Appendix:Swadesh lists for Dené-Yeniseian languages

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Below are Swadesh lists of various Dené–Yeniseian languages. Dené–Yeniseian is a putative language family consisting of the Yeniseian languages of western Siberia and the Na-Dené languages of northwestern North America.

The following languages are included:

  • Ket (Western Siberia, Russia) — Yeniseian language
  • Tlingit (Southeastern Alaska, United States) — isolated Na-Dené branch
  • Navajo (Arizona and New Mexico, United States) — South Athabaskan language
  • Dena'ina (South-central Alaska, United States) — North Athabaskan language
  • Hupa (Northwestern California, United States) — Pacific Athabaskan language
  • Slavey (Northwest Territories, Canada) — North Athabaskan language
  • Kott (Western Siberia, Russia) — Yeniseian language
  • Eyak (South-central Alaska, United States) — Athabaskan–Eyak language

NOTE: "C" does not represent a voiceless palatal plosive; it's equivalent with "ts", which represents a voiceless postalveolar affricate.

List[edit]

English Ket Tlingit Navajo Dena'ina Hupa Slavey Kott Eyak
1 I āt x̱át shí shi whe: ai xuː, (possessive morpheme) si
2 you
(singular)
ū, u, uˑ, uːge wa.é ni ni ning au ʔiː
3 he be- xong, min uju, hutu (pronom. morph.; poss. and v. prefix of d. obj.) ʔu
4 we ə̄t, ǝt, ǝt-n uháan nihí na- nehe ajoŋ, ay-oŋ taː, (oblique, poss.) qʰaː
5 you
(plural)
ə̄k yeewháan nihí h- nohn(i) auoŋ
6 they būŋ hás yina, qu- xong uniaŋ, hatien ʔǝ-yǝq, ʔu-yǝq
7 this kiˑ (near), kiˑ-rʸ, kiˑdǝ, kiˑrʸǝ, kiˑrʸ (masc.), kˈi-rʸe (fem./neut.), kˈi-nʸa (pl.) yá (near), hé (nearest) díí gini de:, teː, teː-t inu ʔǝl, ʔãː
8 that tuˑ (intermediate distance), tuˑ-rʸ, tuˑdǝ, tuˑrʸǝ, tuˑrʸ (masc.), tˈu-rʸe (fem./neut.), tˈu-nʸa (pl.), qa (far), qaˑ-rʸ (masc.), qa-rʸa (fem./neut.), qa-nʸa (pl.) wé (that; neutral distance), yú (yonder) éí ghini hay(i), yo:w (close by), ye:w (far off) uy-oː (masc.), unʸa (fem.), uni-oŋ (pl.), ujöm ʔǝw, ʔuː
9 here kiseŋ yáat, héit kwii, kweʼé ey gu de:, digyun(g) ini
10 there qaseŋ yóot, wéit níláahdi yeh yo:wi, yo:w (close by), ye:w (far off)
11 who bˈitsʸe (masc.), bɛsʸa (fem.), ˈana, ˈanät, anet, anasʸ aa, aadóo, aadóoch (erg.) háí vada dundi a=ši-x tuː
12 what akus, ˈakusʸ ~ aksʸ daa, daat daa yada daydi ši-na, še-na, ašix, bi-ʎäŋ teː
13 where biles goo háadi ndaha da:ydi, -ding bi-li
14 when aska gwátk (past), gwátgeen (fut.) hahgo hnuyu -dung' (in the past), -ding' (in the past), -de' (in the future), dahun'di (interrogative), mił (temp. adv.)
15 how bila wáa haa ch'adach' (du)xwe:di ašix
16 not bə̄n, bǝnʸ tléil, hél, l doo nch'u do, toː- boː (prohibitive), mon, moːn =q (v. deriv. suffix; stem), tikʼ, (negative stem) kʼu, kʼǝ
17 all bɯlda, bˈɨlʸda, bˈɨlʸdɛ ldakát tʼáá ałtso t'anch'q'u, łuq'u ʔah-tʼiŋ bar, ba:r (a Turkic borrowing), uːt-am ɬi-ʔqʼ
18 many oˀn, ɔ̂nʸ aatlein, sha-ya-di-haa (there are many) łą́ ła:n, ɬaŋ payaŋ kʼu=tʼuʔ
19 some samla x̱oo (among) łaʼ me:lah (some of it, some of them)
20 few qomat tʼáá díkwíí dnaghelchiq' do:-ła:n-ts
21 other bīk ch’a g̱óot łaʼígíí ighil'i
22 one qūs, qu-sʸ, qɔʔ-k tléix' łáaʼii, tʼááłáʼí ts'iłq'i ła' líe hu:cha, huː-ča ɬĩhq-ih, LinhG-ih
23 two ɯ̄n, ɨn déix̱ naaki nutiha nahx ǫki i:na, (older sources) ˈinʸa laʔt-ih, la'd-ih
24 three doˀŋ nás'k tááʼ tuq'i ta:q' tai to:nga t'uhLga'
25 four sīk daax'oon dį́į́ʼ denk'i dink' dįį shégang qAlahqa'ga'
26 five qāk keijín ashdlaʼ ch'qilu chwola' sųlái xe:gä ch'a:n'-ih
27 big qaˀ ya-gei, tlein nitsaa ka'a -kyoh, -kyah, =kʰʸah (light), =kʰʸaːw (heavy) fačaː, pʰačaː, (older form) pačaga =ʔluw, =ʔnuw
28 long ugde, ˈugde-sʸ li-yaat’ nineez dghiłnaz =ne:s uy =ʔaːw (same as far)
29 wide qiil ya-woox̱’ nteel dghiłtal -tehł
30 thick boˀl, bəsl, sūk si-kaak áníłtsááz dghiłtsuz dita:n (it is thick), nitsa:s hagal, hakal, puchar
31 heavy səə, sʸɜː-sʸ, sɜː, sʸoaga ya-dál ndaaz dghiłduz =taːs šiːk-ŋ =ɬ=taːs (to be heavy)
32 small həna, hˈɜnʸa, ˈim-da ya-géik’ yázhí gguya misGiy'ts (it is little, small), =kiyeʔ, =kiyeʔ-c, =kiyʔ-c kišlaː, (older sources) imɨraŋˈaga, imiraŋaga kʰučʼ-k, kʰucʼ-k, (dim./affectionate suffix) -kʰih
33 short hitim, hɔlʸ-sʸ, hɔʔlʸ, hoːli ya-yaatl’ áłtsʼíísí dghiłggech' didzit (it is short) tʰuːki =tikʼ, =tǝkʼ
34 narrow tòʁ ya-saa áłtsʼóózí dghiłdit 'ist'ik' (it is thin, slender, narrow) tʰaːge
35 thin haksem, hˈaksʸ-em, hˈaksʸ-im, haːqs-em (flat objects), toʁoj, tɔ̂ʁ, tɔʁa, tɔʁǝ, to(ː)ɢalʸa, toɢo (3D objects) li-xoon, shi-g̱aax̱ʼ (animal), ḵ’aatl’ (flat object) áłtʼą́ą́ʼígo 'ist'ik' (same as above) fač-am, pʰač-am =cʰic-k
36 woman qīm, qiˑm, qiːm shaawát, sháa asdzání k'isen tsumehstł'o:n, 'awhxich'e' (archaic wealthy woman), cʰamehsƛʼoː, ts’élî (woman), gotsų (old lady) ali(ː)t, alat (also, wife) qʰeʔɬ
37 man
(adult male)
hīɣ ḵáa hastiin quht'ana xo=ʔes=ta-y, xo=ʔos=ta-y, xʷe=ʔes=ta-y denezhu, ǫhndaa (old man), gotsíe (old man), cheekua (young man) fiː, (little man) ig ɬilaːʔ
38 man
(human being)
keˀt, deng pl lingít diné qut'ana k'iwinya'a:n, kʼʸi=win=yaʔn=yaːn (lit. acorn-eater) dene hit, het, čeäŋ pl tǝχũh
39 child
(a youth)
dɯ̄l yát, k'átsk'u áłchíní ch'anigen ch'iwhxiy ts’údââ dakat, dal
40 wife qīm shát hweʼesdzáán -'u -'ut setséke ali(ː)t, alat (also, woman)
41 husband tēt x̱úx̱ hahastiin -qen -xung' sedené had-kip, hatkït(n)
42 mother ām tláa amá -unkda -chwing semǫ, amá ama(n), áma, ami
43 father ōp éesh azhéʼé -tukda -ita' setá op, öpang, öan, öp
44 animal assel gutu.ádi (forest animal) naaldeehii mixo'osday' (male), łing' (pet) -ša, -šïn, šetn, šele, achánše (wild)
45 fish īs, iˑsʸ x̱áat (salmon, fish), l’ook (coho salmon) łóóʼ łiq'a ło:q' (also can refer to salmon alone), (orig. form) *ɬoːqʼi, (all edible water creatures, probably from water+meat) tʰohnaːy łue teːg, teːx tʰǝʔ-yaʔ
46 bird dum (little bird, youngling), keŋassel, kˈe-ŋ-asʸːelʸ ts’ats’ée, ts’ítskw (songbird) tsídii ggaggashla k'iya:wh, kʼʸi=yaːʍ al=tuːma# (little bird, youngling) qǝnuh (water fowl), qãː-ti-čʼičʼ-k' (non-aquatic songbird), yǝχ=tǝ=ɬǝ=kʼaʔtʼ-χ,
47 dog tīp keitl łééchąąʼí łik'a no:k'ine:yo:t, ło:q'-ma:'a', ɬiŋʼ, =liŋ-kʼʸ-eʔ al=šip χǝwaː
48 louse ə̀ɣ, ɜ̂ɣ wéis’ yaaʼ eyu ma:'a', ya' (head louse) ikˈi kuks-k
49 snake tìɣ, tîɣ, tiːɣǝ, tieɢ l’ut’tláaḵ ('tongue-arrow') tłʼiish [no original term] miłtsah-xosin (rattlesnake), ƛʼiwiʍ, ƛʼi(ː)ʍ oŋ-xoy, oŋ-koy χuhχ-ʔa-ʔluw-yuː (snakes, lit. big worms), ʔuʔƛ (dubious; also means driftwood, dead log)
50 worm utiɣ, utˈiɣ, uˈtix tl’úk’x̱ chʼosh [no original term] qo(ː) hoi, (older sources) o-n χuhχ (earthworm, moth)
51 tree ōks, oˑksʸ aas tsin cʼ-pa-la, čʼ-wa-la, čʼ-va-la king, kʰʸiŋ, (wood, firewood) čʰʷič atči, atče, (older sources) ačši lis (poss. Russian borrowing)
52 forest hɯssej, areŋ aas gutú (‘among trees’) tsintah king-xołiwhin (heavy forest), sikin-chwing (archaic pine forest)
53 stick
(of wood)
ə̄ɣ ḵáas’ gish chik'a (wood) king, kʰʸiŋ, (wood, firewood) čʰʷič hupuš t=kʰĩh
54 fruit tléiḵw (‘berry’) neestʼą́
55 seed īm tukayátx’i ('small ones inside it'), x’aakeidí akʼǫ́ǫ́ʼ =n=cʼǝs-(ʔ)a mina:' (pit), =saːy, =saːy-ʔ (small seeds) =lǝχǝ=ɬ=cʼǝl-ih, (seeds for snowing) yaː-nuʔ(-čʼ) lǝχǝ-tǝ-yaːʔ
56 leaf əə, ɜː kayaaní atʼąąʼ k't'tun =tʼaŋʼ dʸipi tʼahɬ (also, feather)
57 root tìr x̱aat bikétłʼóól =qacʼ-a qus, xay (conifer, esp. pine or spruce), qat, qut (esp. willow) tʰe(ː)m-pul, (in older sources) tˈiːembulaŋ, lgiembulaŋ, ačigan qeːcʼ (spruceroot), (root-stump, plant roots), (only attest. in compounds) =kʰũː
58 bark
(of tree)
iŋolt, ɨːn a daayí (‘outer surface’), loon (outer bark), ḵéetlʼ (phloem), sáxʼ (cambium), láx̱ʼ (sap bark), x̱eesh (cork), s’agwáat (hemlock), teey (yellow-cedar), tsaaxʼ (red-cedar) bitáshtʼóózh k'elut'ich'a k'ila:dosch'e' (heavy conifer bark), =sicʼ (also skin, hide) farpax, farpag, pʰarpak qʰaht-ɬ, qʰahƛ, tʰah (hide, bark, shell)
59 flower aqta daan ḵ’eikaxwéin chʼil bílátah hózhóón ashana k'ida:y', k'ige:s (Indian sunflower) ešalyky-tan
60 grass daan chookán, sháak (timothy grass), sooḵ (saltwater grass) tłʼoh k'echan tł'oh tönapul, keri tl'ihx̣
61 rope àŋ tíx’ tłʼóół tl'ił 'isdits' (string)
62 skin
(of a person)
iŋolt, î dook, ch’áatwu (epidermis) xáasʼ (fish), g̱wáatʼ (sheepskin), kaak (inner hide), táach (skin trimmings) akágí ses, yes -sits' (also, animal), =sicʼ (also bark) =tʰah (also, bark)
63 meat
(as in flesh)
īs, iˑsʸ dleey atsįʼ k'tsen tsing', =cʰiŋʼ, (only in roots) cʰinʼ or cʰin iːči =cʰeʔ
64 blood sūl, sʸuˑlʸ shé, shéiy, shí dił del tse:lin, cʰeː=liŋ, cʰeː=lin šur tǝɬ, tiɬ
65 bone aˀt s'aaḵ, s’ooḵ (rib), xaak (skeleton, bivalve shell) tsʼin ts'en -ts'in, =cʼinʼ, =cʼiŋʼ, =cʼin-eʔ xagal, xakal, qagal cʼǝl, =cʼǝl-ih (anatomy), qʼahš (in meat, fish)
66 fat
(noun)
kiˀt, kɨʔt taay akʼah k'eq'eh łiq'a:w (it is fat) kiːr =qʼǝχ
67 egg eˀj, ɛʔy k’wát’ (bird), kaháakw (fish) ayęęzhii k'eghazha q'ong' (fish), -we:whe' šuley (poss. Samoyed loanword) =tǝ=ʔuht-k
68 horn qoˀ, qɔʔ sheit adeeʼ k'da -de' hau (horn, thumb, big toe) =ː=tǝleh
69 tail huut, hiˀs, huːʔut l'eet atseeʼ -ka -ke' fugay, fukay, pʰugay, (older sources) pukˈay =k=ƛʼah (=k means filament-like, =ƛʼah is rear, back-end)
70 feather
(rather not down)
às, âsʸ t’aaw atʼaʼ k't'u -ch'il' iči, iče tʼahɬ (also, leaf)
71 hair tə̄ŋ x̱aaw (body hair, fur) shax̱aaw (head hair) atsiiʼ -tsighu -wa', tsiwung' (head hair), cʰi=wa-ŋʼ, =cʰi=wa-nʼ, =cʰi=waʔ-n-eʔ eːk (body hair, fur), heŋ-ay (most likely head hair) leːɬ, (fur, body hair) =χuʔ
72 head kəjga, kˈɜyga shá atsiiʼ -tsi, -kin'i -tse', =eː=ta=ʔa-y, =cʰeː(dialectal/obsolete) tag-ay, tak-ay =šaːw (also, head hair), =lǝ=qʰah, (only in compounds) cʰĩʔ-, cʰiʔ-l-
73 ear ogde, ˈɔgdɛ gúk ajaaʼ -jegha -jiw' kaloːx (most likely a Turkic borrowing) =čehχ
74 eye dēs, deˑsʸ waaḵ anááʼ -nu'u, -nagha -na:' tiːš, (older forms, both pl.) tečagan, tieŋ =laːχ
75 nose olən, ˈɔlɨn, ˈɔlǝn áchį́į́h -nchix -nchwiwh aŋ, aːŋ =niːkʼ (nose, beak), =niːčʼ (only in compounds)
76 mouth x̱’é, x̱ʼa-, ḵʼa- azééʼ -zaq' -da' hoːpi =saʔ(-t), (mouth, eating, appetite, food) xaʔ
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
ìt, ît, iːti, i(ː)tǝ, iːʔet oox̱ awooʼ -ghi -wo' iti, ite (older sources incl. a final n) =χũː-ɬǝ-yah, (as a bound element only) χuːl ~ χũː
78 tongue ēj, eˑy, ɛːyǝ, ɛyǝ l’óot’ atsooʼ -tsila -sa:sta:n alup, aluːp =laʔtʼ, =naʔtʼ
79 fingernail ìn, înʸ (also, claw) x̱aakw áláshgaan -luggena -la'-ke'ts' (also, claw) halčiːg, halčix (nail, claw, hoof) (older sources have an x in place of h) =yǝ=ɬ=χahc-ɬ
80 foot kiˀs (leg), buˑlʸ x̱’oos (foot/leg), xéesʼ (shin) akeeʼ -qa xe', =xe-ʔ pul -qʰiː-, =kʼahš (also, leg), (older form) =kʼʷahš
81 leg qopqul, qopqu, kiˀs x̱ʼoos (foot/leg), xéesʼ (shin), saayee (underside of knee) ajáád -qatl'na -qe:, -ts'in' pul =kʼahš (lower leg; also, foot), =ɬãːʔ (thigh, upper leg), =xiʔcʼ, =xʷiʔc (lower leg, shin; borrowed from Tlingit?)
82 knee batpul, bˈat-pulʸ keey agod -ch'esh -qot' arša, aršaːn, aranšaːn =quht, =qũht
83 hand hɜŋn (slightly diff. connotation), lʸaʔŋ, laŋat jín (hand/arm) álaʼ -lu, -gguna -la' keːgär, keːʔär -yǝ-, =yǝ=qʼaʔcʼ
84 wing keˀs kích atʼaʼ -ch'enla
85 belly hɯ̄j, hɨˑy yoow (torso), x̱’óol’ (paunch) abid -vet' -imit' tʰaloːx, tʰaloːk =kʰǝmah, =kʰumah (belly, stomach), kʰuːl, kʰũː (belly, thickest part)
86 guts tùl naas achʼííʼ -chutl'a (stomach) -kya:ne (abdomen, insides), -ch'e:k'e' (intestines, soft belly)
87 neck kə̄qt, kǝˑqt, kǝˑqtǝ lidíx’ (back of neck), leitóox̱ (throat) akʼos -q'es -q'os fuymur, pʰuymur =cʰĩʔ (orig. head), (throat, wind pipe, tranchea) =tǝ=kaʔqʼ-ɬ
88 back qovet díx̱’ anághah -iniq' -ne:q' (behind, at the back of), -e:ne' (spine), -ingkine' (small of back) hapar, xabar, kogar
89 breast maˀm, tˈɜɣa l’aa ayid -t'uyts'ena (chest) -ije:', -its'o:' (woman's breast, udder), -it'ahdiye' fa, pʰa cʼuː (female breast, nipple, milk), =šeːkʼ
90 heart huu téix̱ʼ ajéídíshjool, ajéí -kuz'in -ikyun-sa'a:n šitap, (older forms) šitabu, šitabii, šitapu =ʔuq-ɬ
91 liver sēŋ, sʸeˑŋ tl'óoḵ azid -zet' -isit' šičil =saht
92 to drink dop, u=rˈɔ ~ ulʸ=dˈɔ di-naa adlą́ k'etnun ta:dinung (drinking), ta:wina'n (drinking), =naːn oː=p-aŋ =tǝ=la
93 to eat sìj, sʸî, sʸîy ya-x̱aa ayą́, yiyą́ k'elqat ky-, k'iw-, ne:lya:-, no:k'in-, -ita:n toːp-aːk-ŋ =χ=a
94 to bite laptaq, lˈap-t-aq, lˈap-t-ɔq si-taax’, ya-yeeḵ adiłhash =ʁaš (imperf.), =ʁač (perf.), =ʁǝs -xuts', =xacʼ, =xucʼ, (light; to crunch, bite off) =qos, (heavy; same def.) =qocʼ =qʰa
95 to suck ut li-l'aa ałtʼoʼ, yitsʼǫǫs k'ełt'et' -t'ot alchut, balä'ut, ba'ütang
96 to spit ultij ḵ'a-di-toox̱ jidizhah tezhah -xe, -wh hujungakng
97 to vomit kɯˀŋ dli-ḵoo nákwi nuk'ełvaq' -xoy
98 to blow
(as wind)
bēj ya-.oox doochʼih, yisoł, deeyol -yo:l baláfu, alfu, bafujang, balafujang
99 to breathe ilbet di-saa hanéíyol, ńdísdzih, yisdah nízin -diye:wh
100 to laugh dàʁ ya-shooḵ anádloh nk'edleq' -ło' chakajang
101 to see t=uŋ, t=oŋ ya-teen nílʼį́, yooʼį́ =ʔan (to do, see, have, look) -tsa:n, =cʰis (imperf.), =cʰaːn (perf.) tʰ=aːŋ-aŋ =ʔe, =ʔã
102 to hear eqsaq, =da ya-.aax̱ adiitsʼaʼ nǝ-x =cʼeh (perceived act) h=oː=ti =tǝ=ɬǝ=čʼaːqʼ (hear, listen), =ʔu=ʔ=(lǝ)=tʰa (listen to, find out, become aware)
103 to know
(a fact)
it - am, ˈit-ey si-koo hashniih (a fact) =ni, (to know, be aware) =yǝn, =zǝn -ts'it, =cʼit ŋ=aːliga =ʔ=ɬ=ka (know, recognize, find out about)
104 to think anbet ya-jee neeshtʼááʼ -sin, -se'n
105 to smell
(sense odor)
īt dzi-neex’ honishchin -chwiwh, -chwe:n, -chwin (n.) čãh, čãʔ, chanh, chan'
106 to fear qoran (noun) a-ka-dli-x̱eetl’ yináldzid -lgit
107 to sleep usʸenʸ (to go to sleep), t=...=qot ya-taa ałhosh veł, nuł (noun), =l=taq mił (noun), -wun, -wun', =waŋ, =wuŋ dʸ=aːt-aŋ, čagal-aː-k-ŋ (to drowse), (older sources) a=l=ˈa=ten =cʰuʔt, (to lie) =tʰe (sing.), =tʰuʔčʼ (pl.)
108 to live dəˀq ya-tseen hinílá -xinay' (alive)
109 to die qoreŋ, qɔ-rʸaŋ, qɔ-rʸeŋ ya-naa daatsaah =ƛan, =qʰi=sil (human), =yuq (animal) -ch'it, =tʼeːn, =tʼiŋ dʸ=a=xa-y-aŋ =sĩh
110 to kill èj, ɛ̂y ya-jaaḵ yiyiiłhé čʰi==t=ɬ=yuq, (pl. subj.) =ʁun -wa:n, -łte' (get killed), =weː oga-ʔaː-če-aŋ =še, (only killing pl. objects) =siyu
111 to fight kàl ḵu-li-gaaw daʼahijigą́ k'iłch'ixa:-
112 to hunt
(transitive)
assano a-ya-l'oon njiljeeh shtuniyu k'iwuna:y-
113 to hit tàr sha-ya-x̱eech jooł jiikał -wul, -wa:tł', -kis (fist)
114 to cut doo ya-xaash niyiiłgeesh -t'us, -t'a:ts'
115 to split untet li-x̱oot’ ałtániiłgizh, hadiiłkaal -k'il
116 to stab
(or stick)
dontet ya-gwaal iijííł -qot
117 to scratch
(an itch)
inkit ka-ya-x’oot’ deeshchʼił -ts'e:k' (claw, fingernail), -ge:s (fingers)
118 to dig qɯ̀r ka-ya-haa hadahojigeed xa:-
119 to swim sùj, sʸuy, sʸuːyi, sʸuː()yǝ ji-si-kwaan (around something), ya-x’aak (underwater) nanibé nughebał, =cʰi=l=kʰǝɬ (human), =laʁ (fishes, animals), =l=kʰit (across), =pa -me:, -me', -'il (along, around) ul=šuy =we, (to sit or swim on the surface of water, as in waterfowl, etc.) =ɬǝ=qʰu
120 to fly dòq, dɔ̂q di-ḵeen (sg.), dli-yeech, dli-heech (pl.) ndaatʼaʼ nut'eh -xis, -xits' f=a=ta-g-a iːnaŋ (idiomatic express.) =tǝ=ɬ=kʼaʔtʼ
121 to walk ejiŋ, ˈe-iŋ, ˈey-iŋ=tnʸ (also, to go) ya-goot (sg.), ya-.aat (pl.) joogááł gheyuł(sg. go) -ha:l (along, go) eä=xeːy-aŋ, iːn-aŋ (also, to go)
122 to come igbes, ˈi-g-besʸ ḵu-ya-teen jiníyá, yílyeed niyu, =yu -ya: i=toːy-aŋ =a
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
t-tn, t=...=qot ya-tee, .aax̱ (cloth), la-.aat sitį́, jiztį́ ztan, =tʰa-n -si, -tiwh (down), -te:n (down), =tʰeː, =tʰeːčʼ i=teːn-aŋ (down), dʸ=aːt-aŋ =tʰe (sing.), =tʰuʔčʼ (pl.)
124 to sit ūŋ ya-nook (sg.), ya-ḵee (pl.) sidá, jizdá zdu, =tu -dil, -de:tł' =ta, (pl. subj.) =qʰu
125 to stand īn, iˑnʸ ya-haan (sg.), ya-naaḵ (pl.) yiizįįh san ya:- f=a=ta-g-aːk-ŋ (to go to stand), ay yatˈɨk, yätɨk (I am standing), dʸ=a=tek-ŋ, dʸ=ä=tek-ŋ,
126 to turn
(change direction)
ta - kil a-ya-di-goot néizgiz -'eh (away from), na:-
127 to fall
(as in drop)
dəqŋ ka-li-soos (drop) jootłish -ts'it (drop), -xut(') (fall), -xi(t)s(') (fall over)
128 to give qəreŋ, n=...=o, aq ḵaa jèe yeiyíʼaah -'awh, -'a:n hi=peːn-aŋ =čʼ (to give, bring, move towards)
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
utoq li-shaat dah yootįįł -tun'
130 to squeeze hataŋbet li-g̱oots, ya-g̱ootl (also, to mash by squeezing) ałchʼįʼjiinih -tik, -chwun' (make something bulge by squeezing)
131 to rub kīt lli-g̱eex̱' bídinéyiizh -łiw (something on), -q'a: (against)
132 to wash ulgaŋ ya-.oos' iigis, tánéígis -diw
133 to wipe abbet li-g̱oo yitʼood -chwit
134 to pull tàŋ ya-x̱óot’ (haul), si-xaat’ (haul heavy object), si-yeeḵ (string), déloʼ -yo:s
135 to push telaŋij ya-gooḵ bíjooyił, naaʼííłhad -chwit
136 to throw esdaq ya-g̱eech iijiłneʼ, ajiiłhan -mil, -me:tł'
137 to tie aŋej ya-doox’ beʼjitłʼó du -loy', -tł'o:wh (onto something), -tł'on' (onto s.) tl'i
138 to sew həlsej ya-ḵaa náʼáłkad‎ q'a -xut'
139 to count dèr dzi-toow, dzi-teew óltaʼ -tuq'
140 to say sˈaɣ-a-bet, =ma ya-ya-ḵaa jiní ya, =ni, =nax (imperf.), =nak (perf.) -ne', -ne: dʸ=a=čagar-aŋ =tǝ=le, (to tell about) =ʔ=χa
141 to sing iˀl ya-shee hataał -'aw(h), -'a:n
142 to play aniŋbet ḵudzi.ook' (quietly) naané chi -ne:l (w/ game, toys, etc.), -ne: (music), -ne' (music)
143 to float doqŋ li-haash, a-ka-ya-haa dah naaʼeeł -ta'w (in air), -la:t (to there), -xiwh (off), -xe:n (off) łə-dux
144 to flow qɯ̄n ya-daa nílí (-win)-lin
145 to freeze təəl li-t’eex’ dootį́į́ł
146 to swell hɯˀŋ (noun) dli-x’ees’ dínóochał -yo:tł, -yol
147 sun ī g̱agaan shá, jóhonaaʼéí ni'i, nu'uy, n=ʔu-yi, nu=ʔu-y, ni=ʔ-i jingkyo:wit-qa:l, de:di-qa:l, wha, ʍaː eːga, eːgä, (older sources) ˈega qǝtǝ=kǝɬ, qǝtǝ=kiɬ (formed from v. "to shrivel")
148 moon qīp dís ooljééʼ geljay, ʁǝ=l=ca-y, ʁǝ=l=ča(-y) xitł'e'-wha, wha, ʍaː šuy (also, yellow) qʰǝχah
149 star qòʁ, qɔʔ, qoaɢ ḵutx̱.ayanahá sǫʼ sem, sin, sǝm, sim tsing', cʰiŋʼ al=ag, al=ak, al=ˈax laʔχcʼ-ɬ
150 water ūl, uˑlʸ, uolʸ héen tu, minłni, vinɬni, piɬni, miɬni tʰaʔ=naːn, (body of water) tʰoː u(ː)l kiyah, (preverb) tʰaʔ (into water)
151 to rain ˈulʸ-esʸ (noun), qòʁ séew, sóow nahałtin ełkun, (noun) kʰun naː=n=ya-y (noun; also means it's raining) ur, uːr (noun) kʼu=leh (n.), (it's raining) yãːʔ t-ʔya
152 river sēs, qōks héen tooh nílíní k'etnu to (any body of water), hun' (specifically the Trinity River) šēt
153 lake deˀ áa tooh ven to (same as above), minq' ma·
154 sea
(as in ocean)
mora (Russian) éil' tónteel to (same as above), to:-dingq'och' (salt water) shi·
155 salt təˀ, tɜʔ, tʸɜʔɛ, tʸaʔa, tɜʔa éil’ áshįįh nuti, nu-tʰi łehq'onch', ɬeh=qʼončʼ šin-če(ː)t, tiːyaʔ
156 stone təˀs, tɨʔsʸ, tɨɜs tsé tsa, qʰa(=n=)ɬ=nik-i cʰeː šiːš cʰaː
157 sand hˈɜnʸaŋ, hˈɜnʸeŋ, hɜnǝŋ, hɜɛneŋ l'éiw séí suy, suɣ(i) łich'iwh, ɬi=čʼiʍ tʰagan, tʰakˈan, (in older sources) tagˈan-aŋ čʰiːš-k
158 dust huˀs kadánjaa, chʼéix̱ʼw łeezh łich'iwh, ɬi=čʼiʍ
159 earth
(as in soil)
baˀŋ tl’átk, l’éx̱’kw nahosdzáán ełnen nin', ninʼ, neʔn, (original form) *ninʼV. paŋ ʔãh
160 cloud espul, ˈasʸpulʸ ḵugóosʼ kʼos q'es, qʼǝs 'ah, ʔah ašpar, ašpˈor qʼahs
161 fog ulij ḵugáas’, x’úkjaa (steam) áhí uq, nunigi mi=s=čeː, mi=s=čeh (fog, haze)
162 sky ēs góos’ (cloudy sky), xáats’ (blue sky) yuq' ēš
163 wind
(as in breeze)
bēj, beˑy óoxjaa, xóon (north), l’ag̱akáx̱ (south) níyol ɬ=cʼǝy, ɬ=čʼǝy, ɬ=čʼǝɣ (from it blows) tʰeh=s=čʼeː (lit. it blows along) peːi, (older sources) pei kʼuːy, (archaic) kʼuːya, kʼuːyǝ
164 snow beˀt, tīk dleit yas yus nundil tʰiːk, (icy snow crust) sāk xiƛʼ, xuƛʼ, xǝƛʼ, (snow, ice) t'it, (soft snow, tundra) wehs
165 ice (snow, ice, hard) t’éex’ tin, (hard) tˡ'lz ten k'ilo (hail, ice), ningxosting (frost), ningxiwinte:n (tree frost), (hard) tˡ'itˢ' t'it (snow, ice)
166 smoke duˀ, duʔo s'eeḵ łid dasgedi, ta=s=kǝt-i łit tu, (older sources) tug ɬãht
167 fire бо’к (boˀk), bɔʔk x̱’aan kǫʼ qen, daz'i, qʰǝn, tazʔi xong', xoŋʼ hat, (older forms) xott, xot, xat tǝ=qʼaː-k, (roots, always bound) qʰuʔ, qʰuː, qʰũː
168 ash qolan, qˈɔlɨn, qˈɔlǝn, qˈɔlan kél't' łeeshchʼih kʼǝ=lac-a, kʼǝ=lačʼ-a (ashes), (orig. form *kʼǝ=lač-ʔa.) xong'-din, xoŋʼ-tin, xoŋʼ-tiŋ (ashes) fenaŋ, finaŋ, funaŋ (f=voiceless bilabial fricative, Ф), pʰenaŋ cʰĩʔƛʼ-k (ashes)
169 to burn
(intransitive)
inoʁat (intr.),
duut (tr.)
si-gaan (tr.), ya-gaan (intr.) (also ‘shine’) diltłiʼ diltlut -lit č=augan-aŋ =ɬ=qʼa (tr.), =tǝ=qʼa
170 road qoˀt, qɔʔt dei daʼnitiingóó tinitun tin, tʰin hek, (older sources) xɨk tʰaː
171 mountain qaˀj, ʎɨʔt shaa, g̱íl’ (cliff) dził dghelay, dghili, tes (hill), tʁili, tʁǝlay ninis'a:n (world, surface of the earth, country, mountain) dʸiː, dʸix, (older forms) ǯii, ǯiy, (mountain ridge) xē-lēx ʔiƛʼ
172 red sulej, sʸˈulʸ-am-sʸ, sʸˈulʸ-em-sʸ x̱’aan (fire) łichííʼ dagheldel, (=l)=tǝl tse:l-nehwa:n (it is red, lit. blood-it resembles) šur-um-# (now only exists as infinit.), (older form) šurama =tǝ=čʼeːʔ (to turn red)
173 green qəlaj, sʸɜnʸ-sʸ, s’oow (greenstone), kayaaní (leaf) dootłʼizh dgheltl'ech', kʼ=tʼun qʰi-ti-l-tʼan-i -tsow, =cʰow šapkan (it is green) tiːyaʔ-kaʔ (green, light blue, blue-green; lit. salt similar-to)
174 yellow qəlaj, qˈɜlʸ-ay-sʸ (formed from gall) tl’áatl’ (canary), ch’áak’ loowú (dark yellow, lit. bald eagle’s beak) łitsooí dgheltsegh, ti=tǝ=cʰik-i, ti=t=čʰik-i da'kya:w-nehwa:n (it is yellow, lit. canary-it resembles) šuy (also, moon) χǝwaː-cʰeʔqʼ-kaʔ (lit. dog urine-like)
175 white taɣam, tˈaɣ-ɨm dleit (snow) łigaii dghelggeyi, =l=qǝy -qay tʰeːg-am, tʰeːk-am, (older sources) tegama xiƛʼ-kaʔ, xǝƛʼ-kaʔ (lit. snow-like)
176 black tūm, tuˑm-sʸ t’ooch’ (charcoal) łizhiní dghelt'ich'i, =ƛʼǝčʼ, =l=tʼǝš, =l=tʼicʼ -whin, =ʍin tʰum tǝ=ɬ=tʼuːčʼ (it turns black), cʼǝq-ɬ-kaʔ (black-like)
177 night sī, sʸi taat tłʼééʼ tl'aq', tets, tʰǝc, ƛʼaqʼ xutł'e', xitł'e' šiːg, šiːx χǝƛʼ
178 day
(daytime)
yagiyee jį́ jani je:nis
179 year sɯɯ, sʸɨː, sɨ táakw (winter) nááhai heyi xay šeːga, šeːgä, (older sources) šega leh q=ʔya
180 warm
(as in weather)
ūs, uˑsʸ, ūś ḵu-ya-t’aa (weather) sizílí, honeezílí hnalqen -nse:l fal, pʰal, (hot) kuši
181 cold
(as in weather)
taʔy (frost, feeling, also exists as frost (n.)), qaqtɯm ḵu-si-.aat’ (weather) deeskʼaaz, hakʼaz edli, ezhi, ǝ=ži 'isyah, 'usyah (it's cold!), -quts, =qʼacʼ čal (feeling) =ƛʼe (v.)
182 full qō (more idiomatic), uˑt sha-ya-heek hadéébįįd =l=vǝn =min uːti tǝq-i-taʔ -tǝ-ʔya (to become full)
183 new kî-sʸ yées ániidí qʼu-ti-ti, qʼu-ti-qʰǝ-ya-ʔa, qʼu-ti-χ-ya-ʔa q'ung, qʼaŋ ki qʼaː-yaː (lit. already one-thing)
184 old sīn shaan (of people), tlagu (of things) sání suk'i, q'et'i -diya:n
185 good aqta, ˈaqta-sʸ ya-k’ei, kalé (archaic) yáʼátʼééh yagheli, ya=ʁǝl-i -who:n, =ʍoːn hag-ši, hamaː =čuː
186 bad sēl tléil ... shi-k'ei (not good) doo yáʼátʼéeh da qil -chwin'
187 rotten
(as a log)
sīn li-s’eex, naaḵw (rotten wood), ḵúlk (rotten wood) dláád -git, -łiw, -łiq
188 dirty sintu li-ch’eix̱’w, tl’eex (filth) niłhin, chin bąąh chwin-ch'iliw (he is/gets dirty), -chwin'
189 straight tatiŋ tléil ... ka-dzi-teix̱' (not crooked) kʼézdon ts'it, -don'
190 round teɛp (obsolete; no modern attestation), krˈuglʸay-sʸ (Russian) k’wát’ (egg) názbąs dghelbits' -wol, -ma:ts' eːper qǝmǝkʼ
191 sharp
(as a knife)
ēt li-k'aats' deení daghiłyan -me:n ēti
192 dull
(as a knife)
salan ya-di-g̱eel doo deení da ch'daghiłyan -chwil
193 smooth uul ka-di-yaas' dilkǫǫh -xit (slippery, slick, smooth)
194 wet ultu di-tl'aak' ditłééʼ, hoditłééʼ nułchel -chwil, niłchwił (it is wet; compare to Dena-ina!!) ūra łq'u· (to become damp)
195 dry
(adjective)
toʁojiŋ, tɔʁˈɔyiŋ-sʸ, toˑyiŋ-sʸ ya-xook yíłtseii, hóółtseii -tsa:y šiː=gal =tǝ=ɬ=ʔeht (v.; to become dry, as in foodstuff)
196 right
(correct)
baˀt ayáx̱ (like that) akótʼé lach'aq'u xo'ji, xo'ch (true, really, correctly)
197 near ɯlga ka-ya-sei áhání dghiłggech' xunding (it is nearby, close) =taː-, (near, close, visiting) =teːleh, (near, by, with, in poss. of OBJ) OBJ=χaʔ
198 far bìl ya-lei nízah daghiset 'ułtsa:ch'ing' (distant), nisah (a long way) =ʔaːw (same as long)
199 right
(side)
boɣot g̱aayéinax̱.á, sheeynax̱.á nishʼnáájígo xo'ji-ching'
200 left
(side)
tūl lḵaax̱éinax̱.á, s’át’nax̱.á nishtłʼajígo tl'egheshch'en nichwin'-ch'ing'
201 at ka -x’, eex’, -t, eet -di, -gi egh digyun(g) (at this location, here)
202 in ka (inside of) g̱ei, (inside) yík, tu (its inside) biiʼ va, veyi -'
203 with
(accompanying)
-as teen, een, -n , bee mił
204 and haj ḵa dóó ch'u hijit, hichit (and then)
205 if sīm, ū ládą́ą́ʼ -de'
206 because -diŋta, doʁot ách áwé (that's why) háálá ghuda mich'in(g)'-ding (because of it)
207 name ī saa bízhiʼ izhi, =i=yi, =i=ya, =i=ži -whe', -whe:, =oː=ʍe-ʔ ix, iːx wǝšeh
208 house iŋɢus hít kin qenq'a (log) xontah (modern) kų́ę́ yahd
209 door ella, lamel x̱’aháat dáádílkał dukaq'di no:na:witse (door, gate)
210 deer sèl g̱uwakaan, dzískw (moose), watsíx (caribou) bįįh vejex (caribou) k'iłixun
211 mouse ūt kag̱áak, kuts’een naʼatsʼǫǫsí nk'eła, dlin'a ło'n (white-faced mouse) ďūta tl'u·tiyas
212 rabbit beˀs (Yugh: ak (jumping hare) < Proto-Yeniseian: ʔak ~ ʔaχ) g̱áx̱ gah hvaya na:q'itah-k'iłixun (jackrabbit), tł'oh-me:we (cottontail rabbit) g̣əx̣
213 eagle diˀ ch’áak’ (bald eagle) atsá ło:q'-ya:n (bald eagle), tismil (large eagle)
214 spider elim kanas.aadí, asgutuyiksháa ('woman in the forest') naʼashjéʼii nuhqelashi, tuk'ejay k'iłwe:-kyoh
215 face bāt aniiʼ -nan -ning'
216 body kīt daadleeyí (‘flesh around’) atsʼíís -nist'e' (physical body)
217 navel tɯ̄l kool atsʼééʼ -ts'e:q'
218 finger təˀq tl’eiḵ álánééz -la'
219 sick
(painful)
àr néekw (noun) daatsaah, tsʼííh niidóóh chinah -ch'a:t
220 needle ìn táax’al’ tsah bee náʼálkadí tl'unqin mił-wa'yo:s
221 cloth sujgiŋ s'ísaa (sailcloth) naakʼaʼatʼą́hí itl' (clothing)
222 thunder ekŋ, ekin xeitl iiʼniʼ k'eltemi k'ehniwh
223 lightning ekkinna boˀk xeitl l’íkws’i atsiniltłʼish shila k'iqiwh (there is lighthing)
224 above əət kináak, shakée bikáaʼgi q'ech' je:nah (up above), -t'a:w
225 under hɯtka tayee, k’iyee biyaa t'ugh me:wi- (underneath), -yeh
226 to cough qaqtɯmej a-dzi-kooḵ dikos -xos
227 to buy kitbet ya-.oo naʼiiniih -xe:t
228 to choose qòs ya-ya-g̱eech ííyizh
229 to grow tijiŋ ya-waat biyaa hooʼaʼ, biyaa hazlį́į́ʼ nazyun -chwil, -chwe:n (physically), -yiw, -ya:n (developmentally; e.g. a generation of people), -yun' (old)
230 to open uskij shu-ya-taan yighéígéésh -tse:
231 to steal uddiŋ ya-taaw yiniʼįįh yenast'in -kyo:t ch'u'
232 to dream a-ya-joon naʼiigeeł -la:l
233 to cry den ya-g̱aax̱ atídínéshdlį́į́ʼ, iʼniicha chegh chweh (noun), -chwiw
234 to yawn esqontiŋ ḵ'a-ya-waash bił níʼdiiłchʼah -sa:l
235 to cook ə̄n si-.ee yitʼees / yibéézh yelach -na:, -na'
236 six ā tleidooshú hastą́ą́ k'uzhch'en'i xosta:n ehtsʼę́tai xelu:cha tsi'i:n
237 seven oˀn dax̱adooshú tsostsʼid qents'eghuyi xohk'it lą́hdįgh xeli:na la'dits'i:n
238 eight ɯnam bənsaŋ qō nas’gadooshú tseebíí łtaqul'i ke:nim ehtsʼę́dįį xalto:nga q'adits'i:n
239 nine qusam bənsaŋ qō gooshúk náhástʼéí łq'ich'idi miq(')os-t'aw lúúli chumua:ga guts'de:
240 ten jinkaat neeznáá qeluzhun minłung honénǫ ha:ga dAGa:q'

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikipedia

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Slavic – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription