Appendix:Russian stress patterns - nouns

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According to the classification system of Andrey Zaliznyak (Андре́й Зализня́к) there are 6 stress patterns of Russian nouns’ declension, with 4 variants.


The stress falls on:
pattern letter a b b' c d d' e f f' f''
In nom/gen/dat/pre sg stem ending ending stem ending ending stem ending ending ending
In acc sg stem ending ending stem ending stem stem ending stem ending
In ins sg stem ending stem stem ending ending stem ending ending stem
In nom pl stem ending ending ending stem stem stem stem stem stem
In gen/dat/ins/pre pl stem ending ending ending stem stem ending ending ending ending
example мото́р ‎(motór) вещество́ ‎(veščestvó) любо́вь ‎(ljubóvʹ) слой ‎(sloj) игра́ ‎(igrá) душа́ ‎(dušá) ко́рень ‎(kórenʹ) слеза́ ‎(slezá) гора́ ‎(gorá) грудь ‎(grudʹ)


NOTE: Boldfaced cases differ from the other cases in the same number (singular or plural).

Mnemonic:

  1. Patterns a/c/e (or odd-numbered) have stem stress in the singular. Patterns b/d/f and variants (or even-numbered) have ending stress in the singular.
  2. In a and b, plural is like singular. In c and d, it's opposite. In e and f, the plural has moving stress: ending stress, except the nominative plural with stem stress.
  3. The variant patterns (b', d', f', f'') are all ending-stressed in the singular except for one case: accusative singular in d' and f', instrumental singular in b' and f''. (In nouns, patterns d' and f' occur only with feminines in -а and -я, and b' and f'' occur only with feminines in -ь.)


Zaliznyak's dictionary for determining the stress pattern of any word (marked there as a, в, с, D, е, F).

See also[edit]