (ふるさり, furusari) 古さん (ふるさん, furusan) 古さん (ふるさん, furusan) 古さむっ (ふるっさむっ, fursam) 古さい (ふるさい, furusai) 古さん (ふるさん, furusan) 古ん (ふるん, furun) 古さん (ぷるさん, purusan)
185 good [Term?] 良い (よい, yoi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ゆたさん (yutasan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
186 bad *waru 悪い (わるい, warui) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] わっさん (wassan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
187 rotten [Term?] 腐った (くさった, kusatta) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] くさりとーる (kusaritōru) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
188 dirty [Term?] 汚い (きたない, kitanai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] したなさん (shitanasan), ちたなさん (chitanasan), はごー (hagō), はごーさん (hagōsan), ゆんはごーさん (yunhagōsan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
189 straight [Term?] 真っ直ぐ (まっすぐ, massugu) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
190 round [Term?] 丸い (まるい, marui) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] まるさん (marusan) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
191 sharp [Term?] 鋭い (するどい, surudoi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
192 dull [Term?] 鈍い (にぶい, nibui) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
193 smooth [Term?] 滑らか (なめらか, nameraka) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
194 wet [Term?] 濡れた (nureta) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
195 dry [Term?] 乾いた (かわいた, kawaita) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
196 correct [Term?] 正しい (ただしい, tadashī) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
197 near *tika 近い (ちかい, chikai) *tika 近さい (ちかさい, chikasai) 近ーせん (しちゃーせん, shichāsen), 近ーせん (ひちゃーせん, hichāsen) (つぃか, tsïka) 近さり (ちきゃさり, chikyasari) 近さん (ちきゃさん, chikyasan) 近さん (ちかさん, chikasan, ちちゃさん, chichasan) [Term?] 近さい (つぃきゃさい, tsïkyasai) 近さん (つぃかさん, tsïkasan) 近ーん (ったーん, ttān) 近ーさん (きゃーさん, kyāsan)
198 far *təpə 遠い (とおい, tōi) *towo 遠さい (と゚ぅーさい, θūsai) 遠せん (とぅーせん, thūsen) (とぅー, tū) 遠さり (と゚ぅーさり, θūsari) 遠さん (とぅーさん, tūsan) 遠さん (とぅーさん, tūsan) [Term?] 遠さい (とぅーさい, tūsai) 遠さん (とぅーさん, tūsan) 遠ん (とぅーん, tūn) 遠さん (とぅーさん, tūsan)
199 right [Term?] (みぎ, migi) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] にじり (nijiri) [Term?] [Term?] (ねーら, nēra) [Term?] [Term?]
200 left [Term?] (ひだり) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] ひじゃい (hijai) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
201 at [Term?] (de) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
202 in [Term?] (de) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
203 with [Term?] (to) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
204 and [Term?] (to) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
205 if [Term?] もし (moshi), なら (nara), - (ba) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
206 because [Term?] から (kara) [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
207 name *na (な, na) *na (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā) (なー, nā)
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic, Egyptian, Palestinian, Tunisian, Cypriot) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon, Zeelandic) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin