Appendix:Ancient Greek words with English derivatives

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This is a list of Ancient Greek words with their derivatives in English. Each Ancient Greek word is shown in its citation form and in its root form. The citation form is the one commonly shown in dictionaries. The root form is the one that is often used to form compound words. Both citation form and root form are shown in classical transliteration. They are shown in polytonic orthography, an orthography that shows the breathings and fuller range of accents.

Contents

Α[edit]

(h)a

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἄβυσσος (ábussos) abussos ἄβυσσ- abyss- bottomless abyss, abyssal
ἀγγεῖον (angeîon) angeion ἄγγειο- angio- vessel angiosperm, angiocardiography
ἄγγελος (ángelos) angelos ἄγγελ- angel- messenger angel, evangelist
ἄγω (ágō) agein ἄγω- agō- to drive, lead pedagogue, anagoge, mystagogue
ἅγιος (hágios) hagios ἁγιο- hagio- holy hagiography
ἄγκυρα (ánkura) ankyra ἄγκυρ- anchor- anchor anchoring, anchorage
ἀγορά (agorá) agora ἀγορ- agor- marketplace agoraphobia
ἀγρός (agrós) agros ἀγρο- agro- tilled land agrobiology, agronomics, agriculture, agrology
ἀγωνία (agōnía) agōnia ἀγωνι- agōn- agony agonize, antagonistic, agony
ἀήρ (aḗr) aēr ἀέρο- aero-
air-
air aerodynamics, anaerobic
airplane
ἀθλητής (athlētḗs) athlētēs ἀθλητ- athlet- contestant in the games athlete, athletics
αἷμα (haîma) haima αἳμ- em-
hem-
blood anemia, anemic, hemophilia, hemorrhage
αἰσθητικός (aisthētikós) aisthētikos αἰσθη- aisthē- to perceive aesthetic, anaesthesia
Ἀκαδημία (Ἀkadēmía) Akadēmia Ἀκαδημ- akadēm- the school where Plato taught,
the field of Academos
academy, academic
ἄκανθος (ákanthos) akanthos ἄκανθ- akanth- thorn plant acanthous, acanthocephala
ἄκαρι (ákari) akari ἀκαρ- akar- a kind of mite acarid, acariasis
ἀκμή (akmḗ) akmē ἀκ- ac- highest point acme
ἀκόλουθος (akólouthos) akoluthos ἀκόλουθ- akoluth- follower anacoluthon
ἀκούω (akoúō) akouein ἀκουστικ- acoustic- to hear acoustics, acoustic nerve
ἄκρον (áκron) akron ἀκρο- acro- edge, topmost acronym, acrobat
ἀκτίς (aktís) aktis ἀκτινo- aktino- ray actinometer, actinozoa, actinium
ἀλέξω (aléxō) alexein ἀλεξ- alex- to ward off Alexander, alexipharmic
ἀλληγορέω (allēgoréō) allēgorein ἀλληγορ- allēgor- to interpret allegorically allegory
ἀλλήλων (allḗlōn) allēlon ἀλληλο- allēlo- of one another allelomorph, parallel
ἄλλος (állos) allos ἀλλο- allo-
alle-
other, different allotropy, allocholesterol
allergy
ἅλς (háls) hals ἁλ- hal- salt halogen
ἄλφα (álpha) alpha ἄλφα- alpha- alpha alphabet
ἀλώπηξ (alṓpēx) alōpēx ἀλωπ- alop- fox alopecia
ἀμαύρωσις (amaúrōsis) amaurōsis ἀμαυρω- amauro- blacken amaurosis fugax
ἀμβλύς (amblús) amblus ἀμβλυ- ambly- dim amblyopia, amblygonite
ἄμβροτος (ámbrotos) ambrotos ἀμβρο- ambro- immortal ambrosia, ambrotype
ἄμβων (ámbōn) ambōn ἀμβω- ambo- raised edge ambo
ἀμμωνιακός (ammōniakós) ammōniakos ἀμμονια- ammōnia- from Ammōn ammonia, ammoniacal
ἀμνησία (amnēsía) amnēsia ἀμνησ- amnēs- oblivion amnesia, amnesty
ἀμνός (amnós) amnos ἀμν- amn- lamb amnion, amniotic
ἀμοιβή (amoibḗ) amoebē ἀμοιβή- amoeb- change amoeba, amoebic
ἄμορφος (ámorphos) amorphos ἄμορφ- amorph- shapeless amorphous, amorphism
ἄμυλον (ámulon) amylon ἄμυλ- amyl- starch amyl, amyl alcohol
ἀμφιβάλλω (amphibállō) amphiballein ἀμφιβo- amphibo- to throw on either side, to doubt amphibole, amphibology
ἀμφί (amphí) amphi ἀμφι- amphi- on both sides amphibious, amphioxus
ἀμφίβολος (amphíbolos) amphibolos ἀμφιβολ- amphibol- doubtful amphibole, amphibolite
ἀμφιθέατρον (amphithéatron) amphitheatron ἀμφιθέατ- amphitheat- theater amphitheater, amphitheatric
ἀμφικτυονία (amphiktuonía) Amphiktyonia ἀμφικτυονι- amphiktyoni- theater Amphictyony, amphictyonic
ἀμφορεύς (amphoreús) amphoreus Ἀμφορ- amphor- bearer amphora
ἀμφότερος (amphóteros) amphoteros ἀμφότερ- amphoter- each of two amphoteric
ἀνά (aná) ana ἀνα- ana- again, backward, upward anabolism, anachronism, anaplasia
ἀναθεματίζω (anathematízō) anathematizein ἀναθεμα- anathema- ban, curse, or excommunication anathema, anathematize
ἀνάκλισις (anáklisis) anaklisis ἀνακλει- anakli- to lean back anaclitism, anaclisis
ἀναλέγω (analégō) analegein ἀναλε- anale- to gather analects
ἀναληπτικός (analēptikós) analeptikos ἀναληπτ- analept- restorative analemma, analeptic
ἀνάλογος (análogos) analogos ἀνάλογ- analog- proportionate analog, analogy
ἀναλύω (analúō) analuein ἀνάλυ- analy- to loosen, to simplify analysis, analytical
ἄναρθρος (ánarthros) anarthros ἀναρθρ- anarthr- not articulated anarthria, anarthrous
ἄναρχος (ánarkhos) anarkhos ἀναρχ- anarch- without a ruler anarchy, anarchism
ἀνατολή (anatolḗ) anatolē ἀνατολ- anatol- East Anatolia, Anatolian
ἀνατομία (anatomía) anatomia ἀνατομι- anatomi- dissection anatomy, anatomical, anatomist
ἀνατρέπω (anatrépō) anatrepein ἀνατρεπ- anatrep- to reverse anatropous
ἀναχρονισμός (anakhronismós) anachronismos ἀναχρονισ- anachronis- wrong time reference anachronistic, anachronism
ἄνεμος (ánemos) anemos ἄνεμο- anemo- wind anemometer, anemone
ἀνήρ (anήr) anēr ἀνδρ- andr- man (male human) androgen, android
ἄνθος (ánthos) anthos ἀνθο- antho- flower anthology, chrysanthemum
ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos) anthrōpos ἀνθρωπο- anthrōpo- human being anthropology, anthropomorphism
ἄνειμι (áneimi) aneimi ἀνι- ani- to go up anion
ἄνισος (ánisos) anisos ἀνισο- aniso- unequal, dissimilar anisotropic, anisometric, anisometropia
ἄνοδος (ánodos) anodos ἄνοδ- anod- way up anode, anodising
ἀντί (antí) anti ἀντι- anti- opposite, counter antidote, antimatter, antiaircraft
ἀντιτίθημι (antitíthēmi) antitithenai ἀντιθ- antith- to oppose antithesis, antithetical
ἀντίφωνος (antíphōnos) antiphonos ἀντιφων- antiphon- sounding in answer antiphon, anthem
ἄντρον (ántron) antron ἀντρ- antr- cave, cavity antrum
ἀντωνυμέω (antōnuméō) antōnymein ἀντωνυμ- antonym- to have an opposite denomination antonym, antonymous
ἀνώμαλος (anṓmalos) anōmalos ἀνώμαλ- anōmal- uneven anomaly
ἀνώνυμος (anṓnumos) anōnumos ἀνόνυμ- anonym- nameless anonymity, anonymous
ἄξιος (áxios) axios ἀξιο- axio- worthy axiology, axiom
ἄξων (áxōn) axōn ἀξο- axo-
axi-
axis axoneme , axoplasm, axisymmetric
ἀόριστος (aóristos) aoristos ἀοριστ- aorist- indefinite aoristic, aorist
ἀορτή (aortḗ) aortē ἀορτ- aort- the great artery aortic, aorta
ἀπάτη (apátē) apatē ἀπατ- apat- deceit apatite, apatosaurus
ἁπλόος (haplóos) haplous ἁπλο- haplo- single haploid, haplodiploid
ἀπό (apó) apo ἀπο- apo- away from apology, apostrophe, apocrypha
ἀπόγειον (apógeion) apogeion ἀπογει- apogei- far from the earth apogee, apogean
ἀποκαλύπτω (apokalúptō) apokaluptein ἀποκαλυπ- apocalyp- to reveal apocalypse
ἀποκόπτω (apokóptō) apokoptein ἀποκoπ- apokop- to cut apocopation, apocopate
ἀπολογία (apología) apologia ἀπολογ- apolog- apology apology, apologize, apologue
ἀπόμιξις (apómixis) apomixis ἀπομιξ- apomix- without mixing apomixis, apomictic
ἀποπλήσσω (apoplḗssō) apoplēssein ἀποπλη- apople- to cripple by a stroke apoplexy, apoplectic
ἀποστάτης (apostátēs) apostatēs ἀποστατ- apostat- defector apostate, apostasy
ἀποστέλλω (apostéllō) apostellein ἀποστ- apost- to send apostle, apostolic
ἀράχνη (arákhnē) arakhnē ἀραχνη arakhnē- spider arachnid
ἄργιλλος (árgillos) argillos ἀργιλ- argil- clay argillite, argillaceous
Ἄρης (Árēs) Arēs ἀρεο- areo- Mars areocentric, areology
ἀριθμός (arithmós) arithmos ἀριθμ- arithm- number arithmetic, logarithm
ἄριστος (áristos) aristos ἀριστο- arist- best aristocracy
ἁρμονία (harmonía) harmonia ἁρμονι- armoni- agreement, harmony harmony, enharmonic
ἀρρυθμία (arrhuthmía) arrhuthmia ἁρρυθμ- arrythm- lack of rhythm arrhythmia, arrhythmic
ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) arkhaios ἀρχαιο- arkhaio- ancient archaeology, archetype
ἀρχή (arkhḗ) arche ἀρχη- archi- chief, authority archbishop, anarchy
ἀρχιτέκτων (arkhitéktōn) arkhitektōn ἀρχιτεκτ- architect- chief builder architecture, architect
ἄρωμα (árōma) arōma ἀρωμα- aroma- spice aroma, aromatic compounds
ἀσθένεια (asthéneia) astheneia ἀσθεν- asthen- weakness asthenia, asthenopia
ἀσφάραγος (aspháragos) aspharagos ἀσπαραγ- asparag- asparagus asparagine acid
ἀσπίς (aspís) aspis ἀσπ- asp- shield asp
ἆσθμα (âsthma) asthma ἀσθμα- asthma- asthma asthmatic
ἄσυλον (ásulon) asulon ἀσυλ- asyl- sanctuary asylum
ἀσφυξία (asphuxía) asphuxia ἀσφυξ- asphyx- stopping of the pulse asphyxiant
ἀστήρ (aστήr) astēr ἀστερ- aster- star asteroid, asterisk, disaster
ἄστρον (áστron) astron ἀστρο- astro- constellation astronomy, astronaut
Ἄτλας (Átlas) Atlas ἀτλα- atla- name of a Titan atlas, Atlantic
ἄτομος (átomos) atomos ἀτομ- atom- un + cut atomic, atomizer
αὐθεντικός (αὐthentikós) authentikos αὐθεντικ- authentic- original authentication, authentic
αὐστηρός (αὐstērós) austēros αὐστηρ- auster- harsh, bitter austerity
αὐταρχία (αὐtarkhía) autarchia αὐταρχ- autarch- absolute governing autarchy, autarchic
αὐτάρκεια (αὐtárkeia) autarkia αὐτάρκ- autark- self-sufficiency autarky
αὐξάνω (αὐxánō) auxanein αὐξ- aux- to increase auxin, auxesis,
αὐτός (autós) autos αὐτο- auto- self (reflexive pronoun) autonomy, automatic
ἀφαιρέω (aphairéō) aphairein ἀφαιρ- apher- take away apheresis, hemaphairesis
ἁψίς (hapsís) hapsis ἁψ- aps- arch apse, apsidal

Β[edit]

b

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
βάρβαρος (bárbaros) barbaros βαρβαρο- barbaro- stranger, non-Greek barbarian
βαρύς (barús) barus βαρυ- baru- heavy baritone, baryon, hyperbaric
βίος (bíos) bios βιο- bio- life biology, amphibian, symbiosis
βραχύς (brakhús) brachus βραχυ- brachu- short brachycephalic

Γ[edit]

g

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
γαῖα (gaîa) gaia γεα- gea- earth geology, Gaia, geometry
γάμος (gámos) gamos γαμ- gam- marriage polygamy, gamete
γέννησις (génnēsis) genesis γέν- gen- to give birth, beget genesis, genetic
γιγνώσκω (gignṓskō) gignōskein γνῶ- gnō-
gnē-
to know diagnostic, agnostic
γίγας (gígas) gigas γιγ- giga- huge, enormous giga- (prefix) as in gigabyte, gigantic, giant
γράφω (gráphō) graphein γραφ- graph- to write graphic, graphite, geography
γυνή (gunḗ) gunē γυναικ- gunaik- woman polygyny, gynecology misogynist

Δ[edit]

d

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
δῆμος (dêmos) dēmos δημο- dēmo- district, its inhabitants, commoners democracy, demographic
δόξα (dóxa) doxa δοξ- dox- glory, opinion doxology, orthodox, paradox
δρᾶσις (drâsis) drasis δρασ- dras- action drastic, anadrastic

Ε[edit]

(h)e

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἐθνικός (ethnikós) ethnikos εθνικ- ethnic people, tribe ethnicity, ethnic
εἰκών (eikṓn) eikon εἰκών icon icon, picture, painting icon, iconicity, iconoclast
ἕλιξ (hélix) helix ἑλικ- helic- spiral helix, helicopter, helicity
ἑπτά (heptá) hepta ἑπτα- hepta- seven heptarchy, heptagon, heptameter
ἔργον (érgon)  ?  ?  ? work energetic, energize, energy, ergonomic, ergonomics, George, synergy, synergism, synergistic
εὖ () eu εύ- eu- well eudemonia, eulogy, euphemism, euphoria

Ζ[edit]

z

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ζῷον (zôion) zōōon ζωο- zōo- animal zoology
ζεύγνυμι (zeúgnumi) zeugnumi ζευγμ- zeugma to yoke zeugma

Η[edit]

(h)ē

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἡγεμών (hēgemṓn) hēgemōn ἡγεμον- hēgemon- leader hegemony
ἥλιος (hḗlios) hēlios ἡλιο- hēlio- sun / sun-god helium, heliotropic, heliocentric, perihelion
ἠώς (ēṓs) ēōs ἠο- ēo- dawn Eocene

Θ[edit]

th

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
θεός (theós) theos θε- the- a god theology, atheism
θερμός (thermós) thermos θερμ- therm- hot hypothermiaisotherm, thermoelectric, Thermos (brand of vacuum flask))

Ι[edit]

(h)i

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἰατρός (iatrós) iatros ἰατρο- iatro- physician iatrogenicpsychiatrist
ἴδιος (ídios) idios ἰδι- idi- one’s own, private idiolect, idiom, idiosyncracy
ἱερός (hierós) hieros ἱερο- hiero- sacred hierarchy, hieroglyph
ἵππος (híppos) hippos ἱππο- hippo- horse hippodrome, hippopotamus
ἰχθύς (ikhthús) ikhthus ἰχθυ- ikhthu- fish ichthyology, ikhthus

Κ[edit]

k, c

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
κακός (kakós) kakos κακο- kako- bad cacophony
κλέπτω (kléptō) kleptō κλεπτ- klept- to steal kleptocracy, kleptomaniac
κλών (klṓn) klōn - klōn- branch, twig clone, cloning
κόσμος (kósmos) kosmos κοσμ- kosm- order, the universe, jewell cosmography, cosmetic, microcosm
κράτος (krátos) kratos κρατ- krat- power, rule autocrat, democracy, bureaucracy
κρίνω (krínō) krinō  ?  ? to separate; to order; to judge; etc. crisis, criterion, critic, critical, criticism, criticize, critique
κυβερνάω (kubernáō)  ?  ?  ? to steer, drive, govern cybernetics, govern, governance, governess, government, governor, gubernatorial
κύβος (kúbos) kubos  ?  ? cube, die cube, cubic, cubical, cubism, cubist, cuboid
κύκλος (kúklos) kuklos  ?  ? circle, ring acyclic, anticyclone, bicycle, bicyclic, bike, cycle, cyclic, cycloid, cycloidal, cyclone, encyclical, encyclopedia, encyclopedic, encyclopedist, epicycle, epicyclic, epicycloid, hypocycloid, monocyclic, motorcycle, polycyclic, recyclable, recyclability, recycle, tricyclic, unicycle

Λ[edit]

l

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
λαμβάνω (lambánō) lambanō  ?  ? to take acatalepsy, acataleptic, astrolabe, catalepsy, cataleptic, dilemma, epilepsy, epileptic, lemma, lemmatization, lemmatize, monosyllable, nympholepsy, nympholept, polysyllable, sublemma, syllabary, syllabic, syllabification, syllabify, syllable, tetralemma, trilemma
λίθος (líthos) lithos λιθο- litho- stone lithography, neolithic, monolith, megalith, Neolithic
λόγος (lógos) logos λογο- logo- thought, word eulogytheology, logic, logorrhea

Μ[edit]

m

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
μακρός (makrós) makros μακρο- makro- long macron, macrobiotic
μέγας (mégas) megas μεγ- mega- big, large mega- (prefix), as in megabyte
μέλας (mélas) melas μελαν- melan- pigmented, black, ink melanin, melanoma, Melanesia
μέλος (mélos) melos μέλο- melo- music, song, melody melody, melodrama
μέταλλον (métallon) metallon μεταλλ- metal- metal medal, metallic, metalloid
μικρός (mikrós) mikros μικρο- mikro- small microphone, microscope
μνῆστις (mnêstis) mnēstis μνη- mne- memory amnesia, amnesty, mnemonic
μόνος (mónos) monos μονο- mono- alone, solitary, forsaken monotony, monolog, monk
Μοῦσα (Moûsa) Mousa μουσ- mous- a patron goddess of the arts muse, music, museum
μωρός (mōrós) mōros μωρο- mōro- dull, foolish, stupid, slow moron, oxymoron

Ν[edit]

n

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ναυτικός (nautikós) nautikos ναυτ- naut- sailor, ship nautical, astronaut
νέος (néos) neos νεο- neo- new, young neon, neologism

Ξ[edit]

x

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ξανθός (xanthós) xanthos ξάνθο- xantho- yellow, golden xanthophyll, xanthochroi
ξένος (xénos) xenos ξένο- xeno- strange, stranger, guest xenophobia, xenon
ξερός (xerós) xeros ξερό- xero- dry xerox, xerography
ξίφος (xíphos) xiphos ξίφ- xiph- sword xiphoid, xiphias
ξύλον (xúlon) xulon ξυλ- xul- wood xylophone, xylem

Ο[edit]

(h)o

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
οἶνος (oînos) oinos οἶνο- oeno- wine oenophile, oenomel
ὁδός (hodós) hodos ὁδο- hodo- road hodometer, odometer
ὀλίγος (olígos) oligos ὀλιγο- oligo- few, little oligarchy, oligopoly
ὁμός (homós) homos ὁμο- homo- same homogenized, homonym, homosexual
ὅμοιος (hómoios) homoios ὅμοιο- homoio- similar homeopathy
ὀξύς (oxús) oxus ὀξυ- oxu- sharp, pointed, acid, keen oxygen, oxymoron, oxycephaly
ὄργανον (órganon) organon ὄργαν- organ- an instrument, tool, implement organ, organelle, organic, organist, organism, organization, organize, organon
ὀρθός (orthós) orthos ὀρθο- ortho- straight, correct, right orthography, orthogonal, orthopedic, orthodox

Π[edit]

p

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
πάθος (páthos) pathos παθ- path- suffering, disease pathology, pathos, telepathy, apathy, sympathy
παιδεία (paideía) paideia παιδεια- paideia- education, culture encyclopaedia
παῖς (paîs) pais παιδ- paid- boy, child paediatrician, pedophilia
παλαιός (palaiós) palaios παλεο- paleo- old paleontology
πᾶς (pâs) pas παν, πανσο;- pan-, panto- all, complete pantheism, pantomime
πατήρ (patḗr) pater πατρ- patr- father patriarch
περί (perí) peri περι- peri around perimeter, periscope
πόλος (pólos) polοs πολ- pol- axis, sky North Pole, polar, polarize
πολύς (polús) polus πολυ- polu- many, much polygon, Polynesia, polyp, polytonic
πρόγραμμα (prógramma) programma πρόγραμμ- programm- program/schedule programmer, multiprogramming

Ρ[edit]

r(h)

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ῥεῦμα (rheûma) rheuma ῥεύμ- rheum- a flowing, rheum rheumatism, rheum
ῥίς (rhís) rhis ῥιν- rhin- nose rhinoceros, rhinoplasty

Σ[edit]

s

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
σαῦρος (saûros) sauros σαυρο- sauro- lizard dinosaur
σκοπός (skopós) skopos σκοπ- skop- observer scope, bishop, telescope
σοφία (sophía) sophia σοφια- sophia- knowledge, wisdom philosophy, sophistry

Τ[edit]

t

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
τῆλε (têle) tēle τηλε- tēle- distant telephone, telepathy
τόξον (tóxon) toxon τοξ- tox- archer’s bow, poison toxin, toxophily

Υ[edit]

(h)u, (h)y

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ὕδωρ (húdōr) hudor ὑδρο- hudro- water hydrodynamics, hydrolysis
ὕπνος (húpnos) hupnos ὑπνο- hupno- sleep hypnotism

Φ[edit]

ph

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
φιλία (philía)
φίλος (phílos)
philia,
philos
φιλια-
φιλο
-
philia-,
philo-
friendship
friend
philia,
Philadelphia, philosophy
φόβος (phóbos) phobos φοβο- phobo- irrational fear
fear
phobia, Phobos,
φυτόν (phutón) phuton φυτο- phuto- plant neophyte
φωνή (phōnḗ) phōnē φωνη- phōnē- voice microphone, phone, phoneme, phonemic, phonetic, phonetics, phonograph, telephone

Χ[edit]

kh, ch

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
χαίτη (khaítē) khaitē χαιτη- khaitē- loose, flowing hair polychaete
χρόνος (khrónos) khronos χρον- khrono- time chronology, chronometer, anachronism

Ψ[edit]

ps

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ψάλλω (psállō) psalloē ψάλ- psal- pluck, pull, twitch psalm, psaltery
ψευδής (pseudḗs) pseudḗs ψευδ- pseud- false, lying pseudonym, pseudograph, pseudo-science, pseudepigraphy, pseudocide
ψιλός (psilós) psilos ψιλ- psil- mere, bare, smooth psilosis, psilanthropism, psilocybin
ψυχή (psukhḗ) psukhē ψυχ- psych- spirit, mind, soul psyche, psychology, psychotic, psychedelic

Ω[edit]

(h)ō

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ᾠόν (ōión) ōon ὠο- ōo- egg oocyte, oology
ὥρα (hṓra) hōra ὡρα- hōra- season, hour horoscope

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]