Appendix:Paleosiberian Swadesh lists

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a Swadesh list of Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Yukaghir and Yupik languages, specifically Chukchi, Koryak, Itelmen, Kerek, Northern Yukaghir and Southern Yukaghir and one or more others, compared with that of Ainu and Nivkh, as well as English.

These are known as Paleosiberian languages, not a family proper but a term of convenience that includes some language isolates.

Note: Additional vocabulary words have been added after word no. 207 ("name"), since the original lengths of Swadesh lists are either 100 or 207 words.

English Ainu
(isolate)
Nivkh
(isolate)
Yukaghir
(family consisting of Southern and Northern Yukaghir)
Chukchi
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Koryak
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Aliutor
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Kerek
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Itelmen
(Chukotko-Kamchatkan
language)
Yupik
(family consisting of various languages)
1 I ku-, kani ɲi met
2 you
(singular)
e-, eani cʰi tet
3 he Φ-, sinuma if (Amur)
yaŋ (Sakhalin)
тудел (tudel)
4 we a-/-an (incl.), aoka, ci-/-as (excl.), coka ɲɨŋ (excl.)
mer ("we and you-PL.")
megi ("we and thou")
mit
5 you
(plural)
eci-, ecioka cʰɨŋ тит (tit)
6 they Φ-, oka imŋ титтел (tittel)
7 this tanpe
tu (Sakhalin)
tu­ŋ (adj.)
8 that toanpe hɨ, hu (adj.)
hɨʤ, hud (pron.)
taŋ­ut (pron.)
9 here te tur, tus
tunx
tuin
ten
10 there toan uske hur, hus taŋ­udeŋ­ ("thither")
11 who nen
hunna
aŋ, aŋa kin meŋin
12 what nep
hemanta
sidʒ leme, lem-, neme, nem-
qa, qaj, qo, qoj, (V-)ʁa
13 where hunak řajn, rajn qadungə, qado:ngə
qol, qoʎ (before -ʎə "be")
14 when henpara ɨɣr, ɨɨr, ɨɨř qaɲin, qajin, qajn
15 how makanak jaʁoc, jaɣodʒ, jaɣut, jagut, jangur
sidʒ-ɣir
qodo, qod, qoda:
qojt ("why")
16 not somo qʰau ("be not") el
øjʎə, øjʎ(-V), øjʎe:- ("be not, have not")
17 all opitta sɨk jawner (subj.), jawnuo (obj.), jawnej (adj.)
c͡çumu, c͡çumut
ym-
18 many poronno tam ("numerous")
malʁo ("much")
poj(-uol) ("multiple")
ningə, ning(-V), ninge:(-ʎəl)
myk-
19 some ponno ɲoɲuq, niɲaq ("a bit") i:le
20 few moyo hɨsk- ("to be few in number") alʁamla
21 other oya ena
22 one sine ɲaqr (generic) ma:rq(-uo), ma:rqa(-n)
irk(-i), irki:, irkin
Atauciq 23 two tu meqr (generic)
mor (animals)
Malluk 24 three re ja:n (adj.) Pingayun 25 four íne Staamat 26 five asikne Talliman 27 big poro pil-, pila, pilkar cam(-uol), cama-
c͡çomo, c͡çom(-V), c͡çomm(-V:)
28 long tanne kɨl-, kɨlkar̥
29 wide sep ver-
30 thick ironne
31 heavy pase
32 small pon maʧki-, mɨʧkɨlk (as a child) juk(-uol), juku-, ʎuku- im-
33 short takne mχaq-
34 narrow hutne nok- ("small; narrow")
puski- ("tight")
35 thin ane
36 woman menoko umgu (Amur)
řaq, řaŋq (Sakh.)
paj
apanala: ("old woman")
terikə ("old woman; wife")
ŋewəsqet ŋavəchŋən ŋawħan mimsx aʁnaq
37 man
(adult male)
okkayo utku (Amur)
utkun (N Sakh.)
azməʨ (E Sakh.)
azmʨ (S Sakh.)
køj ("young man")
pulut, pulun- ("old man; husband")
38 man
(human being)
aynu
kur
ɲivx kode, gode, gøde, kol(-le), køn(-die) (dim.) (Tu)
ʃoromə, ʃoromo (Ko)
ci:, ɟi: (Tu: "people")
Angun 39 child
(a youth)
hekaci oɣla, oʁla (Amur & N Sakh.)
eɣlŋ, eʁlŋ (E Sakh.)
eχlŋ (S Sakh.)
uo, uor
ø:, ø:r, ø:rə
40 wife mat umgu ("woman, wife") terikə
41 husband hoku utku ("man, husband") pulut, pulun- 'uwequc
42 mother hapo, unu ɨmɨk emej
43 father mici, aca, ona ɨtɨk ama:
eçe:
ytlyg-
44 animal siknup ŋa enʝo:ŋ, enʝo:d (literally, "one that lives")
45 fish cep ʧʰo
ma ("dried fish")
anil, ani- ynnyt
46 bird cikap pɨjŋa, pɨjɨŋa ("flying animal")
cevrq ("little songbird")
ɲolel, nodo, noda:
47 dog seta qan
ŋajq ("puppy")
nonoq, nonq, nonk ("puppy, cub")
la:me
48 louse ki, urki, rayoki amraq, amřq
49 snake tannekamuy (literally, "long deity") kɨlɨŋa ("long animal")
tɕavda ("serpent")
umlaŋ ("malicious one," E Sakh.)
50 worm kikir keliʝə
51 tree ni ʨiɣr, ʨi:r (Amur, also "forest" or "firewood")
ʨiɣř (N Sakh.)
jugul
jollə (fallen or rotten tree)
ʃa:l, ʃa:-, ʃa- (as a material)
52 forest nítay sa:nmonile (Tu)
jo:bi: (Ko)
53 stick
(of wood)
nítek tɕoz ("twig") jaʁiʝə
54 fruit níkaop als ("berry, acorn, mushroom")
tʰoʁs ("pine nut")
kɨp ("bird cherry")
lebejdi: ("berry")
55 seed pi, tane xem ("pip, kernel, a grain (of roe)")
56 leaf ham comr polʒiçə
57 root nísinrit vizlɨx larqul
58 bark
(of tree)
níkap hivs ("birch bark") ʃanʁa:r
59 flower nonno eŋvak
eɲq, eɲk
papak
60 grass kina uʎegə w'aj
61 rope tus heβa igeje ("cord")
62 skin
(of a person)
kap, kamka hal qa:r
63 meat
(as in flesh)
kam ʧus c͡çu:l
64 blood kem ŋar leppul, leppu, lepul, lepu mɫim
65 bone pone ŋəɲf amun 'ym-
66 fat
(noun)
kirpu
sum ("oil")
ŋoχ
tʰom ("oil")
ʃo:nbə, ʃoŋdə
poŋiçə
67 egg nok ŋojq, ŋojeq
ŋojχxu ("eggs")
hɨɣr ("roe")
68 horn kiraw muřki unmu, unmut ("reindeer antler")
69 tail sar ŋɨki
70 feather
(rather not down)
rap ŋɨrɣɨř
tupr ("feather, down")
71 hair otop ŋɨŋk
ɨf ("whiskers")
majlə kyr-
72 head sapa coŋř jo: (of a human)
kø:kə (of an animal)
73 ear kisar nos, noz- (_#V) unemə, unumə
74 eye sik ɲaχ aŋʝə
75 nose etu mix joʁul
76 mouth par ɨŋk
ɨl ("into one's mouth")
aŋa
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
nimak ŋɨɣs, ŋɨːs saʎʁari:
todi:
rytyn
78 tongue parunpe hilx
79 fingernail am tɨkɲ, tɨkɨɲ
80 foot ure ŋaʧx nojl, noj-
81 leg kema ŋɨʧx, ŋaʧχ nojl, noj-
82 knee kokkasapa pix poʁo
83 hand tek tamk, tɨmk nugen
84 wing tekkup uje
85 belly hon qoχ iril, iri-, iɣř- ("stomach")
86 guts kankan
87 neck rekut qʰos ɲami:(-da)
jomul, jomu-, imil, imi-
88 back setur kɨdr
ŋɨski ("spine")
joboʁə, jouʁə
89 breast totto ("teat")
penram ("chest")
mɨcik, mock ibiʃi:
90 heart sanpe ŋif ʃubeʝə
91 liver kinop tʰivs kudeʝə
92 to drink ku(tr.), iku(intr.) ra lawi(-te), law(-je)
o:ʒə, o:ʒ-, oʒ-, o:ʒa:-
93 to eat e(tr.), ipe(intr.) ɲi (tr.), iɲ (intr.) løgi, leg(-uo), lew(-­ŋu)
leg, leu, lej(-d), lek(-k), lem(-m), leŋ(-ŋ)
94 to bite kupa neri
95 to suck ni momo, momu, momɨ ib
96 to spit topse hurtvaj (mulʎə) peʃʃəj ciŋketure icciɲcəva, icciŋtəva ilfəntus
97 to vomit atu vɨks, hurtvaj
98 to blow
(as wind)
as teʁ puj
99 to breathe hése tʰa ju:çi:, ju:çə
100 to laugh mina haʁa nø:
qaʝilb
101 to see nukar(tr.), inkar(intr.) ɲřə, idə
(j)ama, (j)ajma ("look, watch")
ʎuo, juo, juø, jø:
icuo ("watch, notice")
102 to hear nu mɨ, mi mor(-mori)
mød
103 to know
(a fact)
eraman(single), eramuoka(plural) jiim, jim, jəjm ("know how to v.")
hajm
lej
mød ("feel, understand")
104 to think ramu(tr.), yaynu(intr.) eːz, ez
kʰɨmlɨ-
lej
ønmə-gə ej ("to get in one's mind" > "to remember, to recall, to think of")
105 to smell
(sense odor)
húrarapkar nuɣju peʝel, peʝe ("stench") tykek
106 to fear sitoma hlud
iŋlə, iŋli:, iŋl- ("afraid, frightened")
107 to sleep mokor qʰo- joŋʒə, joŋʒa:-, joŋʒ(-V), iŋʒ(-V), uŋʒ(-V) (also means "forget")
mal ("to fall asleep, to get to sleep")
jylqyjyl
108 to live siknu hum- ("to be in a certain place, to dwell, to reside")
mořqa-, morqa- ("to be alive")
en, eʝ(-V), eʎ(-ʎ)
modo ("to occupy, inhabit, to dwell, to reside")
109 to die ray mu jabe
am
110 to kill rayke(single), ronnu(plural) kʰu (def. obj.)
iɣ (indef. obj.)
buɲi(-l), puɲ, pun(-nun)
kude, kud-
111 to fight tumikor əɣmə, u:mu kimʝ(-V), kimʝə, kimʝe:, kimʝi:
112 to hunt
(transitive)
ramante ŋɨŋ qaŋi: ("to chase")
113 to hit kik paj
ʃapa, ʃaba ("to strike (a log) with an ax")
114 to cut tuye(single), tuypa(plural) řa-, -tʰa- ("to chop (firewood, etc.)") c͡çoʁ, c͡çou, c͡çaʁ(-a:), c͡çoq(-k), c͡çoŋ(-ŋ)
c͡çoln
c͡ça:qi: ("to shave off slices of frozen fish")
c͡çine ("to chop")
115 to split perpa
116 to stab
(or stick)
otke řɨ-, -tʰɨ- ("to stick something through something") kigie
117 to scratch
(an itch)
kerkeri aje:
118 to dig ouri(single), ourpa(plural)
119 to swim ma řɨm jara:
120 to fly hopuni(single), hopunpa(plural) pɨj mere, mer(-V) riŋek
121 to walk apkas nɨŋ
amam
eg, ej(-rə)
122 to come ek(single), arki(plural) pʰrɨ, prɨ
pʰrɨivu, prɨivu
kel, ke:(-j), keʎ(-ʎ)
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
hotke poz-, por-, pʰor- abud ("lie down; sleep with (a person)")
qud(-uol)
qodo, qod(-V), qot(-t) ("lie in a certain place" (less active, more stative than abud)
124 to sit a(single), rok(plural) hurtiv, hurtɨv saʁan, saʁane(-l)
modo, mod(-V), moda:-, mad(-a:), mot(-t)
125 to stand as(single), roski(plural) oz ("stand up, rise")
kɨpr, kɨpř ("be standing")
ege, eg(-e:/-ej), oʁ(-o:)
126 to turn
(change direction)
sikari pʰirk ɲuo ("to be twisted"), ɲuore ("to spin (fibers)")
jodo, jod(-V), joddə, jot(-t) ("to twist")
jømgə, jømg(-i:) ("to go around (a tent, etc.)")
127 to fall
(as in drop)
hácir tɨmz- ([v.i.] "drop")
kut-
pol- ("someone falls")
kɨ- ("to fall (as precipitation)")
ɲoʁo
je:, ej- ("to fall (as snow), to come to a rest (as a projectile)")
128 to give kore iːmɨ-, imɨ-, imɣ-, im-
-xim-, -kʰim-
ki:(-l)
kej
tadi:, tad-
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
ani(single), anpa(plural) vo, ev moj, mo(-j) inenretyk
130 to squeeze nunpa
131 to rub siru c͡çaʁ ("touch with a hand")
132 to wash huraye(single), huraypa(plural) tʃXojtʃu
133 to wipe piru(single), pirpa(plural) xedr, hedr
ɲev
134 to pull etaye(single), etaypa(plural) irlɨ, ilɨ ju:tə ("to pull in; to inhale")
abudu ("to pull out or through")
135 to push oputuye(single), oputuypa(plural) erq
van
136 to throw eyapkir(tr.), yapkir(intr.) vɨks, vɨkz, pɨjz, pɨz, paz
fɨɲ-, -pʰɨɲ- ("to throw something in/at someone/something")
su:sej
pejʒi:
peʃʃəj, peʃʃə-
137 to tie sina jup
rov-, -tov-, -dov- ("to tie something to something")
ifk- ("to tie something, to harness something")
uldə, uld-, ultə, ult-, ulte:-
138 to sew ninninu pʰot, joʧ- ("to sew something")
jaɣ-, -aɣ- ("to sew something on something")
ik, i:(-d)
iŋʝə, iŋʝi:
tyni-, waŋek
139 to count piski uru- ("to count; to read") c͡çuŋ
140 to say ye(tr.), itak(intr.) it-
xez-, -kʰez- ("to tell someone something")
mon
nieʝi
pundu
iwyk
141 to sing sinotcaki lu jaqtə, jaqt(-V), jaqta:-
142 to play sinot ler- juore
jo:də, jo:d(-V), jo:da:-
143 to float pékanke lerk- je:, e-
144 to flow mom vi- ("to go") ojʎ, oj- ("stream")
145 to freeze rupus kɨŋ (as fish)
hoʁo, hoʁ
qiwjek
146 to swell putke tʰɨ puke:
147 sun cup, tókap cup kʰeŋ jeʎo:ʝə Macaq 148 moon cup, kunne cup loŋ kinʝə Iraluq 149 star nociw uɲɣɨř, uɲɣř
150 water wakka cʰaχ o:ʒi: mimyl Emeq 151 rain apto lɨx tibo, tib(-V)
152 river pet eri unuŋ, un-
153 lake to tu jalʁil, jalʁi-
154 sea
(as in ocean)
atuy keřqŋ, kerq, kʰeřq, kerͪq ("seaside, beach, by the sea")
tol ("sea(water), ocean")
cawul
155 salt sippo taftʃ
156 stone suma paχ
tɕeɣraf ("rock")
qajl
ʃøjl, ʃejl, ʃej- ("small stone")
pe: ("large stone; hill, mountain")
wykwylgyn
157 sand ota maχ cəɣej səɣajjə, səɣaj, sɣaj siɣaj
158 dust pana
159 earth
(as in soil)
toytoy mif luku(-n)
lebe:, lebie
nute-
160 cloud niskur
161 fog úrar tʃʰɨlɨ
162 sky nisor lɨx ("the look of the sky, weather") kuʒu:
163 wind
(as in breeze)
réra la ilejə
164 snow upas ŋaqř pukeʎə
aŋʁəjə ("snowstorm")
165 ice konru lur jarqə, jarq(-V)
166 smoke supuya tʰuf ju:l, ju:- (also "breath; a rest")
167 fire ape tʰuɣř, tʰuɣr, tʰuːř, tʰuř loçil
168 ash úna
169 to burn
(intransitive)
uhuy u pe:də, pe:d, ped
170 road ru tif, dif, tʃif c͡çugø
171 mountain nupuri, kim pal
tir, tʃʰir ("bare peak")
pe: ("mountain, hill; large stone") ŋej-
172 red húre paʁ- ("to be red"), paʁla, paːlɨ
helu
kejlə, kejl(-V)
173 green siwnin tʃŋɨr vala
qala
174 yellow siwnin evřq vala ʃaqalə (also means "fox")
175 white retar qonu
qalʁalɨ
ʧʰaŋ- (as a pelt)
pojnə, pojɲa:-, poɲ(-qə)
176 black kunne vɨlvɨlɨ, vɨlvɨl
piu- (as hair or skin)
embə
177 night kunne paf
uːrk, ɨrk
ci­ŋice
emil, emi- ("night")
em ("to be/get dark")
emiçə ("darkness; dark spots (on the Moon)")
amməl ("to spend a night, to stay overnight")
joulə ("evening")
178 day
(daytime)
to muɣf, muːf, muf cajle
poʝorqə, poʝerqə
179 year pa ɲəmolʁil, ɲəmolʁiʎ(-J), ɲəmolʁi(-n)
180 warm
(as in weather)
sirpopke qʰav puge, pug-
181 cold
(as in weather)
méan tuz
tiv-, tivla, tivlɨ (as wind or tea)
c͡çel, c͡çe:(-j) qiwjen
182 full sik saru-, -ʧʰaru- ("to fill something with something")
183 new asir tʃuz iʎʎə, ilʎel
184 old husko mrolv (as footwear)
hɨjm (as a person)
lige (as a person)
185 good pirka ur-, urla, urlɨ
nama- ("to be appropriate, to fit someone; to be good (as one's life, business, etc.)"), namɨ, ŋama
amu(-ce), am(-uo), ama(-qa:)
omo:, omo(-j)
186 bad wen ɨki
ɨkis
ɨkila
er, eru:
187 rotten
(as, a log)
munin pollə, poll-(V)
188 dirty icakkere ŋalʁo
189 straight owpeka mɨkr
190 round sikari pulbuluk qadmudul ("a ring")
191 sharp
(as a knife)
een tʰuɲ
192 dull
(as a knife)
enukar mɨj
193 smooth rárak laqlaq polʒiçə ("a leaf; a slippery surface")
194 wet teyne tʃʰaftʃʰava, tʃʰeftʃʰeva oŋ­unbe ("to get soaked, to get wet")
oŋ, oʁ(-V)
195 dry
(adjective)
sat tʃʰe, tʃe
tʃʰevu, tʃetʃfur
teʎie ("to get dry")
silʁaʎa: ("to dry out")
ke:ʎə
196 right
(correct)
owpeka mɨks ("honest, truthful, right")
aχt ("reliable")
197 near hanke ma- ("to be near, to be a short way")
laʁa, laʁas
me:kə, me:klə-, melʁəl, migi cymce
198 far tuyma tʰɨ-, tʰɨlf, tʰɨlv ju:kə jaal
199 right
(side)
símoysam
200 left
(side)
harkisam
201 at ta
202 in ta -mi ("inside")
203 with
(accompanying)
tura -kʰrɨ, -xrɨ
204 and wa
205 if yakun
206 because kusu
207 name re qʰa ɲu:
208 house cise tɨf (Amur), taf (Sakh.) nime, nimie-ɲ
numø
jaraŋə
aɣra
209 wall cisetumam ŋaɣs, ŋaɣɨs, ŋa:s
210 deer yuk ʧʰolŋaj ("stag")
tʰoχ ("elk")
talaw (Tu: "wild deer"), tolou (Ko: "wild reindeer")
ile (Tu: "domestic deer or horse")
a:çə, a:ça:- (Ko: "domestic reindeer or horse")
211 mouse ermu ɲaɣr, ɲaɣř ("rat") ʃøjʎbul
jukuɲme:jə
212 rabbit isepo osq
hɨjk ("hare")
c͡çolʁərə, c͡çolʁəra:- milute
213 eagle sícikap qanil, qani-
214 spider yáoskep
215 face nan ɲa:çə, ɲa:ça:-
216 body netopa kedel (Tu)
ʃure (Ko)
217 navel hanku
218 finger askepet pe:diçə rylg-
219 sick
(painful)
arka juoɟen(-ɟe) ("sick")
jo:ʎə, jo:ʎ(-V) ("ill")
joʁ, jo:(-ç) ("hurt")
220 needle ay nux mideʝə
221 clothing amip ɲe:r, ɲe:(-n) ewir'yn
222 thunder kamuyhum
223 lightning imeru
224 above ka
225 below corpok
226 to cough omke
227 to buy hok ke- tkur-
228 to choose numke
229 to grow tuk, sukup tyŋ-ek
230 to open maka əlx
231 to steal eikka(tr.) ikka(intr.)
232 to dream wentarap
233 to cry cis
234 to yawn mawsok
235 to cook ci
236 six íwan ŋax
237 seven arwan ŋamg
238 eight tupesan minr
239 nine sinepesan ɲəɲbin, ɲəɲben
240 ten wan mχoqr (generic)

External links[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic: Arabic (standard)Egyptian Arabic Palestinian ArabicTunisian ArabicCypriot Maronite Arabic – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Bukitan – Bulgarian – Burmese – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: CantoneseGanMandarinMin Nan (Amoy)Min DongSichuaneseOld Chinese – Czech – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian – Esperanto – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – FrenchFrench (old) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian – German – Greek: Greek (modern)Greek (ancient)Greek (Mycenaean) – Guaraní – Gujarati – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong (White) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ido – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish – Istro-Romanian – Italian – Japanese – Kashubian – Khmer – Konkani – Korean – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Lojban – Luwian – Macedonian – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Marathi – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Nepali – Old Portuguese – Ossetian – Polish – Portuguese – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish – Sranan – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik – Tahitian – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Reconstructed languages

Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Slavic

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Hokan – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – South American – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan