User:-sche/exceptional

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Hall of Fame[edit]

These entries have exceptionally many senses, translations, transcribed pronunciations, semantic relations, plurals, alternative forms, citations, etc.

Feel free to add entries or suggest new categories. (Each category should have only the top 20 or so entries, IMO.)

Most senses[edit]

  • take (101 senses, including 84 true senses of the verb, 5 placeholder senses atop sets of subsenses, and 12 noun senses)
  • go (74 senses, including 61 verb senses and 12 noun senses for the Germanic word, and 1 noun sense for the Japanese word)
  • run (67 senses, including 30 noun senses, 4 adjective senses, 33 verb senses)
  • set (52 senses, if all the parts of speech of two homographs are conflated)
  • line (40 senses: 35 senses for the noun derived from Old English līne, 8 verb senses; 1 noun sense and 3 verb senses derived from Old English līn; 1 verb sense from Middle French ligner)

Most etymology sections[edit]

Terms of more than one character
  1. s3 (15)
  2. 上下 (13)
  3. -er (11)
  4. dun (9)
  5. سر(9)
  6. کل(9)
  7. dag (8)
  8. es (8)
  9. lay (8)
  10. ver (8)
  11. חרש(8)
  12. 食物 (8)
  13. 달다 (dalda) (8)
  14. calão (7)
  15. lease (7)
  16. mole (7)
  17. peel (7)
  18. weer (7)
  19. چک(7)
  20. ܥܪܒܐ(7)
  21. ܩܦܠܐ(7)
  22. ܩܪܝܬܐ(7)
  23. 수도 (sudo) (7)
  24. 켜다 (kyeoda) (7)
Single characters
  1. (jil) (13)
  2. (11)
  3. (i) (11)
  4. (10)
  5. -a (9)
  6. a (9)
  7. a- (8)
  8. (9)
  9. (8)
  10. 尿 (8)
  11. (8)
  12. (jeon) (8)
  13. X (7)
  14. (sa) (7)
  15. (7)
  16. (7)
  17. (7)
  18. (mal) (7)

Longest etymological chains[edit]

Terms which passed (by borrowing) through the greatest number of languages on their way to their final destination. (Normal descent through different temporal stages of a language doesn't count. A word that passed from Proto-Indo-European into Proto-Italic into Latin into Old French into Middle French, and was then borrowed into Middle English, and then survived into modern English, has only been borrowed once.)
  • rais (Tok Pisin, 7-8 links): from English, from French, from Italian, from Greek, from Persian, from Sanskrit, from Dravidian or Munda (possibly via Dravidian)
  • oka (English, 7 links): from Italian, from French, from Turkish, possibly from Arabic, from Classical Syriac, from Greek, from Latin
  • cukurs (Latvian, 7 links): from Livonian, from German, from Latin, from Italian, from Arabic, from Persian, from Sanskrit
  • papirosa (English, 6-7 links): from Russian, from Polish, from Polish+Spanish, from German, from Latin, from Greek, from Egyptian
  • shaman (English, 6 links): from German, from Russian, from Evenki, from either Tocharian B or Chinese, ultimately (either way) from Pali, from Sanskrit
  • indium (English, 6 links): from New Latin, from German, from Spanish, from Greek, from Persian, from Sanskrit
  • cukier (Polish, 6 links): from German, from Latin, from Italian, from Arabic, from Persian, from Sanskrit
  • sokeri (Finnish, 6 links): from Swedish, from Low German, from Italian, from Arabic, from Persian, from Sanskrit
  • inkivääri (Finnish, 6 links): from Swedish, from Low German, from Latin, from Greek, from Middle Indic, from Tamil
  • キャンディ (Japanese, 6 links): from English, from French, from Arabic, from Persian, from Sanskrit, from Dravidian
  • Taigris (Tok Pisin, 6 links): from English, from Latin, from Greek, from Persian, from Elamite, from Sumerian
  • オレンジ (Japanese, 6 links): from English, from French, from Arabic, from Persian, from Sanskrit, from Dravidian

Most repeat borrowings of the same word[edit]

Cases where one language repeatedly borrowed, or acquired in other ways, the same word from another language.

Direct repeat borrowings[edit]

Vietnamese borrowed Chinese (to roll; a roll) eight times: as cuốn, as cuộn, as cuợn, as quận, as quấn, as quyển, as quyền, and as quyến.

English borrowed Narragansett mishcùp (plural mishcùppaûog) four times: as mishcup, as scup, as paugie, and as scuppaug (all names for the porgy, Stenotomus chrysops).

Indirect repeat borrowings[edit]

Latin macula made its way into Portuguese at least seven times:

  1. mancha (stain, mark, spot) is a regular Portuguese descendant,
  2. mágoa (grief, sorrow) is another regular descendant,
  3. and malha (stain in animal fur) is a third regular descendant,
  4. while mangra (mildew) came (possibly via Spanish) from a reduced Vulgar Latin form macla;
  5. meanwhile, malha (mail) arrived via French,
  6. mácula (stain, blemish) was borrowed directly from Latin,
  7. and maquis was borrowed via French from Corsican.
Furthermore, macla (crystal twinning), which comes from French macle, is of unclear origin; it may derive from macula (spot), or it may derive from mascula (mesh).

Latin macula also made its way into English at least five times:

  1. macula (a spot on skin, the eye, a planet or a moon) was borrowed directly,
  2. macule (blur or double impression in printing) (and variant form mackle) came via French macule,
  3. mail (chainmail) passed through Old French maille (losing the 'c'),
  4. macchia (Mediterranean scrubland) came via Corsican (losing the 'l')
  5. and maquis ((French) resistance movement) came via the same Corsian route but with an added detour through French.
Furthermore, macle (crystal, twin crystal), which comes from French macle, is of unclear origin; it may derive from macula (spot), or it may derive from mascula (mesh).

Most parts of speech[edit]

  • a (English): 11: letter, cardinal number, noun, article, preposition, verb, pronoun, 2 different preposition sections, adverb, adjective, symbol
  • a (Irish): 10: 4 different determiner sections, 4 particle sections, preposition, pronoun
  • a (Portuguese): 8: letter, noun, article, pronoun, preposition, interjection, verb, contraction
  • a (Old Irish): 6 or 7: article, pronoun, conjunction, determiner, particle, particle (2), preposition
  • segundo (Portuguese): 6: noun, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, verb

Most spellings[edit]

When counting spellings, remember to count the main/lemma spelling. :-)

  1. English: voivode (64)
  2. Middle English: seien (43)
  3. English: ambergris (35)
  4. Middle English: milwell (34)
  5. Portuguese: babaçu (33)
  6. English: kinnikinnick (30)
  7. English: scion (28)
  8. English: Kabballah (26)
  9. Portuguese: ambaíba (26)
  10. Persian: اسفناج (esfanâj, esfenâj) (26)
  11. English: djellaba (24)
  12. English: motherfucker (24)
  13. English: Sue, Grabbit and Runne (24)
  14. English: khoomei (21)
  15. English: Hanukkah (20)
  16. English: whoop-de-doo (19)
  17. English: papadam (18)
  18. Armenian: բադրիջան (badriǰan) (18)
  19. Chinese: 疙瘩 (18)
  20. English: you (17)
  21. Asturian: anguaño (17)
  22. English: knowledge (16)
  23. English: everything (15)
  24. English: Portuguese man-of-war (15)
  25. Persian: اسپریس (aspris) (15)
  26. English: yarmulke (15)

Personal names[edit]

listed separately because names' spellings are typically much more variable than words' spellings
  1. Muhammad (102)
  2. Gaddafi (61)
  3. Farquhar (28)
  4. Husayn (24)
  5. Gengis Khan (21)
  6. Muammar (13)
  7. Tchaikovsky (11)

Most pronunciations[edit]

phonemic
phonetic

Most translations[edit]

Terms which have translations into the greatest number of languages.

(as of April 15, 2016)

  1. water [2212] - [2506] as of 22:35, 21 August 2016 (UTC)
  2. woman [789] - [879] as of 03:22, 22 August 2016 (UTC)
  3. dog [482]
  4. fish [399]
  5. rain [399]
  6. corpse [381]
  7. one [346]
  8. fire [338]
  9. smoke [331]
  10. horse [326]
  11. mouth [322]
  12. coffee [321]
  13. eye [308]
  14. sun [305]
  15. ear [304]
  16. iron [300]
  17. butterfly [300]
  18. tree [289]
  19. four [287]
  20. bear [287]
  21. father [286]
  22. I [284]
  23. house [276]
  24. language [274]
  25. man (2) [273]
  26. bee [273]
  27. heart [273]
  28. book [272]
  29. mountain [270]
  30. five [268]

Most semantic relations[edit]

Most descendants[edit]

or Most complete descendants section

Most plurals[edit]

Best citations[edit]

  • háček (attestation is exceptionally comprehensive)
  • ekég (continuous attestation begins exceptionally early) (User:-sche/ek)

Anteroom of Silliness[edit]

Things which are technically correct, but comically phrased, incomplete, etc; made-up senses and joke entries can go in WT:BJAODN.

Hall of Shame[edit]

Exceptionally bad things.

Worst language naming problems[edit]

  • Kara. 6–8 languages vie for this name: zra (a Korean language, also called Kaya), kxh (an Omotic language, also called Karo... like btx; see also arr/Citations:Arara/aap), leu (a language of Papua New Guinea, rarely called Lemakot), reg (a language of Tanzania), kah (a language of the Central African Republic, also called Fer), kcm (a language of the Central African Republic...also called Gula...which is the name of five other languages), some Sudanese language, and some Ethiopian language (see Citations:Kara). See also the w:Kara languages. ([1])
    Oh, and gya (a language of Cameroon and the Central African Republic, the principle variety of which is Kàrà / Kara / Gbaya Kara). (Compare gso, which also called Buli, which is the name of two other languages.)
  • gel : previously called Kag-Fer-Jiir-Koor-Ror-Us-Zuksun.

Worst bureaucratic rabbit holes[edit]

  • on not one but two occasions, active policy votes were subjected to requests for deletion

Worst formatting[edit]

  • The original version of noncuplication, which was for a time unviewable: the formatting was so bad it broke the page. IPA modifier letters were misused as superscripts, other templates (which called still other templates) were nested inside {{term}}, the etymology asserted that the term was formed on the pattern of a nonexistent/redlinked term...
  • Many Sanskrit entries suffer from what one user calls "the near-incoherent terseness of our copyings of a 110-year old Sanskrit dictionary" (Monier-Williams); often, they are only partly in English, partly in Sanskrit, and partly in a code that is sometimes indistinguishable from keyboard-mashing; for example, बुध् (budh) (old revision) and शालिवाहन (śālivāhana) (revision).