Appendix:List of Proto-Gbe reconstructions

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The following list of Proto-Gbe reconstructions is from Capo (1991).

List[edit]

Gloss Proto-Gbe Page
abandon *gbéɖé 211
abuse, insult (v.) *dzũ 211
accept, agree, like *lɔ̃ 211
accompany *kplã, *kplɔ̃ 211
adore, worship *sẽ, *sɛ̃; *sṹbɔ̃́ 211
advertise, sell *dlá, *dyálá 211
agree, accept, like *lɔ̃ 211
alliance, covenant, fire *-dzo 211
anniversary, festival *azã́; *-χʷe 211
annul *klṍ; *kṍlṍ ? 211
arm (body part) *-bá; *-bɔ́ 211
ask *byá; *byɔ́ ?; *bíyá ?; *bíyɔ́ ? 211
astonish *fíyã́ 211
bake, fry *tʰɔ 211
(baobab/kapok) tree *Hʷũtĩ́ 211
bank (of river), riverbank *-tó, *-tói 211
bathe, take a shower *lɛ 211
be (copula) *yẽ́ 211
beak *adɔ̃́ 211
beans *ayi, *ayu 211
bear, carry *ʁẽ, *ʁɛ̃ 211
bear (child), give birth *gi 211
bear fruit *tsẽ́, *tsɛ̃́ 211
beat *χʷo 212
belly, intestine *-dɔ-, *-dɔví 212
bend *χã́; *glɔ̃́ 212
benediction *ɖɛ (gbe) 212
beverage, drink *aʁã 212
billy goat, he-goat *agbo 212
bird *-χɛ 212
be bitter, painful *vɛ́ 212
(very) black *kíɖíkíɖí 212
blessings *aflá 212
blood *-ʁʷũ 212
boil *fyɛ; *fyɔ 212
boiled beans (a dish) *abɔbɔ 212
bone *-χʷú 212
borrow, lend *Hʷé 212
boss, chief *-gã́ 212
bottom *-do, *-doi 212
bottle *-go 212
break *wẽ́, *wɛ̃́ 212
breast *-ɖṍ 212
breathe, inhale *gbɔ̃ 212
breed, raise, feed *yĩ; *ʁẽ, *ʁɛ̃ 212
burn, consummate *bi (dzo) 212
burst *lã́ 212
bury *ɖi 212
buy *χʷle 212
calabash *-tlê, *-téle ? 212
call *ylɔ́, *yɔ́lɔ́ ? 212
carry, hold *ʁẽ, *ʁɛ̃ 212
carry (at the back) *kpã 212
cat *atséi ? 212
cease, stop *dzɔ; *dzudzɔ ? 213
chair *-zĩkpo, *-zĩkpoi 213
charcoal *akã́ 213
charm, magic *-bó 213
chicken *koklôm; *kokólo ? 213
chief, boss *-gã́ 213
child *-ví 213
choose *tyã́ 213
chop up, hash (v.) *dyá, *gyá 213
(white) clay *-Hʷé 213
be clean, be white *wé 213
climb *lyá 213
cloth, dress, shirt *awu 213
cold (n.) *-vivɔ, *-vuvɔ ? 213
come *bá, *vá, *wá; *ɓá ? 213
come back, return *gbɔ; *gbugbɔ ? 213
come out, go out, germinate *tṍ 213
compound, fence *-kpá, *-kpɔ́ 213
consent, accept, like *lɔ̃ 213
consummate, bum *bi (-dzo) 213
cook *ɖa 213
be cooked *bí 213
cool down, be cool *fá 213
corpse, obsequies *tyɔ́, *kyɔ́ 213
cough, n. *-kpɛ̃́, *kpẽ́ 213
country *duto ? 213
covenant, alliance *-dzo 213
cover, v. *tyɔ̃́, *kyɔ̃́ 213
cover, roof (v.) *gbã́ 213
cow *-yĩ 213
crab (fish?) *aglã̂ ?; *agã́lã ? 214
create, make *ɖó 214
crocodile *-ló 214
cry, outcry, weeping (n.) *aví 214
customs *-dẽ 214
cut down (tree), fall down *bũ 214
cutlass *gyakpa; *gãyãkpa ? 214
dance (n.) *-we 214
dance (v.) *ɖú (-we) 214
date, festival *azã́ 214
day *-gbe 214
(feast) day, festival *azã́ 214
death *-kú 214
(sense of) decency *wĩyã́ 214
(definite article) *-lá 214
deity *vodṹ 214
deny, refuse *gbɛ́ 214
deprive *te 214
detect *wɔ̃́ 214
(determiner 'the') *-lá 214
die *kú 214
divide, share, split *bã́ 214
do *wa, *wɔ; *wasí ? 214
dog *avṹ 214
door *-ʁʷɔ̃ 214
dream (n.) *dlɔ̃́, *dlɔ̃́l 214
dress, cloth, shirt *awu 214
drink, beverage (n.) *aʁã 214
drink (v.) *ɖõ 214
drive *kũ 214
be drunk *bṹ 214
become dry, be dry *χʷú 215
cause to become dry *fyá, *χyá 215
ear *-tó 215
earth *ayĩ́ 215
eat *ɖu 215
make an effort *ʁlɔ̃́ 215
egg *azĩ 215
eleven *wólɖekái ? 215
embrace, kiss (v.) *gbɔ̃́; *gbṹgbɔ̃́ 215
be enough *sũ 215
Europe *Yevúdei, *Yovódéi ? 215
excrement *-bĩ́ 215
be expensive *vɛ́ 215
fall down (tree), cut down *bũ 215
family (extended) *χʷobẽ 215
father, owner *-tɔ́ 215
be far *dĩdĩ 215
farm (v.), go to farm *de ? 215
feast, day *azã́ 215
feast, year *-χʷe 215
be fed up *tĩ 215
feed, breed, raise *yĩ; *ʁẽ, *ʁɛ̃ 215
fence, compound *-kpá; *-kpɔ́ 215
ferment *ʁʷã́ 215
festival, year *-χʷe 215
fetch (water) *dũ 215
fingernail *-fẽ, *-fɛ̃ 215
finish, be finished *vɔ 215
fire, covenant, alliance *-dzo 215
(a type of) fish *akpa 215
five *atɔ̃́ 215
fix, nail (v.) *kã́ 216
flat (adj.) *gbadya, *gbagya 216
flat (adj.) *gbádyáo, *gbágyái 216
flute, trumpet, whistle *-kpɛ̃, *-kpẽ 216
foot, leg *-fɔ 216
be free *vo 216
friend *χɔ̃́tɔ̃ ? 216
front *ɖũkɔ̃ 216
fructify, bear fruit *tsẽ́, *tsɛ̃́ 216
fry *tʰɔ 216
germinate, come out, go out *tṍ 216
germinate, grow *byã, *byɔ̃ 216
get lost, lose *bú 216
give *ɖã́ 216
give birth, bear (child) *gi 216
glorify, praise *blã́; *bã́lã́ 216
glue (n.) *awɔ̃ 216
go *yi 216
go out, come out, germinate *tṍ 216
go to farm, farm (v.) *de ? 216
goat *-gbɔ̃́ 216
he-goat, billy goat *agbo 216
be good *yṍ 216
gourd *-go, *-goi 216
grandfather *tɔ́gbói 216
grease, oil *abĩ 216
grey hair *-Hʷa 216
grind, smash *tu 216
grindstone *-tʰé 216
groan, moan (v.) *wẽ, *wɛ̃ 217
groundnut, peanut *azĩ́ 217
grow, germinate *byã, *byɔ̃ 217
grow up *tsĩ 217
gun (iron-made) *-tú 217
gun (traditional type) *-so 217
(habitual aspect) *ɖã 217
hair *-ɖa 217
(grey) hair *-Hʷa 217
hand *-lɔ 217
(left) hand *-byã 217
happen *dyɔ, *gyɔ 217
hash, chop up (v.) *dyá, *gyá 217
have, possess, own *ɖó 217
head *-ta; *takṹ ? 217
hear *se 217
be heavy *kpɛ̃, *kpẽ 217
he-goat, billy goat *agbo 217
heritage, legacy *kíɖɔ̃́ 217
hide (v.) *Hʷlá 217
hide oneself *bɛ 217
history, sacred word *-χó 217
history, story *-tã 217
hold, carry *ʁẽ, *ʁɛ̃ 217
home town, home country *-χʷé 217
horse *-sɔ́ 217
husband, male *atsú 217
hut *-χɔ 217
illness, sickness *-dʰɔ̃ 217
imitate, learn *slɔ̃́; *sɔ̃́lɔ̃́ ? 218
inhale, breathe *gbɔ̃; *gbũgbɔ̃ 218
inheritance, legacy *kíɖɔ̃́ 218
insult, abuse (v.) *dzũ 218
iron, metal *-gã 218
intestine, belly *-dɔ-, *-dɔví 218
join, unite *tyá, *kyá 218
(kapok/baobab) tree *Hʷũtĩ́ 218
kill *Hʷu 218
kiss, embrace (v.) *gbɔ̃́ 218
knife *-ʁá, *-ʁái; *ʁí ?; *Hʷí ? 218
know *yã́, *yɔ̃́ 218
lake *-tɔ 218
lament (v.) *χa (-ɖṹ) 218
language, speech-form *-gbe 218
laugh (v.) *ko 218
lay (eggs) *ɖó (azĩ) 218
layman *aʁe 218
learn, imitate *slɔ̃́; *sɔ̃́lɔ̃́ 218
left hand *byã, *byɔ̃ 218
leg, foot *-fɔ 218
leg, thigh *atʰá 218
legacy, inheritance *kíɖɔ̃́ 218
lend, borrow *Hʷé 218
lie down *blɔ̃́, *bɔ̃́lɔ̃́ 218
life *-gbɛ 218
like, love, agree *lɔ̃ 218
lock (v.) *tʰú 218
look at *kpɔ̃́ 218
look for *dĩ́ 218
lose, get lost *bú 218
love, like, agree *lɔ̃ 219
luggage *agbã 219
magic, charm *-bó 219
make an effort *ʁlɔ̃́ 219
make, create *ɖó 219
male, husband *atsú 219
market *aχi, *afi 219
meat *-lã 219
measure (v.) *dlɛ́, *dyɛ́lɛ́ 219
meet *kpé 219
metal, iron *-gã 219
moan (v.), groan (v.) *wẽ, *wɛ̃ 219
mosquito *-bṹ 219
mother *-ɖɔ̃ 219
mound *-kpó, *-kpói 219
mountain *-tʰó 219
mouth *-ɖũ; *-ɖũkpá 219
move *ʁʷã 219
mud *babá 219
mystical mystery *-ʁũ 219
nail (v.), fix *kã́ 219
(finger-) nail *fẽ, *fɛ̃ 219
name *yĩ́kɔ́ 219
neck *-kɔ 219
need (v.) *ʁyã́ 219
(fishing) net *-ɖɔ 219
night *-zã́ 219
(palm) nut *-ɖẽ́, *ɖɛ̃́ 219
obsequies, corpse *tyɔ́, *kyɔ́ 219
ocean, sea *-χʷu 219
offer (as a sacrifice) *χʷlé; *χʷlélé 220
oil, grease *abĩ 220
old *χoχó 220
one *ɖokpó, *lokpó ?; *ɖé. ɖeka 220
open (mouth) *kɛ 220
open (door) *ʁʷũ 220
orange tree *-wũtĩ́ ? 220
outcry, shout *aχʷá 220
outcry, cry, weeping (n.) *aví 220
own, have, possess *ɖó 220
owner, father *-tɔ́ 220
be painful (to), bitter *vɛ́ 220
palm (of hand) *así 220
palm branch *azã 220
palm nut *-ɖẽ́, *-ɖɛ̃́ 220
palm tree *-dé (tĩ́) 220
pay back *χé ?; *tʰú ? 220
peanut, groundnut *azĩ́ 220
peel, plane, smoothen *χʷlɛ́; *χʷlɔ́, *χʷɛ́lɛ́ ?, *χʷɔ́lɔ́ ? 220
peel, unsheathe *klɛ̃́; *kɛ̃́lɛ̃́ ? 220
perch (v.) *dyɛ, *gyɛ 220
person *-bẽ, *-bɛ̃ 220
pipe *tabázẽ́i 220
place *-fí 220
plane, smoothen, peel *χʷlɛ́; *χʷlɔ́, *χʷɛ́lɛ́ ?; *χʷɔ́lɔ́ ? 220
plant, sow *dó 220
pluck *gbɛ̃ 220
possess, have, own *ɖó 220
pot *-zẽ́ 221
pound (v.) *tʰó 221
praise, glorify *blã́; *bã́lã́ 221
press, twist, squeeze *fyɔ̃́; *fíyɔ̃́ 221
proverb *-ló 221
pubis, vagina *ayɔ́ 221
purge (n.) *asla; *asala ? 221
purge (v.) *sla; *sala ? 221
push *zĩ́ 221
put to bed, give birth *gi; *-ví 221
put to dry *fyá, *χyá 221
python *-dãgbói 221
quench *kí 221
raise, breed, feed *yĩ; *ʁẽ, *ʁɛ̃ 221
be ready *sɔ gbe 221
get ready, repair *dla ɖó, *dyala ɖó 221
refuse, reject *gbɛ́ 221
relax (v.) *dlẽ, *dlɛ̃ 221
remove, tear out, unpaste *sṹ 221
remove from stove *lṍ 221
remove, subtract *ɖe 221
repair, get ready *dla ɖó, *dyala ɖó 221
be resistant *dɛ̃ 221
resemble *ɖi 221
respect, be respectful *sí 221
return, come back *gbɔ; *gbugbɔ ? 221
return, turn back *tlɔ́; *tɔ́lɔ́ ? 221
reversed, upside down *agɔ 221
ripen *byã; *biyã ? 222
riverbank *-tó, *-tói 222
roast (v.) *bẽ, *bɛ̃ 222
roof, cover (v.) *gbã́ 222
running *-dʰũ 222
salt *dyɛ, *gyɛ 222
save *ʁʷlẽ, *ʁʷlɛ̃ 222
be saved, survive *gã́ 222
say *ɖɔ, *lɔ 222
be scarce *dẽ́, *dɛ̃́ 222
sea, ocean *-χʷu 222
sell, advertise *dlá, *dyálá 222
send *dʰɔ̃́ 222
separate *klã́; *kã́lã́ ? 222
sew *tɔ̃ 222
share, divide, split *bã́ 222
shirt, cloth, dress (n.) *awu 222
shout, outcry *aχʷá 222
show, teach *fyá; *fyɔ́ 222
sickness, illness *-dʰɔ̃ 222
sit down *χĩɖɔ̃ 222
slip (v.) *ɖíɖí 222
small *ví; *vú 222
be small *ʁʷe 222
smash, grind *tu 222
smell (v.) *ʁʷɛ̃́ ? 222
smoke (n.) *-dzɔ, *-dzudzɔ 222
smoke (v.) (e.g. fish) *ʁi 222
smoothen, peel, plane *χʷlɛ́ 222
snake *-dã 222
sniffling *-χʷã 222
sow, plant *dó 223
speech-form, language *-gbe 223
split *fɛ̃́ 223
split, divide, share *bã́ 223
spoil *gblẽ́; *gbẽ́lẽ́ ? 223
squeeze, press, twist *fyɔ̃́, *fíyɔ̃́ 223
stay *kí 223
steal *fi ? 223
stone *-kpɛ̃́, *kpẽ́ 223
(grinding) stone *-tʰé 223
stomach *-χʷo 223
stop, cease *dzɔ 223
story, history *-tã 223
subtract, remove, unpaste *ɖe 223
suck *gbɔ̃́; *gbũgbɔ̃́ ? 223
suffering *-ya 223
sun *-Hʷe 223
surpass *Hʷú 223
survive, be saved *gã́ 223
swallow (v.) *bĩ 223
table *-kplɔ̃ 223
take *tsɔ́ 223
take a shower, bathe *lɛ 223
be tall *dĩ, *dĩdĩ 223
tear, be torn (cloth) *vṹ 223
tear out, remove, unpaste *sṹ 223
ten *-wó 223
thank (v.) *dó; *-kpɛ́ 223
thanks *-kpɛ́ 223
the (determiner) *-lá 223
thing *-ɖṹ 223
thigh, leg *atʰá 224
thorn *-wũ 224
tie (v.) *blá; *bálá ? 224
be tired of, fed up with *tĩ 224
tongue (organ) *-ɖɛ́ 224
tongue, language, voice *-gbe 224
tooth *aɖú 224
top *-gí 224
trade (n.) *adyɔ́, *agyɔ́ 224
tree, wood *-tĩ́ 224
(baobab/kapok) tree *Hʷũtĩ́ 224
trumpet, flute, whistle *-kpɛ̃, *-kpẽ 224
turn back, return *tlɔ́, *tɔ́lɔ́ ? 224
twist *tʰló; *tʰóló ? 224
twist, squeeze, press *fyɔ̃́, *fíyɔ̃́ 224
two *-ve, *-we; *-ɓe ? 224
be ugly, be wicked *ylã; *yãlã ? 224
unite, join *tyá, *kyá 224
unpaste, tear out, remove *sṹ 224
unsheathe, peel (v.) *klɛ̃́; *kɛ̃́lɛ̃́ 224
uproot *ʁõ 224
upside-down, reversed *agɔ 224
urine *-ɖɔ́, *-ɖuɖɔ́ 224
use, utilise *zã́ 224
vagina, pubis *ayɔ́ 224
vehicle *-ʁʷṹ 224
voice, tongue, language *-gbe 224
vomit (v.) *tʰlú; *tʰúlú ? 224
wake up *fɔ̃́ 224
walk (n.) *-tsa 225
walk (v.) *zɔ̃ 225
wander about *dã́ 225
wash (cloth) *yã 225
wash (plate) *klɔ́; *kɔ́lɔ́ 225
watch (over) *ɖyá 225
water (n.) *-tsĩ 225
water (v.) *Hʷú 225
weave *lɔ̃ 225
weeping, cry, outcry *aví 225
whistle, flute, trumpet *-kpɛ̃, *kpẽ 225
be white, be clean *wé 225
white clay *-Hʷé 225
be wicked, be ugly *ylã; *yãlã ? 225
wish (v.) *dló, *dyóló 225
witch *adzé 225
woman *yɔ̃́ɖũ, *yɔ̃́lũ, *yɔ̃́ɖũsi 225
wood, tree *-tĩ́ 225
word *-yã, *-yɔ̃ 225
work (n.) *-dʰɔ̃́ 225
worship, adore *se, *sɛ̃; *sṹbɔ̃́ 225
write *wlã; *wlɛ̃, *wãlã ?, *wɛ̃lɛ̃ ? 225
(infected) wound *-lã́ 225
yam *-te 225
year, festival *-χʷe 225

References[edit]

  • Capo, Hounkpati B.C. 1991. A Comparative Phonology of Gbe. Publications in African Languages and Linguistics, 14. Berlin/New York: Foris Publications & Garome, Bénin: Labo Gbe (Int).
Vocabulary lists of African languages
Nilo-Saharan

p-Nilotic • p-Surmic • NE Sudanic • p-Nubian • p-Daju • p-Jebel • p-Central Sudanic • p-Mangbetu • p-Kuliak (Ik) • Berta • Gumuz • p-Koman • Amdang • Maban • Kanuri • p-Songhay

Niger-Congo

p-Niger-Congo • p-Benue-Congo • p-Grassfields • p-Bantu • p-Jukunoid • Plateau • p-N. Jos • p-Fali • p-Yoruboid • p-Edoid • p-Akokoid • p-Igboid • p-Upper Cross River • p-Lower Cross River • p-Ogoni • p-Ukaan • p-Nupoid • p-Ijaw • p-Gbe • p-Central Togo • p-Guang • p-Gurunsi • p-Oti-Volta (p-E. Oti-Volta • p-C. Oti-Volta) • p-Gbaya • p-Mande (p-W. Mande, p-Mandekan, p-Volta-Niger) • p-Cangin • Bijogo • p-Talodi • p-Heiban • Rashad

Afroasiatic

p-Central Chadic • p-Masa • Kujarge • p-Cushitic • p-Omotic • p-Aroid • p-Maji • p-Semitic

Khoisan

p-Central Khoisan

Language isolates

Jalaa • Bangime • Ongota • Shabo