Appendix:List of Proto-Yoruboid reconstructions

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The following list of Proto-Yoruboid reconstructions is from Akinkugbe (1978: 828-852).

Classification[edit]

Classification from Akinkugbe (1978):

  • Proto-Yoruba-Igala
    • Igala
    • Proto-Yoruba-Isekiri
      • Isekiri
      • Proto-Yoruba

List[edit]

No. Gloss PYIG (Proto-Yoruba-Igala) PYIS (Proto-Yoruba-Isekiri) PYOR (Proto-Yoruba)
1 abuse v., insult v. *bú
3 arid, up *rò
4 all *dVdV
9 arrive, meet *dé
10 ashes *e-rĩ́rṹ
11 ask (question) *bi
12 axe *ɛ-dʊ̃̀
13 axe *-ké
14 back *à-ɲì̃
15 bag *à-kpò
16 bald, be *kpá (?)
19 beans *ɛ̀-gwà
20 beans *e-rèé
21 beat (person, drum) *lù
22 bedbug *ɪ̀-dʊ̃
23 bee, honey *o-ɲĩ
25 big, great *-la
26 bird *ɛ-wɛ
27 block, be *-dṹ
28 block (of hole, ear) *dĩ
30 blood *ɛ̀-byɛ̀
31 blow (of wind, with mouth) *fɛ́
32 blow (of wind) *jù
33 body *V-ra
36 bone *V-k'ĩk'ũ
39 bow n. *ɔ-ɗʊ̃
40 break (pot, calabash etc.) *fɔ́
42 break (nut) *kpa
43 breast *ɛ-ɲã̀
44 breast *ɔ-mʊ̃́
45 breathe *ŋmĩ́
46 buffalo (bushcow) *ɛ-fã̀
47 build (with bricks) *kɔ́
49 burn (trans.) *jó
50 bury (object) *ɗì
51 bury (corpse) *sĩ
52 buttocks, button *ù-dí (ì-)
54 buy *rà
55 calabash *ʊ-gbá
56 call, summon *kpè
57 carry load (on the head) *ɗù
58 carry load (with hands) *gbé
59 carve (of wood) *gbɛ̃́
62 chest *à-yà
64 chew, masticate, crush *rʊ̃́
65 chew-stick, timber logs *o-rĩ́
66 chicken, fowl *a-dɪ̀wɛ
67 child(ren) *ɔ-mã
68 chin, jaw *à-gbã̀
69 choose *ɲã̀
71 clear (bush) *cã́
72 climb, mount *gũ̀
74 cock *à-kɪ̀kɔ
76 come *ɓá
77 cook, boil *sì
78 corpse *ò-kú
79 count *kà
80 cover, put on (head, pot) *dé
81 cover up, protect *bò
82 cowry, niece (of something), seed *ɛ-yɔ
83 crab *a-kɪ̃ã̀rã́
84 crocodile *ɔ̀-nɪ
85 crow *kɔ
89 cut (with knife, axe), hack, peck *cá
90 cut (with hand), sever *já
92 dance v. *jí
93 defecate *cũ
94 demolish (?) *gwí
96 destroy, exterminate *rũ
97 dew *è-rì
98 die *kú
100 dig *gwà
101 dig, bore into (something) *gwɔ̀
102 disease, illness *à-wʊ̃̀
103 divide, share *kpɪ̃́
106 dog *a-byá
107 drag *gwɔ́
108 dream v. *lá
109 dream n. *V̀-lá
110 drink *ŋmʊ̃
111 drive (vehicle), paddle *gwà
112 dry, become (of voter, cloth, etc.) *gbɛ
113 duiker, antelope *a-tu
115 ear *e-tĩ́
117 eat *jɛ
118 egg *ɛ-g'ɪ
119 eight *ɛ́-jɔ
120 elephant *e-rĩ
122 end V., be finished *kpaVɗí
123 end v., be finished (intr.) *tã́
124 end of (something) *òkpĩ
125 enter (a place) *wɔ̀
126 evening *a-lɛ́
127 evidence *à-rí
131 eye *e-jú
132 fads (of materials colour) *cá
133 faeces, excrement *i-wĩ́
134 fall (of rain) *rɔ̀
135 farm n. *o-ko
136 farmer *à-gbɛ̃̀
137 fastens lock, close *tĩ̀
138 fasten, lock, dam *sé
139 fat (?) *V̀-rá
140 fear n. *à-rũ̀
141 feather *ɪ̀-wɛ́
142 feed (somebody) *bɔ́
143 female *o-bí
144 female *a-bo
146 fight v. *jà
149 fire *ʊ-nɪ̃ã́
151 fish *ɛ-ja
152 fishhook *ʊ̀-wɔ̀
153 five *à-rʊ̃ã́
154 flow (as water, river) *cã̀
155 fly, jump *fò
156 foam, rage, boil over *Có
158 foot, leg *ɔ-sɛ̃̀
159 forget *-gbé-
160 four *ɛ̀-rɪ̃
162 friend *o-lùkũ
163 friend *ɔ̀-rɛ́
164 fruit *è-so
165 fruit-bat *à-dɪ̃ã́
166 fry (in oil) *dɪ̃́
167 full, he *kʊ̃́
170 give birth *bí
171 glitter, shine *dã́
172 go *lɔ
173 goat, he *ɔ̀-bʊ́kɔ
174 goat, she *e-ɓí
176 gown, robe *à-wù
178 grease *ʊ̀-jà (ɪ̀-)
180 greet, salute *gwa
181 greet, salute *kĩ́
182 grey hair *i-ɓṹ
183 grind *lɔ̀
184 grinding stone *V-lɔ
185 ground, earth *V-lɛ̀
187 grumble, murmur *kʊ̃̀
188 guinea fowl *a-wí
189 guts, intestine *ìfũ (?)
191 hair *ʊ-rʊ̃
192 hand *ɔ-ɓɔ́
193 hard, be, be difficult *nĩ
195 hasten, quicken *yá
196 have, possess *nɪ̃́
197 he, she *ò-ŋũ
198 head *o-ɗí
199 hear *gbɔ́
200 heart (as a seat of emotion), chest *ɛ̀-dʊ̃̀
201 heart (as an organ), conscience *ɔ-kɪã̀
202 heavy, be *-ɓo
204 hips, waist *à-gí
205 hoe v., weed v. *ro
206 hoe n. *ɔ-kɔ́
208 hole *u-Cò (i-)
210 horn (of animal) *ù-ɣo
211 hot, be (as pepper) *ta
212 house *u-lí
213 housefly *V-cĩcĩ
214 hunger *e-bi
216 hunter *ɔ-dɛ
217 husband, (male) *ɔ-kɔ
218 I *ò-mĩ
220 inside of *ɪ-nʊ̃́
223 iron (metal) *ʊ-rɪ̃ (ɪ-)
226 journey *à-jò
228 kill *kpa
229 knee *-kṹ
230 knife *ɔ̀-bɛ
231 know *mã̀
232 ladle (wooden) *ʊ̀-kpã (ɪ̀-)
233 language *è-dè
234 laugh *rĩ́
235 laughter *à-rĩ́
236 leaf *e-wé (i-)
237 lean against *rɔ̀
238 learn, each *kɔ́
239 left (hand, side) *ò-sì
241 lick *lá
243 live in, dwell in *gbé
244 liver *V̀-dɔ̀
245 load *a-ɗũ̀
247 look at *g'ò
248 lose (something), get lost *-nɔ̃̀
249 lost, be (intr.) *-nɔ̃̀
251 louse *ʊ-nɪ̃ã́
252 maggot *ɪ̀-dɪ̃
253 make, do *ce
255 make ridges *kɔ
258 man, male *ɔ-kʊ̃rɪ̃
259 many, he *wéwe
260 market place *a-jà
262 mat *a-nĩ́
264 measure *ŋwã̀
265 meat, animal *ɛ-rɪ̃ã
266 medicine *o-gũ̀
268 millipede *ɔ̀-kʊ̃̀
269 money *e-ɣí
270 month *o-cũ̀
271 moon *ɔ̀-cʊ̃̀kpá
272 mosquito *i-mṹ
273 mould (pottery), build (with clay) *mã
274 mouldy, become, become rotten *bu
276 mouth *a-rʊ̃ã
278 nail v. *kã̀
279 nail (finger, toe) *ɛ̀-kɪ́kɪ̃ã́nã́
280 name n. *o-ɗú
281 navel, umbilical cord *u-do (i-)
282 neck *ɔ-rʊ̃̀
283 new, be *-tʊ̃
284 night *ò-ɗũ
285 nine *ɛ̀-ɛɪ̃ã́
286 noon *ɔ̀-sɔ̃́
287 nose *ɪ-ŋmʊ̃́
288 nothing, emptiness *-fo
290 oil, palm oil *e-kpo
291 old, be (of person, material) *gbí
292 one *ɪ-nɛ̃́
293 ooze (as water from rock) *sʊ̃
294 open *cí
295 open, make way, separate *bì
298 pare (nails) *ré
299 pay (for something) *sɪ̃ã
301 peel (with knife), slice *bɛ
303 pepper *a-ta
304 perch (as bird), descend *bà
305 perish *gbé
306 person *ɔ-nɪ̃
308 pierce, prick, stab *gṹ
309 pierce, bore a hole *lu
310 plait (hair, rope), weave *bã
311 plait (hair, rope), tie *dĩ̀
312 plant v. (tubers) *gbɛ̃̀
314 pound (in mortar) *gṹ
315 pour *dà
316 praise v. *ɲɪ̃̀
318 pregnant, become *ɲʊ̃́
322 profit, gain *V̀-rè
324 pull *fà
325 push *tĩ̀
328 rabbit, hare *a-Coro
329 race n. *V-ré
331 rain, stream *a-ji
332 rain *ò-jò
333 ram *à-gbò
334 razor *a-bɛ
335 receive, accept, obtain *gbà
336 recount, tell, say, gossip *kà
337 red, be *-kpa
338 refuse v. *kɔ̀
339 rejoice *yɔ̀
340 relative-in-law *à-nɪ̃ã
341 reply n., answer n. *V̀-sì
342 ribs *ʊ̀-ɣà
343 ridges *V-bV̀
344 right (band, side) *ɔ̀-tʊ̃́
345 ripe, become *kpã́
346 roar, cry aloud *bú
347 roast (in fire) *sʊ̃
350 rone (general) *V-kũ̀
351 rotten, become *kɛ̀
352 rotten, become *rà
354 rub *kpa
355 run (a race) *sá
356 rush out *rí
357 saliva *ɪ-tɔ̃́
358 salt *o-ɓũ
359 salt *ɪ-yɔ̀
361 say *gwĩ́
363 scrape off (with knife, razor) *fá
364 scratch, itch *Cʊ̃́
366 sea *ò-kũ
367 see *rí
368 seed, grain *u-rú
371 sell *tà
372 send (someone to do something) *rã́
374 set trap, hunt *dɛ
375 seven *è-bye
377 sew (with thread) *rã́
378 shade, swing *mĩ̀
379 shake off, peel off *ŋwã́
383 shoot (gun) *ɲi
384 shoot (arrow, catapult) *ta
385 show, appear *ŋɪ̃ã̀
386 side (of house, road) *V̀-bá
387 side (of body) *ɛ̀-gbɛ́
388 six *ɛ̀-fà
389 skin (by hand) *bí
390 skin off, scratch *ɣa
391 skin, hide *a-g'ɔ̃
392 slave *a-ɗú
393 sleep v. *sũ̀
394 sleep n. *o-rũ
395 slice, chop *rɛ́
397 smell, stink *rũ̀
398 snail *ʊ̀-gbɪ̃́ (ɪ̀-)
399 snake *e-jò
400 snap, break (stick), fold *cɛ́
401 snatch, catch *ŋã́
402 snore *ŋwõ̀
403 soft, be, be tender *rɔ̀
404 soft, be (become excessively ripe) *dɛ̃̀
405 song *e-rĩ
406 sour, become *kã
407 smear *ɔ̀-kɪɔ̀
408 split, divide *dá
409 split *là
410 sprout, grow, germinate *Cù
413 steal *jí
415 stomach *u-kũ̀
416 stomach (internal) *ɪ-nʊ̃́
417 stone *ɔ̀-kʊ́ta
418 storage barn *á-ká
419 storage barn *a-bà
421 stretch, extend *nã̀
422 string (beads, cowries etc.) *sé
424 sun *o-rũ̀
425 swallow *m'ĩ̀
426 sweep *gbá
427 swell *ɓú
428 swing *Cì
430 tail (of animal) *ù-rũ̀
431 take (one thing), catch, seize, hold *mṹ
432 take (part of) *bù
433 take portion out (with a ladle, shovel etc.) *kɔ
434 take off (clothes) *bʊɔ́
435 taste *tɔ́-
436 taste, test, tempt *dã́(ɣò)
438 tear *ya
439 tears *a-kʊ̃ã́
442 ten *ɛ̀-gwá
446 they, them *à-ɓã
447 thief *o-lè
448 thigh *ʊ-tɪ̃ã (ɪ-)
449 think *rò
450 thirty *ɔ-gbã̀
451 thorn, prickle *à-gṹ
452 three *à-ta
453 throat *à-ta
454 throw *sɔ
455 throw *jù
456 tie (rope, animal etc.) *so
458 timber, trunk (of a tree) *ì-tì
460 tongue *ʊ-ɓã́
461 tooth *e-ɲĩ́
462 tortoise *a-ŋʊ̃
463 touch, make contact with *bà
464 touch, make contact with *tɔ́
465 tree, firewood *e-gĩ (i-)
468 turn, roll *yí
469 twenty *o-gṹ
470 twist (rope, material) *lɔ́
471 twist (limb) *rɔ́
472 two *è-jì
473 umbilical cord *ʊ̀-ɣɔ́
475 untie *tú
476 urinate *tɔ̀
477 urine *ɪ̀-tɔ̀
478 vagina *ò-bò
479 voice *o-ɓũ̀
480 vomit *bì
481 vomit, precipitate *sɛ̃̀
483 walk v. *rɪ̃̀
484 walk n. *ʊ̀-rɪ̃̀
485 wall *ɔ̀-ɗɔ̀
486 wall *ò-giri
487 want (desire), like *fɛ́
488 war *o-gũ
489 wash (clothes, plates, etc.) *fɔ̀
490 wash (body), bathe *gwɛ̀
491 water *o-mĩ
492 wear, put on (clothes) *wɔ̀
493 wear, put on (clothes) *nĩ́
494 weave *ŋʊ̃
496 we *à-ɓa
498 weep, cry *sʊ̃
499 wet, be, be cold *-tũ̀
500 white, be *-fũ
501 wind *V̀-fù
502 wine, beer (general word) *ɔ-tɪ̃́
503 wither (of leaves, flowers, plants etc.) *rɔ
504 woman, female *ɔ-bɪ̃̀rɪ̃
505 word, matter *ɔ̀-rɔ̀
506 word, matter, trouble *ɔ̀-rã̀
507 work n. *ʊ-cɛ́
508 wrap *ɓé
509 wring (clothes), squeeze *fʊ̃́
510 wring, squeeze, press (for demand) *Cí
511 yam *u-cũ (i-)
512 yawn *ɲã́
513 year *ɔ-dʊ̃́
514 you sg. *ʊ̀-ɓV
515 you pl. *ɛ̀-ɓɪ̃

References[edit]

  • Akinkugbe, Olufẹmi Odutayo. 1978. A comparative phonology of Yoruba dialects, Iṣẹkiri and Igala. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan. 916pp.
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