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This is a list of Proto-Indo-European verbal roots, extracted from {{R:ine:LIV}} (and incorporating the addenda and corrigenda, version as of 2015-02-03). Note that the book contains a large number of verbal roots attested only from a single Indo-European branch, whose Proto-Indo-European status is therefore uncertain, and consequently they are marked with "?" in the book. However, as the authors explain in the foreword, such roots are deliberately projected back to PIE anyway if they are judged to be potentially of PIE status by the authors, as cognates might be identified eventually. (Sometimes, a root is attested only in a single branch as a verb, but nominal formations are known from other branches, and mentioned in the footnotes.)


Same practices as detailed at WT:AINE are generally followed, with the addition of the following wildcard characters:

  • *g¹ = *ǵ or *g (similarly for *k¹, *g¹ʰ) (not distinguished in the Centum languages)
  • *g² = *g or *gʷ (similarly for *k², *g²ʰ) (not distinguished in most Satem languages or in Tocharian)
  • *ǵˣ = *ǵ or *ǵʰ (not consistently distinguished in Celtic, Albanian, Balto-Slavic, Iranian)
  • *K = *ḱ, *k or *kʷ
  • *Kˣ = any possible velar
  • *r¹ = *r or *l (not consistently distinguished in Indo-Iranian; only found in roots specific to II)

The roots are linked using the unmarked members, e.g. *g¹ʰ to *gʰ, *kʷ² to *kʷ, *r¹ to *r, with the wildcards used as piped transcription (e.g. {{m|ine-pro|*deks-|*dek²s-}}).

intr. and tr. stand for "intransitive", "transitive".

For homonymous roots, LIV's own disambiguation numbering has not been retained.

To do[edit]

  • Translate glosses from German to English
    • Fluent speakers of German are welcome to help! Please do not delete the German glosses though, but simply add an English gloss within the {{m}} template
      (e.g: {{m|ine-pro|*(h₁)reybʰ-||to cover}})
  • Mark roots with reflexes only in a single branch (*D- *Dʰ- *H- *K- *l- *N- *p- *r- *y- done, addenda notwithstanding)













  • (*k²eh₂- 'graben' — Indo-Iranian *kaH- only)
  • (*k²eh₂d- 'reißen, drücken' — Indo-Iranian *kaHd- only)
  • (*k²ek²- 'greifen nach, erreichen' — Balto-Slavic *kek- only)
  • (*k²emp- 'zittern, beben' — Indo-Iranian *kamp- only)
  • (*k²enH- 'Gefallen finden, in Freunden geraten' — Indo-Iranian *čanH- only)
  • (*k²erd- 'hören' — Baltic *kerd- only)
  • *k²erḱ- 'abmagern'
  • (*k²ert- 'binden' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • (*k²et- 'entweichen' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • *k²ewk- 'sich biegen'
  • *k²leh₂- 'hinbreten, hinlegen'
  • (*k²lenk²- 'die Knie krümmen' — Balto-Slavic *klenk- only)
  • *k²leyḱ- 'quälen, plagen' (verbal only in Indo-Iranian)
  • (*k²r¹emH- 'ein Schritt tun' — Indo-Iranian *kramH- only)
  • (*k²r¹end- 'scheiern, wiehern' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • (*k²r¹epH- 'jammern' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • *k²reyp- 'drehen, wenden'
  • *k²was- 'küssen'
  • (*k²sewbʰ- 'ins Schwanken geraten' — secure only in Indo-Iranian *kšawbʰ-)
  • *k²sewd- 'zerstieben, in kleinen Teilen zerfallen' (verbal only in Indo-Iranian)
  • *k²sweybʰ- '(sich) schwingen'
  • (*k²h₂ed- '(zer)quetschen' — Indo-Iranian *kHad- only)
  • *k²h₂eǵ- 'verzehren'


  • *Kneygʷʰ- 'neigen; sich neigen'
  • (*KrepH- 'krachen' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • (*KreyH- 'berühren' — Germanic *hrīnaną only)
  • (*Kyeh₂p- 'verfaulen' — secure in Greek σήπεται (sḗpetai) only)






  • *g²eH(y)- 'singen'
  • *g²ˣeldʰ- 'gierig wenden, hungrig werden'
  • (*g²er¹ǵʰ- 'klagen' — Indo-Iranian *garĵʰ- only)
  • (*g²ˣew- 'vermehren' — Iranian *gaw- only)
  • (*g²ˣewbʰ- 'biegen' — Balto-Slavic *gewb- only, metathesis from *bʰewgʰ-?)
  • (*g²ˣewH- 'erlangen' — Baltic only)
  • (*g²renth₂- 'knüpfen' — Indo-Iranian *grantH- only)






  • (*g²ʰer- 'träufeln' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • (*g²ʰers- 'sich (er)freuen' — Indo-Iranian *gʰarš- only)
  • *g²ʰes- (1) 'essen, fressen, verzehren'
  • (*g²ʰes- (2) 'lachen' — Indo-Iranian *gʰas- only)
  • (*g²ʰewǵʰ- 'verbergen' — Indo-Iranian *gʰawĵʰ- only)
  • (*g²ʰews- '(Geräusche) hören' — Indo-Iranian *gʰawš- only)
  • *g²ʰrend- '(zer)reiben'








*s mobile[edit]









  • *nebʰ- (1) 'feucht werden, bewölkt werden' (verbal only in Greek)
  • (*nebʰ- (2) 'bersten, zerspringen' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • (*ned- 'tönen, drönen' — Indo-Iranian *nad- only)
  • *neh₂- 'in Angst geraten' (verbal in Anatolian only)
  • *nekʷ- 'dunkel werden, dämmern' (verbal in Anatolian only)
  • *neHd- 'binden'
  • *neḱ- 'verschwinden, verloren gehen'
  • *nem- 'sich neigen'
  • *nemh₁- 'zuteilen'
  • (*nerH- 'untertauchen' — Balto-Slavic *neˀrtei only)
  • *nes- 'davonkommen, unbeschadet heimkehren'
  • *new- 'nicken, (den Kopf) neigen'
  • *newd- (1) 'nutzen'
  • (*newd- (2) 'stoßen' — Indo-Aryan only)
  • *newH- 'schreien, brüllen'
  • (*neyd- 'strömen' — secure in Indo-Iranian *nayd- only)
  • *neygʷ- 'wachsen'
  • *neyH- 'führen, leiten'
  • *neyk- 'sich erheben'





  • *yeh₂- (1) 'dahinsetzen, fahren'
  • *yeh₂- (2) 'erbitten, erstreben'
  • *yeh₃s- 'gürten'
  • *yek- 'sprechen' (verbal only in West Germanic)
  • (*yek²s- 'erscheinen' — Indo-Iranian *yakš- only)
  • (*yem- 'ausstrecken, hinstrecken' — Indo-Iranian *yam- only)
  • *yes- 'sieden, schäumen'
  • *yet- 'sich (fest) hinstellen'
  • *yew- (1) 'festhalten, an sich werden, verbinden'
  • (*yew- (2) '(sich) fern halten; weichen' — Indo-Iranian *yaw- only)
  • *yewg- 'anschirren'
  • *yewǵH- 'unruhig werden'
  • (*yewt- 'wahrnehmen, erwachen' — Balto-Slavic *jaut- only)