Appendix:List of Proto-Kham reconstructions

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Proto-Kham has been reconstructed by Watters (2002). 380 Proto-Kham reconstructions from Watters (2002: 443-456) are given below.

List[edit]

Gloss Proto-Kham
back *r-dzəŋ ~ *b-dzəŋ
back (upper) *yep
belly *phuː
blood *dziːh
body *klaŋ
bone *s-rus
breast *nun
breath *sək
buttocks *r-mehsiŋ
cheek *r-tso
ear *r-na
egg *(ba)r-zut
eye *mik
face *s-ŋa
fat *sot
fingernail *r-sin
foot *kəŋ
gums *r-nihl
guts *r-ta
hair (body) *muhl
hair (head) *p-tsem
hand *kut
the underarm area; side of the body *r-la
head *s-r-ŋat
heart *s-yiŋ
horn *b-rəhŋ
animal *sya
jawbone *r-khap
kidney *kəl
liver *p-sin
mouth *yaːh
mustache *s-məŋ
neck *r-dehŋ
nose *s-nat
piss *r-dzihs
pus *s-nis
rib *b-rəhm
saliva *p-s-til
shit *kli
excrement in the intestine of a slaughtered animal *r-kək
shoulder *s-pum
sinew *r-sa
skin *l-kota
snot *r-nahp
tail *r-meh
tears *r-pihl
thigh (upper side) *r-b-yah
tongue *p-s-le
tooth *ha-p-sya
vomit *wohs
waist *hwaŋ
wind pipe *r-mil ~ *s-mil
wing *kər
bachelor *dahpa
child *za
friend *nan
husband *b-re
maiden *dahme
name *r-min
person *r-mi; *ruː
man, male human *s-lepa
woman, female human *miːma
sister (older) *nana
sister (younger) *nam
thou *nəŋ
wife *dzya
bread *bəhres
curry *tsip
food *r-zəm
herbs *s-ŋən
millet *raŋrəi
mushroom *r-mo
parched grain *hek
poison *tuk
rice (cooked) *(ya)kaŋ
wheat *plima
antelope *səhr
bear *nim
bedbug *r-pen
bee *b-zin
bird *bwa
chick *s-puŋ
boar (wild) *gəl
bug *b-s-rut
cat *s-raŋ
cow *har
dog *kaːh
fish *ŋah
frog *tek
goat *ra
horse *r-ta
leech *r-pəti
leopard *la
louse *syar
monkey *s-p-yu; *s-p-ya
otter *srəm
pheasant *b-rəhŋ
pig *wə
rat *bi
sheep *luk
snake *guhl
python, constricting snake *daŋ
squirrel (flying) *p-s-yap
woodpecker *s-kyar
wool *p-sən
ashes *r-plah
branch *kər
cave *r-pup
day *la
a certain day *tshyam
dirt *b-rih
earth *r-gəm
evening *rihm
field *ehŋ
a field, meadow, bowl shaped valley *baŋ
fire *meh
fruit *p-set
grass *tshi
hole *kuŋ
iron *dzəhŋ
leaf *s-la
low country *r-nahm
moon *p-s-ya + *hwot
mountain *goŋ
night *rik; *mun
rain *r-wa
river *bəih
road *yem
root *s-rin
salt *sa + *pik
set (sun) *nup
shadow *saŋ
sky *nəm
smoke *mihkut
snow *r-pom
star *səro
stick *r-dzuht
stone *luŋ
sun *nəmi(y)
thorn *b-zu
tree *siŋ
water *riːh
cooking water *rihmun
weed *rəhm
arrowhead *r-wan
axe *r-wa
basket *r-beh(k)
bow *li
bridge *tshəm
broom *pəsi(-s)
cloth *kwa
door *yahm
drum *b-rihŋ
circle *'gor
hearth *muhthap
house *zihm
lower storey of house; cattle byre *r-bəŋ
knife *khor
load *gur
sleeping mat *tən
large bamboo mat *b-lo
mortar *tshum
a small needle *r-gəp
a large needle *r-khap
net *b-zəhn
pillow *r-gum
plow *gohr
pot *b-dza
sheath *p-sip
snare *tsihŋ
spirit *gel
village *naŋkhar; *nam
work *ehn
yoke *kum
across *glahŋ
behind *chin
center *khar
down *me
front *s-ŋa
upright *thək
year *a-sniŋ
last year *rta-sniŋ
next year *pərniŋ
one *tə
two *nehs
three *sohm
four *b-zi
five *r-ŋa
awaken *sən; *so
cry *klik
defecate *eh
die *si
fart *b-yi
laugh *sas
to play *p-s-rat
toy, plaything *b-s-res
rest *nah
sit *tsuŋ
sleep *r-ŋəhl; *em; *ruk ~ *ru-t
to put to sleep *s-ip
sneeze *p-tshis
speak *s-paŋ
stand *tsyahŋ
tickle *kəlet
urinate *r-dzihs
vomit *woh-t
weep *gəhr
arrive *kles
bring *rə-t
climb *plu-s
come *huŋ
emerge *plu-s
cause to emerge, expel *s-plu-t
fall *te-s
fly *s-bur
go *z-ba
graze *b-la
hide *mohŋ
run *zok
dream *r-məŋ
fear *p-tshet
forget *s-meŋ
hear *that
to be heard, audible *thas
know *sən
something, to know how *r-ses
proud *r-sək
see *rəhŋ
to look *p-tsyu
smell *s-ŋər; *s-nəm
tingle *b-ris
drunk *məhŋ
fat *sot
hunger *kre
ill *na
itchy *so
pure *tshaŋ
thirst *tsos
bad *pək
be *li
bear fruit *p-se
become *s-ta-s
bitter *ka
broken *pak
bud *mom
bud *p-set
burst *r-pu-s
cold *zihm; *gim
collapsed *s-ta
detach *s-kluŋ
dried *thəŋ
full *yək
good *p-tsa
greasy *s-len
green *piŋ
heavy *gis < *s-lis
hole *s-gwaŋ
hot *b-rah
leak *wyi
light *bom
long *s-lo; *b-re
loose *dzöhl
lost *mah
low *s-dem ~ *them
matched *khət
new *sahr
red *gyahm
ripe *mihn
rotten *tsik
round *lum
sharp *p-tsha
short *tun
small *zim
sour *b-sir
spicy *tuk
stale *sli-s
sweet *b-rehk
thick *ruhŋ
thin *plek
to be thin (esp. of boards) *wa
warm *mun
white *pal
bright, illuminated *plaŋ
beat *s-po
beg *ŋih
bite *kəi
blow *s-mut
to blow with bellows *phut
bore *r-lap
break *s-kle(t)
burn *hip
butt *r-duhp
buy *ləhŋ
to lend to someone *b-lot
to borrow *b-los
carry *guhr
catch *kloh
clothe *kwa-t
comb *r-sat
cook *phin
to cook until done *mihn
to boil *tso
cover *kəp
cut *pəl
to cut meat *kri
dance *p-syah
dig *goh
draw water *gəp
eat *zya
to eat things which require chewing *kəi
extract *hat
find *z-dət
gather *z-dup
give *ya
grind *p-set
guard *r-guh
hammer *tup
herd *tsho
husk *phok
insert *lut
install *tak
kick *r-then
kill *saht
ladle *kek
lay wall *b-rihm
lick *lep
make *dzət
milk *pek
mix *z-bra-t
open *pho-t
pay *phok
pick up *tik
pin closed *s-krəp
pinch *p-tsil
plug *p-sut
press *tek
put *dzəhk
to set down, place *nat
release *ra-s
remove from fire *phit
ride *tsep
roast *s-ŋo
rub *b-zu
to scrub *p-sil
scald *s-lom
scoop *sim
scrape *s-pik
to scratch *pur
seize *s-nan
sell *p-yet
send *s-priŋ
sew *ruhp
shave *p-yen
shoot *gap
show *s-tən
skin, peel *kok
snap *phyak
soak *tshim
sow seed *was
spin wool *khəl
split firewood *p-si
squeeze *tser
steal *ku
to ransack, rummage *rok
stir *r-wal
stop *on
sweep *sit
teach *p-sik ~ *p-sis
tear *p-tsit
throw *khya
tie *s-ki
trade *s-to
twist *kil
unfold *s-krup
uproot *bohk
wash *tse
to wash hair *r-za
weave *rəhk
to set up a loom *rihn
whet *hul

References[edit]

  • Watters, David E. (2002). A grammar of Kham. Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81245-3.
Vocabulary lists of Mainland Southeast Asian languages
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