Appendix:Romance doublets

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Some doublets are common to several Romance languages.


Latin abrotonum Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan abròtan broida (possibly)
French abrotone vrogne[1] aurone (via Old Occitan; or possibly inherited)
Portuguese abrótano, abrótono abrótea
See also
Galician abrótano abrótea, abrótega
Latin abscondere Borrowed Inherited
French abscondre [2]
Portuguese absconder esconder
Romanian [3] ascunde
Spanish absconder esconder
Latin absolvere Borrowed Inherited
Italian assolvere asciolvere
Portuguese absolver assolver
Latin abundāre Borrowed Inherited
Italian abbondare, abondare (obsolete)
Portuguese abundar avondar, abondar, bondar
Spanish abundar abondar (obsolete or regional)
See also
Galician abundar abondar
Latin ācer[4] Borrowed Inherited
French âcre aigre
Portuguese acre agre, agro, ágrio (Alentejo)
Spanish acre agrio, agro, agre
See also
Galician acre agre
Latin acētum Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese aceto azedo
Spanish aceto acedo
Latin advocāre Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Portuguese advocar advogar, avocar avogar
Spanish advocar abogar
Latin adūnāre Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Portuguese adunar aunar
Spanish adunar aunar
Latin anima Borrowed Inherited
Catalan ànima arma (obsolete)
Italian anima alma
Portuguese anima alma
Spanish ánima alma
See also
Asturian ánima alma
Galician ánima alma
Latin apertūra[5] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan apertura obertura
French aperture ouverture
Italian [6] apertura
Portuguese [7] abertura
Spanish apertura abertura
See also
Asturian apertura abertura
Galician apertura abertura
Occitan apertura dobertura, obertura
Latin apozema Borrowed Inherited
Italian apozema bozzima
Spanish apócema pócima
Latin applicāre Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Catalan aplicar aplegar
French appliquer [8]
Portuguese aplicar achegar
Romanian aplica apleca
Spanish aplicar aplegar allegar
See also
Galician aplicar achegar
Latin apprehendere[9] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan aprehendre aprendre
French appréhender apprendre
Portuguese apreender aprender
Romanian aprehenda (very rare) aprinde
Spanish aprehender aprender
See also
Galician aprehender aprender
Latin aquārius, aquārium Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan aquari, aquàrium aigüer
French aquarium évier aiguière (from Old Occitan)
Italian acquario acquaio
Portuguese aquário agueiro
Romanian acvariu apar
See also
Asturian acuáriu agüeru
Galician acuario agüeiro
Occitan aqüari aiguièr
Latin arbitrium Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese arbítrio alvitre
Spanish arbitrio albedrío
Latin ārea Borrowed Inherited
Catalan àrea era
French are aire
Italian area aia
Portuguese área eira
Romanian [10] arie
Spanish área era
See also
Galician área eira
Latin arēna Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese arena areia
Romanian arenă arină
See also
Galician arena area
Latin articulus[11] Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan article artell
French article orteil[12]
Italian articolo artiglio (likely borrowed from Old Occitan)
Portuguese artículo artigo artelho
Spanish artículo artejo
See also
Galician artículo artigo artello
Occitan artícol article artelh
Sicilian artìculu artigghiu[13]
Latin assimilāre Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Italian assimilare assomigliare assembrare / assembiare (from French)
Portuguese assimilar assemelhar
Romanian asimila asemăna
Spanish asimilar asemejar asemblar (from Old French)
See also
Galician asimilar asemellar
Latin augurium[14] Borrowed Inherited
French augure heur
Portuguese augúrio agoiro, agouro
Spanish augurio agüero
See also
Galician augurio agoiro
Latin augustus[15] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan august agost
French auguste août
Italian augusto agosto
Portuguese augusto agosto
Romanian august agust / gust
Spanish augusto agosto
See also
Galician augusto agosto
Latin auscultāre[16] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan auscultar escoltar
French ausculter écouter
Italian auscultare ascoltare
Portuguese auscultar escutar
Romanian ausculta asculta
Spanish auscultar escuchar
See also
Galician auscultar escoitar


Latin blasphemāre[17] Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan blasfemar blasmar, blastomar
French blasphémer blâmer
Italian blasfemare bestemmiare biasimare (from Old French)
Portuguese blasfemar lastimar
Romanian blasfema (very rare) blestema
Spanish blasfemar lastimar
Latin bulla Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan butlla[18] bolla
French bulle boule[19]
Portuguese bula[20] bolha bola
Spanish bula[21] bolla bola
See also
Galician bula bola bóla


Latin camera[22] Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan cambra càmera (through English and New Latin)
French chambre caméra (through English and New Latin)
Portuguese câmara[23] câmera (through English and New Latin, or influenced by them)
See also
Occitan cambra, chambra camerà (probably through English and New Latin, or through French)
Latin campus Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan campus camp
French campus champ, camp[24]
Portuguese campus campo
Romanian câmp campus (through English and French)
Spanish campus campo
See also
Galician campus campo
Latin cannabis[25] Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan cànnabis cànem
French cannabis chanvre
Italian cannabis canapa
Portuguese canábis [26] cânhamo (through Spanish)
Romanian canabis cânepă
Spanish cannabis cáñamo
See also
Galician cánnabis cánabo
Occitan canabís cambe, carbe
Latin catēna Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan catena (jargony) cadena
French catène (jargony or literary) chaîne cadène (borrowing from North Italian)
Portuguese catena (jargony) cadeia
Romanian catenă cătină (uncertain)
See also
Aromanian cãtinã (uncertain) cadenã (probably through Venetian)[27]
Latin cathedra Borrowed Inherited
Catalan càtedra cadira
French cathèdre chaire, chaise
Portuguese cátedra cadeira
Spanish cátedra cadera
See also
Galician cátedra cadeira
Friulian càtidre cjadree[28]
Occitan catedra cadièra
Venetian càtedra carega
Latin causa Borrowed Inherited
Catalan causa cosa
French cause chose
Italian causa cosa
Portuguese causa coisa / cousa (dated)
Spanish causa cosa
See also
Friulian cause cjosse[29]
Galician causa cousa
Occitan [30] causa / chausa / còsa
Latin cervix, cervicem Borrowed Inherited
Catalan cèrvix [31]
Portuguese cérvice, cérvix cerviz
Romanian cervix cerbice
Spanish cérvix cerviz
Latin circulus[32] Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Catalan círcol (obsolete) cèrcol cercle
Italian circulo cerchio
Portuguese círculo cercho
See also
Friulian circul cercli
Latin circus Borrowed Inherited
Italian circo cerco (obsolete)
Romanian circ cerc
Spanish circo cerco
See also
Asturian circu cercu
Galician circo cerco
Latin clausūra Borrowed Inherited
French clausure (rare) clôture
Italian clausura chiusura[33]
Portuguese clausura chousura
Latin clāviculā[34] Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan clavícula clavilla[35]
French clavicule cheville
Italian clavicola cavicchia caviglia (through Old Occitan)
Portuguese clavícula cravelha chavelha[36]
Spanish clavícula clavija llavija / lavija
See also
Friulian clavìcule cjavile cavicje (probably through Italian)
Galician clavícula chavella
Occitan clavicula cavilha
Latin clāvis Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese clave chave
Spanish clave llave
See also
Galician clave chave
Latin coagulāre[37] Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Catalan coagular quallar
French coaguler cailler
Italian coagulare cagliare
Portuguese coagular coalhar
Romanian coagula închega[38]
Spanish coagular cuajar
See also
Asturian coagular cuayar
Galician coagular callar
Occitan coagular caular calhar
Venetian coagułar cagiar, inconajar[39]
Latin coagulāre[37] Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Latin cohors, cohortem[40] Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan cohort cort
French cohorte cour
Italian coorte corte
Portuguese coorte corte
Romanian cohortă curte cort (through Greek)
Spanish cohorte corte
See also
Friulian coorte cort
Galician cohorte corte
Occitan coòrta cort
Latin cohors, cohortem[40] Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Latin cogitāre Borrowed Inherited
Catalan cogitar cuidar
French cogiter cuider (obsolete)
Italian cogitare coitare
Portuguese cogitar cuidar
Spanish cogitar cuidar
Latin cognātus Borrowed Inherited
Catalan cognat cunyat
Portuguese cognato cunhado
Romanian cognat cumnat
Spanish cognado cuñado
See also
Galician cognado cuñado
Latin collēcta Borrowed Inherited
French collecte cueillette
Portuguese colecta colheita
Spanish colecta cosecha
See also
Asturian colecta collecha
Galician colecta colleita
Latin computāre[41] Borrowed Inherited
French computer (archaic) compter, conter
Italian computare compitare, contare
Portuguese computar contar
Romanian computa[42] cumpăta
Spanish computar contar
See also
Galician computar contar
Latin corpus Borrowed Inherited
Catalan corpus cos
French corpus corps
Italian corpus corpo
Portuguese corpus corpo
Spanish corpus[43] cuerpo
See also
Galician corpus corpo
Latin crassus[44] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan cras gras[45]
French crasse[46] (uncertain; possibly inherited) gras[47]
Italian crasso grasso
Portuguese craso graxo (uncertain)[48]
Romanian cras[49] gras
Spanish craso graso (uncertain)[50]
See also
Galician craso graxo
Latin cubitum, cubitus Borrowed Inherited
Catalan cúbit colze
French cubitus coude
Italian cubito gomito
Portuguese cúbito côvado[51], coto
Romanian cubitus cot
Spanish cúbito codo
See also
Galician cúbito cóbado


Latin dēlicātus Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese delicado delgado
Spanish delicado delgado
See also
Galician delicado delgado
Latin dēnārius Borrowed Inherited
Catalan denari diner
French dénaire (rare, jargony) denier
Italian denario denaro / danaio / danaro
Portuguese denário dinheiro
Spanish denario dinero
See also
Asturian denariu dineru
Galician denario diñeiro
Latin dēpilāre Borrowed Inherited
Italian depilare dipelare
Romanian depila dăpăra, depăra
Latin digitālis Borrowed Inherited
Catalan digital didal
French digital [52]
Italian digitale ditale
Portuguese digital dedal
Romanian digital degetar[53]
Spanish digital dedal
See also
Friulian digitâl dedâl
Galician dixital dedal
Sardinian deidale didale
Latin digitālis Borrowed Inherited
Latin dīrectus[54] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan directe dret
French direct droit
Italian diretto dritto / diritto
Portuguese direto direito[55]
Romanian direct drept
Spanish directo derecho
See also
Friulian diret dret
Galician directo dereito
Occitan directe drech / drèit / dret
Latin dīrectus[54] Borrowed Inherited
Latin duplicāre Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan duplicar doblegar
Romanian duplica dupleca (archaic)[56]
Spanish duplicar doblegar (through Catalan)
See also
Galician duplicar dobregar (through Spanish)


Latin ego[57] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan ego jo
French égo je
Italian ego io
Portuguese ego eu
Romanian ego eu
Spanish ego yo
See also
Galician ego eu
Latin episcopus Borrowed Inherited
Italian episcopo vescovo
Portuguese epíscopo bispo
Latin exāmen Borrowed Inherited
Catalan examen eixam
French examen essaim
Italian esame sciame
Portuguese exame enxame
Spanish examen enjambre
See also
Galician examen enxame
Occitan examen eissam[58]
Venetian exame same / samo
Latin expellere Borrowed Inherited
Catalan expel·lir espellir
Galician expeler espelir
Latin exprimere Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Catalan exprimir esprémer
French exprimer épreindre
Italian esprimere spremere
Portuguese exprimir espremer
Romanian exprima screme
Spanish exprimir, expremir [59]


Latin fabrica Borrowed Inherited
Catalan fàbrica farga
French fabrique forge
Portuguese fábrica frágua
Spanish fábrica fragua
See also
Galician fábrica fragua
Latin fābula Borrowed Inherited
Italian favola fiaba
Portuguese fábula fala
Spanish fábula habla
See also
Galician fábula fala
Latin flamma Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese flama chama
Spanish flama llama
Latin focus Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan focus foc
French feu focus (through English)
Italian foco fuoco
Portuguese foco fogo
Romanian foc focus (rare or jargony, through French and German)
Spanish foco fuego / huego (rare or obsolete)
See also
Galician foco fogo
Latin folium[60] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan foli full, fulla (from plural)
French folio feuille (from plural)
Portuguese fólio folho, folha (from plural)
Romanian foliu foaie (from plural)
Spanish folio hoja (from plural)
See also
Galician folio folla, follo
Latin frīgidus[61] Borrowed Inherited
Catalan frígid fred
French frigide froid
Italian frigido freddo
Portuguese frígido frio
Spanish frígido frío
See also
Galician fríxido frío


Latin gravis[62] Borrowed Inherited
French grave grief
Italian grave greve
Romanian grav greu
Latin glāns[63], glandula Borrowed Inherited
French glande, glandule gland
Portuguese glande, glândula lande
Spanish glande, glándula landre
See also
Galician glande, glándula landra
Latin grātus Borrowed Inherited
Italian grato grado
Portuguese grato grado
Spanish grato grado


Latin hērēditārius Borrowed Inherited
French héréditaire héritier
Portuguese hereditário herdeiro
Spanish hereditario heredero
See also
Galician hereditario herdeiro


Latin implicāre Borrowed Inherited
French impliquer employer
Italian implicare impiegare
Portuguese implicar empregar
Spanish implicar [64]
See also
Asturian implicar emplegar
Friulian implicâ impleâ
Galician implicar empregar
Occitan implicar emplegar
Latin inclūdere Borrowed Inherited
Catalan incloure encloure
French inclure enclore[65]
Italian includere inchiudere (archaic or literary)
Romanian include închide
See also
Galician incluír enchoer
Latin īnsula Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Portuguese ínsula ínsua ilha (through Old Catalan)
Spanish ínsula isla
See also
Galician insua illa
Latin integer, integrum Borrowed Inherited
Catalan íntegre enter
French intègre entier
Italian integro intero
Portuguese íntegro inteiro[66]
Romanian integru întreg
Spanish íntegro entero
See also
Asturian integru enteru
Galician íntegro enteiro
Occitan entegre entiér
Latin integer, integrum Borrowed Inherited

Latin interrogāre Borrowed Inherited
French interroger entraver
Romanian interoga întreba


Latin labōrāre Borrowed Inherited
Catalan laborar llaurar
Portuguese laborar lavrar
Spanish laborar labrar
See also
Galician laborar labrar
Latin lēgālis Borrowed Inherited
Catalan legal lleial
French légal loyal
Italian legale leale
Portuguese legal leal
Spanish legal leal
See also
Asturian llegal lleal
Friulian legâl leâl
Galician legal leal
Latin līberāre Borrowed Inherited
Catalan alliberar lliurar
French libérer livrer
Portuguese liberar livrar
Spanish liberar librar
See also
Galician liberar librar
Latin lūcidus Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese lúcido lúzio (archaic)
Romanian lucid luced
Spanish lúcido lucio
Latin lūmen Borrowed Inherited
Catalan lumen llum
Italian lumen lume
Portuguese lúmen lume
Romanian lumen lume
Spanish lumen lumbre
Latin lupus Borrowed Inherited
Catalan lupus llop
French lupus leu, loup[67]
Italian lupus lupo
Portuguese lúpus lobo
Romanian lupus lup
Spanish lupus lobo
Latin lūx (lūcem) Borrowed Inherited
Italian lux luce
Portuguese lux luz
Spanish lux luz


Latin māchinārī Borrowed Inherited
Italian macchinare macinare
Spanish maquinar maznar
Latin macula Borrowed Inherited
Catalan màcula malla
French macule maille
Italian macula macchia
Portuguese mácula, mágoa mancha, malha, mangra
Spanish mácula mancha, mangla
See also
Galician mácula, mágoa mancha
Latin magister, magistrum Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan mestre màster (from English)
French magister maître maestro (from Italian), master (from English)
Italian magister maestro / mastro
Romanian magistru măiestru maestru (from Italian), maistru (from German), meșter (from Hungarian)
Spanish magíster maeso / maestro maestre (from Old Occitan), máster (from English)
See also
Occitan magestre mèstre
Latin māteria Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese matéria madeira
Spanish materia madera
See also
Asturian materia madera
Galician materia madeira
Latin masticāre Borrowed Inherited
Catalan masticar mastegar
French mastiquer mâcher
Portuguese mastigar mascar
Romanian mastica mesteca
Spanish masticar mascar
See also
Galician mastigar mascar
Latin mediānus Borrowed Inherited
Catalan mediana[68] mitjà, mitjan, mitjana
French médian moyen
Italian mediano mezzano
Portuguese mediano meão
Romanian median mezin[69]
Spanish mediano mejana[70]
See also
Galician mediano meán
Latin medietātem Borrowed Inherited
French médiété moitié
Italian medietà metà
Latin minūtia Borrowed Inherited
French minutie menuise (archaic)
Italian minuzia minugia
Portuguese minúcia miúça
Spanish minucia[71] menuza
See also
Galician minucia miúza
Latin minūtus Borrowed Inherited
Catalan minut menut
French minute (from feminine) menu
Portuguese minuto miúdo
Romanian minut mărunt / mănunt
Spanish minuto menudo
See also
Galician minuto miúdo
Occitan minuta (from feminine) menut
Latin mīrāculum Borrowed Inherited
Catalan miracle mirall
French miracle [72]
Portuguese miráculo milagre
Spanish miráculo milagro
Latin mōbilis Borrowed Inherited
Catalan mòbil moble
French mobile meuble
Portuguese móbil móvel
Spanish móvil mueble
See also
Galician móbil moble
Latin mūtāre Borrowed Inherited
Catalan mutar mudar
French muter muer
Portuguese mutar mudar
Spanish mutar mudar
See also
Galician mutar mudar


Latin nitidus Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan nítid net
French nitide (rare) net
Italian nitido netto
Portuguese nítido nédio
Romanian neted net (through French)
Spanish nítido nidio
See also
Galician nítido nidio neto
Latin nōmināre Borrowed Inherited
Catalan nominar nomenar
French nominer nommer
Portuguese nomina nomear
Romanian nomina număra (obsolete)
Spanish nominar nombrar
See also
Galician nominar nomear


Latin oculus[73] Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan òcul ull
French oculus œil
Italian oculo occhio
Portuguese óculo olho
Romanian ochi oculus (through French)
Spanish óculo ojo
Latin operārī / operāre Borrowed Inherited
Catalan operar obrar
French opérer ouvrer[74]
Portuguese operar obrar
Spanish operar obrar
See also
Asturian operar obrar
Galician operar obrar
Occitan operar obrar
Latin operārius Borrowed Inherited
Catalan operari obrer
French opéraire (very rare, jargony) ouvrier
Portuguese operário obreiro
Spanish operario obrero
See also
Asturian operariu obreru
Galician operario obreiro


Latin palūdem[75] Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese palude paul
Romanian paludă pădure
Spanish palude paúl
Latin pectorālis Borrowed Inherited
Catalan pectoral pitral
French pectoral poitrail[76]
Spanish pectoral petral, pretal
Latin pensāre Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan pensar pesar
French penser, panser peser[77]
Italian pensare pesare
Portuguese pensar pesar
Romanian păsa pansa (from French)
Spanish pensar pesar
See also
Asturian pensar pesar
Friulian pensâ pesâ
Galician pensar pesar
Occitan pensar pesar
Venetian pensar pexar
Latin pensāre Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Latin plānus Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
French plan plain (obsolete)
Portuguese plano porão chão
Spanish plano llano
See also
Asturian planu llanu
Galician planu chan
Latin planta Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese planta chanta[78] (archaic)
Romanian plantă plântă (archaic)
Spanish planta llanta (obsolete)
See also
Galician planta chanta[79]
Latin plicāre Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
French ployer, plier (analogical)
Portuguese plicar pregar chegar
Spanish plegar, pregar llegar
See also
Asturian plegar llegar
Galician pregar chegar

Latin podium Borrowed Inherited
Catalan podi puig
French podium puy (regional, rare)
Italian podio poggio
Portuguese pódio poio
Spanish podio poyo
See also
Aragonese podio pueyo
Asturian podiu poyu
Galician podio poio
Occitan podiòm puèg
Latin podium Borrowed Inherited


Latin quiētō Borrowed Inherited
Catalan quitar (uncertain)[80] quedar (uncertain)[81]
French [82]
Italian quietare chetare
Portuguese quietar, quitar (uncertain)[83] quedar
Spanish quietar, quitar (uncertain)[84] quedar
Latin quiētus Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan quiet [85]
French quiet, quitte[86] coi
Italian quieto cheto
Portuguese quieto quedo
Romanian încet / cet chit (from French)
Spanish quieto quedo


Latin radius Borrowed Inherited
Catalan radi raig
French radius rai
Italian radio raggio
Portuguese rádio raio
Spanish radio rayo
See also
Galician radio raio, raxo
Latin rapidus Borrowed Inherited
Romanian rapid repede
Spanish rápido raudo
Latin ratiō, ratiōnem Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan ració raó ràtio (through English)
French ration raison ratio (through English)
Italian razione ragione ratio (through English)
Portuguese ração razão rácio (through English)
Spanish ración razón ratio (through English)
See also
Galician ración razón


Latin scāla Inherited Indirect borrowing
Catalan escala escala (“stopover”, via Italian)
French échelle escale (“stopover”, via Italian)
Italian scala scala (“stopover”, via Byzantine Greek)
Romanian scară escală (via French), scală (via Italian), schelă (via Turkish)
Spanish escala escala (“stopover”, via Italian)
Latin sigillum Borrowed Inherited
Catalan sigil segell
Italian sigillo suggello
Portuguese sigilo selo
Romanian sigiliu sugel
Spanish sigilo sello
See also
Asturian sixilu sellu
Galician sixilo selo
Latin singulāris Borrowed Inherited
Catalan singular senglar
French singulier sanglier
Italian singolare cinghiale
Portuguese singular senheiro
Spanish singular señero
See also
Galician singular senlleiro
Latin solidus, soldus Borrowed Inherited
Catalan sòlid sou
French solide sou, sol
Italian solido sodo, soldo
Portuguese sólido soldo
Romanian solid solz (possibly)
Spanish sólido sueldo
Latin spatula Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Catalan espàtula espatlla
French spatule épaule
Italian spatola spalla
Portuguese espátula espádua espalda
Spanish espátula espalda
See also
Galician espátula espádoa espalda
Occitan espatula espatla
Latin speculum Borrowed Inherited
Catalan espècul espill
Italian specolo specchio
Portuguese espéculo espelho
Spanish espéculo espejo
See also
Galician espéculo espello
Latin spīculum Borrowed Inherited
Italian spigolo spicchio
Portuguese espículo espicho
Latin status Borrowed Inherited
Catalan estatus, status estat
French état été
Italian status stato
Portuguese status estado
Romanian status stat
Spanish estatus estado
See also
Galician status estado


Latin temperāre Borrowed Inherited
French tempérer tremper[87]
Italian temperare temprare
Spanish temperar templar
Latin tepidus Borrowed Inherited
French tépide (archaic, literary) tiède
Italian tepido tiepido
Portuguese tépido tíbio
See also
Galician tépedo tibio, tibo (archaic)
Latin tractus Borrowed Inherited Indirect borrowings
Portuguese trato treita trecho
Spanish tracto trecho
See also
Galician tracto treito
Latin trāditiō, trāditiōnem Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited
Catalan tradició traïció[88]
French tradition trahison
Portuguese tradição traição
Spanish tradición traición[89]
See also
Galician tradición traizón
Latin tremulus, tremula Borrowed Inherited
Galician trémulo, trémula tremo, trémbora
Spanish trémulo, trémula tiemblo


Latin umbīlicus Borrowed Inherited
French ombilic nombril[90]
Italian umbilico ombelico
Portuguese umbílico umbigo
Romanian ombilic buric[91]
Latin umerus Borrowed Inherited
Portuguese úmero ombro
Romanian humerus umăr
Spanish húmero hombro


Latin vigilāre Borrowed Semi-learned Inherited Indirect borrowings
Catalan vigilar vetllar
French vigiler veiller
Italian vigilare vegghiare (archaic) vegliare (through Old Occitan)
Portuguese vigilar vigiar velar
Romanian (vigil) veghea
Spanish vigilar velar


  1. ^ See also the semi-learned Old French abrogne.
  2. ^ escondre in Old French
  3. ^ The word abscons was borrowed from the Latin past participle, and doublet to the inherited ascuns.
  4. ^ Vulgar Latin *acrus
  5. ^ Vulgar Latin *opertūra.
  6. ^ The sense of "aperture" in apertura was a later learned development or borrowing, despite the word remaining morphologically unchanged.
  7. ^ The sense of "aperture" in abertura was a later learned development or borrowing, despite the word remaining morphologically unchanged.
  8. ^ Old French applier and aploier were inherited.
  9. ^ Also contracted form apprendere.
  10. ^ The senses of "area", "surface" in arie (as opposed to the inherited one of "threshing floor") were learned borrowings from French or Latin, although the word itself was unaltered.
  11. ^ Vulgar Latin *articlus.
  12. ^ Compare Old French arteil.
  13. ^ Uncertain if inherited or a parallel form to Italian artiglio, with Gallo-Romance influence.
  14. ^ Vulgar Latin *agurium.
  15. ^ Vulgar Latin *agustus.
  16. ^ Vulgar Latin *ascultare.
  17. ^ Vulgar Latin *blastemāre.
  18. ^ Uncertain, possibly semi-learned. See also bola, likely borrowed through Occitan.
  19. ^ Most likely; an alternatively theory derives it from Germanic.
  20. ^ See also bola, borrowed through Occitan or Old Occitan.
  21. ^ See also bola, borrowed through Occitan or Old Occitan.
  22. ^ Cf. also the variant form camara.
  23. ^ Cf. also the form cambra.
  24. ^ Northern form, or influenced by other Romance languages.
  25. ^ Vulgar Latin *canapa or *canapis, Late Latin cannabum.
  26. ^ Cf. the inherited Old Portuguese cánamo, cánabo.
  27. ^ Cf. also the form catinã.
  28. ^ Also spelled čhadree in the variant orthography.
  29. ^ Also spelled čhosse in the variant orthography.
  30. ^ The derived word encausa can be used in (some varieties) of Occitan to mean "cause", to differentiate from causa (thing), the inherited result in these varities/dialects.
  31. ^ Old Catalan inherited serviu, a rarely used word.
  32. ^ Vulgar Latin *circlus.
  33. ^ Through a Late Latin form clūsura.
  34. ^ Vulgar Latin *cavicla.
  35. ^ Cf. also clavella.
  36. ^ Cf. also cavilha.
  37. ^ Vulgar Latin *coaglāre.
  38. ^ Either through a Vulgar Latin *incoāgulāre, following metathesis, or later prefixed with în- in Romanian.
  39. ^ Uncertain.
  40. ^ Contracted form cōrs, cōrtem.
  41. ^ Vulgar Latin *compitāre.
  42. ^ Cf. also conta, borrowed through Italian contare, French compter.
  43. ^ Possibly through the intermediate of English.
  44. ^ Vulgar Latin *grassus.
  45. ^ Cf. also greix from a Vulgar Latin *grassies/crassise or from Old Catalan graixa, itself from a Vulgar Latin *grassia or *crassia.
  46. ^ From the feminine Old French cras.
  47. ^ Cf. also graisse from a Vulgar Latin *grassia or *crassia.
  48. ^ Possibly a derivative of graxa, itself from a Vulgar Latin *grassia or *crassia.
  49. ^ Partly through French crasse.
  50. ^ Possibly taken from another language as it appears late in Spanish texts; cf. also the more common grasa.
  51. ^ Possibly semi-learned; see also cotovelo
  52. ^ With analogy; compare Old French deel. See also the derived term délot.
  53. ^ Unsure, possibly coined in Romanian.
  54. ^ Vulgar Latin *dērēctus and *drēctus.
  55. ^ Modified orthographically from Old Portuguese dereito.
  56. ^ See also the prefixed verb îndupleca.
  57. ^ Vulgar Latin *eo.
  58. ^ Cf. also the form asèim (exam).
  59. ^ Cf. the inherited Old Spanish form espremir.
  60. ^ Cf. also Late Latin folia, from the plural.
  61. ^ Also Vulgar Latin fricdus, attested in the Appendix Probi, and frigdus, fridus.
  62. ^ Vulgar Latin *grevis.
  63. ^ Vulgar Latin *glandō.
  64. ^ Cf. Old Spanish emplegar, which was likely inherited.
  65. ^ Through a Vulgar Latin variant *inclaudere.
  66. ^ Probably modified from Old Portuguese enteiro.
  67. ^ Possibly from a dialectal variant, formed analogically, or influenced by Old Occitan.
  68. ^ From the Latin feminine.
  69. ^ Likely; an alternative theory derives it from Slavic.
  70. ^ From the feminine.
  71. ^ Cf. also the semi-learned variant menucia.
  72. ^ Old French mirail
  73. ^ Vulgar Latin oclus, attested in the Appendix Probi.
  74. ^ Cf. also the form œuvrer, formed analogically.
  75. ^ Vulgar Latin *padūle.
  76. ^ Compare Old French poitral.
  77. ^ See also Middle French poiser.
  78. ^ Alternatively, it may be a derivative of the verb chantar, from the related Latin plantāre.
  79. ^ Or probably from chantar, from the related Latin plantāre.
  80. ^ Probably an early or semi-learned borrowing from the Medieval Latin form quitāre, or underwent an abnormal phonological evolution.
  81. ^ Alternatively, a derivative of Old Catalan quet, queda, as it was attested relatively late (1575).
  82. ^ Cf. quitter, which is likely a derivative of quitte, or occasionally seen as derived from a Medieval Latin form quitāre.
  83. ^ Possibly an early or semi-learned borrowing from the Medieval Latin form quitāre, or possibly through an (Old) French intermediate.
  84. ^ Either an early or semi-learned borrowing from the Medieval Latin form quitāre, or a derivative of Old Spanish quito, with an abnormal phonological evolution.
  85. ^ Old Catalan quet was probably inherited.
  86. ^ Early borrowing from the Medieval Latin form quitus.
  87. ^ From Old French temprer by metathesis.
  88. ^ Either semi-learned or a derivative of the verb trair (from Latin tradere) with the suffix -ció.
  89. ^ Either semi-learned, modified from the inherited Old Spanish trayçón, or a derivative of the Old Spanish verb traer (from Latin tradere) with the suffix -ción.
  90. ^ Through a Vulgar Latin diminutive *umbilīculus, with the -n- from the preceding indefinite article 'un' being appended (rebracketing).
  91. ^ Possibly through a Vulgar Latin root *umbulicus, and re-analyzed with a preceding indefinite article 'un', which was subsequently removed.