Appendix:Old English Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Old English, compared with that of English.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

'No.' English Old English
Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc
Transcription IPA
pronunciation
1 I ic, iċċ, ih, {{{tra001}}} /ik/, /itʃ/, /ix/
2 you (singular) þū {{{tra002}}} /θuː/
3 he {{{tra003}}} /heː/
4 we {{{tra004}}} /weː/
5 you (plural) ġē {{{tra005}}} /jeː/
6 they hīe {{{tra006}}} /hiːy̑/
7 this þēs, þēos, þis {{{tra007}}} /θeːs/, /θeːo̯s/, /θis/
8 that , sēo, þæt {{{tra008}}} /seː/, /seːo̯/, /θæt/
9 here hēr {{{tra009}}} /heːr/
10 there þār, þāra, þǣr, þēr {{{tra010}}} /ˈθɑːrɑ/
11 who hwā {{{tra011}}} /hwɑː/, [ʍɑː]
12 what hwā, hwæt {{{tra012}}} /hwæt/, [ʍæt]
13 where hwǣr {{{tra013}}} {{{pho013}}}
14 when hwanne, hwænne, hwenne {{{tra014}}} {{{pho014}}}
15 how {{{tra015}}} /huː/
16 not ne {{{tra016}}} /ne/
17 all eall {{{tra017}}} /ˈæɑ̯lː/
18 many maniġ; feola, fela {{{tra018}}} /ˈmɑnij/, /ˈfeo̯lɑ/, /ˈfelɑ/
19 some sum {{{tra019}}} /sum/
20 few fēaw; lyt {{{tra020}}} /lyːt/
21 other ōþer {{{tra021}}} /oːθer/, [oːðer]
22 one ān {{{tra022}}} /ɑːn/
23 two twēġen, twā, {{{tra023}}} /ˈtweːjen/, /twɑː/, /tuː/
24 three þrīe, þrēo {{{tra024}}} /θriːy̑/, /θreːo̯/
25 four fēower {{{tra025}}} /feːo̯wer/
26 five fīf {{{tra026}}} /fiːf/
27 big grēat; stōr {{{tra027}}} /græːɑ̯t/, /stoːr/
28 long lang, long {{{tra028}}} /lɑnɡ/, /lonɡ/?
29 wide wīd; brād {{{tra029}}} /brɑːd/
30 thick þicce {{{tra030}}} /θikke/
31 heavy hefiġ {{{tra031}}} /hefij/
32 small smæl {{{tra032}}} /smæl/
33 short scort, sceort {{{tra033}}} /ʃort/?
34 narrow eng; nearu {{{tra034}}} /enɡ/, /næɑ̯ru/
35 thin þynn {{{tra035}}} /θynn/
36 woman ides; cwēn; wīfmann {{{tra036}}} /ides/, /kweːn/, /ˈwiːfmɑnn/
37 man (adult male) wer; guma {{{tra037}}} /wer/, /ɡumɑ/
38 man (human being) mann {{{tra038}}} /mɑnn/
39 child ċild; bearn; umbor {{{tra039}}} /tʃild/, /bæɑ̯rn/, /umbor/
40 wife wīf {{{tra040}}} /wiːf/
41 husband bunda, banda, hūsbonda {{{tra041}}} /bundɑ/, /bɑndɑ/, /ˈhuːsbondɑ/
42 mother mōdor {{{tra042}}} /moːdor/
43 father fæder {{{tra043}}} /fæder/
44 animal dēor {{{tra044}}} /deo̯r/
45 fish fisc {{{tra045}}} /fiʃ/
46 bird fugol {{{tra046}}} /fuɡol/
47 dog hund {{{tra047}}} /hund/
48 louse lūs {{{tra048}}} /luːs/
49 snake snaca {{{tra049}}} /snɑkɑ/
50 worm wyrm {{{tra050}}} /wyrm/
51 tree trēo; bēam {{{tra051}}} {{{pho051}}}
52 forest weald; fyrhþ {{{tra052}}} {{{pho052}}}
53 stick sticca {{{tra053}}} {{{pho053}}}
54 fruit wæstm; blǣd; ofett {{{tra054}}} {{{pho054}}}
55 seed sǣd {{{tra055}}} {{{pho055}}}
56 leaf blæd; lēaf {{{tra056}}} {{{pho056}}}
57 root wyrt {{{tra057}}} {{{pho057}}}
58 bark (of a tree) rind {{{tra058}}} {{{pho058}}}
59 flower blǣd; blōstma {{{tra059}}} {{{pho059}}}
60 grass græs, gærs {{{tra060}}} {{{pho060}}}
61 rope rāp; līne; sāl {{{tra061}}} {{{pho061}}}
62 skin hȳd {{{tra062}}} {{{pho062}}}
63 meat flǣsc {{{tra063}}} {{{pho063}}}
64 blood blōd {{{tra064}}} {{{pho064}}}
65 bone bān {{{tra065}}} {{{pho065}}}
66 fat (noun) fǣtt {{{tra066}}} {{{pho066}}}
67 egg ǣġ {{{tra067}}} {{{pho067}}}
68 horn horn {{{tra068}}} {{{pho068}}}
69 tail steort; tæġl {{{tra069}}} {{{pho069}}}
70 feather feþer {{{tra070}}} /ˈfeθer/
71 hair hǣr, hēr {{{tra071}}} /heːr/
72 head hēafod; hafola {{{tra072}}} /ˈhæːɑvod/
73 ear ēare {{{tra073}}} /æːɑre/
74 eye ēaġe {{{tra074}}} /ˈæːɑje/
75 nose nosu {{{tra075}}} /ˈnozʊ/
76 mouth mūþ {{{tra076}}} /muːθ/
77 tooth tōþ {{{tra077}}} /toːθ/
78 tongue (organ) tunge {{{tra078}}} /ˈtunɡe/, [ˈtuŋɡe]
79 fingernail fingernæġel {{{tra079}}} {{{pho079}}}
80 foot fōt {{{tra080}}} /foːt/
81 leg scanca {{{tra081}}} {{{pho081}}}
82 knee cnēo {{{tra082}}} {{{pho082}}}
83 hand hand {{{tra083}}} {{{pho083}}}
84 wing feþera {{{tra084}}} {{{pho084}}}
85 belly būc {{{tra085}}} {{{pho085}}}
86 guts þearm {{{tra086}}} {{{pho086}}}
87 neck heals; hnecca {{{tra087}}} {{{pho087}}}
88 back hryċġ; bæc {{{tra088}}} {{{pho088}}}
89 breast brēost {{{tra089}}} {{{pho089}}}
90 heart heorte {{{tra090}}} {{{pho090}}}
91 liver lifer {{{tra091}}} {{{pho091}}}
92 to drink drincan {{{tra092}}} {{{pho092}}}
93 to eat etan {{{tra093}}} {{{pho093}}}
94 to bite bītan {{{tra094}}} {{{pho094}}}
95 to suck sūgan; sūcan {{{tra095}}} {{{pho095}}}
96 to spit spittan; hrǣċan {{{tra096}}} {{{pho096}}}
97 to vomit spīwan {{{tra097}}} {{{pho097}}}
98 to blow blāwan {{{tra098}}} {{{pho098}}}
99 to breathe ōþian, ēþian {{{tra099}}} {{{pho099}}}
100 to laugh hliehhan {{{tra100}}} {{{pho100}}}
101 to see sēon {{{tra101}}} {{{pho101}}}
102 to hear hīeran {{{tra102}}} {{{pho102}}}
103 to know witan; cnāwan {{{tra103}}} {{{pho103}}}
104 to think þenċan {{{tra104}}} {{{pho104}}}
105 to smell ēþian; stincan {{{tra105}}} {{{pho105}}}
106 to fear andrǣdan {{{tra106}}} {{{pho106}}}
107 to sleep slǣpan {{{tra107}}} {{{pho107}}}
108 to live libban, lifian {{{tra108}}} {{{pho108}}}
109 to die steorfan {{{tra109}}} {{{pho109}}}
110 to kill cwellan {{{tra110}}} {{{pho110}}}
111 to fight feohtan {{{tra111}}} {{{pho111}}}
112 to hunt huntian {{{tra112}}} {{{pho112}}}
113 to hit hittan; slēan {{{tra113}}} {{{pho113}}}
114 to cut snīþan {{{tra114}}} {{{pho114}}}
115 to split splātan; clēofan {{{tra115}}} {{{pho115}}}
116 to stab snǣsan; stingan; stician {{{tra116}}} {{{pho116}}}
117 to scratch screpan; clifrian; pliċġan; clāwian {{{tra117}}} {{{pho117}}}
118 to dig grafan {{{tra118}}} {{{pho118}}}
119 to swim swimman; flēotan {{{tra119}}} {{{pho119}}}
120 to fly flēoġan {{{tra120}}} {{{pho120}}}
121 to walk gangan; onsteppan {{{tra121}}} {{{pho121}}}
122 to come cuman {{{tra122}}} {{{pho122}}}
123 to lie (as in a bed) liċġan {{{tra123}}} {{{pho123}}}
124 to sit sittan {{{tra124}}} {{{pho124}}}
125 to stand standan {{{tra125}}} {{{pho125}}}
126 to turn (intransitive) ċierran; hwierfan {{{tra126}}} {{{pho126}}}
127 to fall feallan {{{tra127}}} {{{pho127}}}
128 to give ġiefan {{{tra128}}} {{{pho128}}}
129 to hold healdan {{{tra129}}} {{{pho129}}}
130 to squeeze þringan; cwȳsan {{{tra130}}} {{{pho130}}}
131 to rub gnīdan {{{tra131}}} {{{pho131}}}
132 to wash wascan {{{tra132}}} {{{pho132}}}
133 to wipe wīpian {{{tra133}}} {{{pho133}}}
134 to pull dragan; pullian {{{tra134}}} {{{pho134}}}
135 to push scūfan; þyddan; hrindan; potian {{{tra135}}} {{{pho135}}}
136 to throw weorpan {{{tra136}}} {{{pho136}}}
137 to tie bindan; tīeġan {{{tra137}}} {{{pho137}}}
138 to sew sīwian, sēowian {{{tra138}}} {{{pho138}}}
139 to count tellan {{{tra139}}} {{{pho139}}}
140 to say cweþan; seċġan {{{tra140}}} {{{pho140}}}
141 to sing singan {{{tra141}}} {{{pho141}}}
142 to play lācan; pleġan {{{tra142}}} {{{pho142}}}
143 to float flēotan; flotian; floterian {{{tra143}}} {{{pho143}}}
144 to flow flōwan {{{tra144}}} {{{pho144}}}
145 to freeze frēosan {{{tra145}}} {{{pho145}}}
146 to swell swellan {{{tra146}}} {{{pho146}}}
147 sun sōl; sunne {{{tra147}}} {{{pho147}}}
148 moon mōna {{{tra148}}} {{{pho148}}}
149 star steorra; tungol {{{tra149}}} {{{pho149}}}
150 water wæter {{{tra150}}} {{{pho150}}}
151 rain reġn {{{tra151}}} {{{pho151}}}
152 river ēa; flōd; strēam {{{tra152}}} {{{pho152}}}
153 lake mere; lacu {{{tra153}}} {{{pho153}}}
154 sea {{{tra154}}} {{{pho154}}}
155 salt sealt {{{tra155}}} {{{pho155}}}
156 stone stān {{{tra156}}} {{{pho156}}}
157 sand sand {{{tra157}}} {{{pho157}}}
158 dust dūst; dust {{{tra158}}} {{{pho158}}}
159 earth eorþe {{{tra159}}} {{{pho159}}}
160 cloud wolcen {{{tra160}}} {{{pho160}}}
161 fog mist {{{tra161}}} {{{pho161}}}
162 sky rodor; lyft {{{tra162}}} {{{pho162}}}
163 wind wind {{{tra163}}} {{{pho163}}}
164 snow snāw {{{tra164}}} {{{pho164}}}
165 ice īs {{{tra165}}} {{{pho165}}}
166 smoke rēc; smoca {{{tra166}}} {{{pho166}}}
167 fire fȳr {{{tra167}}} {{{pho167}}}
168 ash æsc {{{tra168}}} {{{pho168}}}
169 to burn beornan, biernan; bærnan; ǣlan {{{tra169}}} {{{pho169}}}
170 road weġ; pæþ {{{tra170}}} {{{pho170}}}
171 mountain beorg {{{tra171}}} {{{pho171}}}
172 red rēad {{{tra172}}} {{{pho172}}}
173 green grēne {{{tra173}}} {{{pho173}}}
174 yellow ġeolu {{{tra174}}} {{{pho174}}}
175 white hwīt {{{tra175}}} {{{pho175}}}
176 black sweart; blæc {{{tra176}}} {{{pho176}}}
177 night neaht, niht {{{tra177}}} {{{pho177}}}
178 day dōgor; dæġ {{{tra178}}} {{{pho178}}}
179 year ġēar {{{tra179}}} {{{pho179}}}
180 warm wearm {{{tra180}}} {{{pho180}}}
181 cold ceald {{{tra181}}} {{{pho181}}}
182 full full {{{tra182}}} {{{pho182}}}
183 new nēowe, nīwe {{{tra183}}} {{{pho183}}}
184 old gamol; eald {{{tra184}}} {{{pho184}}}
185 good gōd {{{tra185}}} {{{pho185}}}
186 bad yfel {{{tra186}}} {{{pho186}}}
187 rotten fūl {{{tra187}}} {{{pho187}}}
188 dirty ādeliht; sol {{{tra188}}} {{{pho188}}}
189 straight ġerād; ġereclīc {{{tra189}}} {{{pho189}}}
190 round hwyrflede; seonuwealt {{{tra190}}} {{{pho190}}}
191 sharp (as a knife) scearp {{{tra191}}} {{{pho191}}}
192 dull (as a knife) dol; dwæs {{{tra192}}} {{{pho192}}}
193 smooth slīc; slieht; smēþe, smōþ {{{tra193}}} {{{pho193}}}
194 wet wǣt {{{tra194}}} {{{pho194}}}
195 dry sēar; drȳġe {{{tra195}}} {{{pho195}}}
196 correct riht {{{tra196}}} {{{pho196}}}
197 near nēah {{{tra197}}} {{{pho197}}}
198 far wīd; feor {{{tra198}}} {{{pho198}}}
199 right reht, riht {{{tra199}}} {{{pho199}}}
200 left winstre {{{tra200}}} {{{pho200}}}
201 at on; æt {{{tra201}}} {{{pho201}}}
202 in in {{{tra202}}} {{{pho202}}}
203 with mid {{{tra203}}} {{{pho203}}}
204 and and {{{tra204}}} {{{pho204}}}
205 if ġif {{{tra205}}} {{{pho205}}}
206 because forþon {{{tra206}}} {{{pho206}}}
207 name nama {{{tra207}}} {{{pho207}}}