Appendix:French doublets

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Standard pairs[edit]

Both terms are (almost) a direct match etymologically speaking (minimal analogical alteration in the inherited term), and (at least somewhat) common in standard French.

Latin Borrowed Inherited
acer âcre aigre
apprehendere appréhender apprendre
armātūra armature armure
articulus article orteil[1]
augustus auguste, Auguste août
auscultāre ausculter écouter
Bulgarus bulgare bougre
calamus calame chaume
canīcula canicule chenille
canonicus canonique chanoine
castrāre castrer châtrer
causa cause chose
Christiānus Christian chrétien, crétin
clāvicula clavicule cheville
coāgulāre coaguler cailler
cohors cohorte cour
cumulāre cumuler combler
dīvīnus divin devin
dīrectus direct droit
districtus district détroit
diurnus diurne jour
dōtāre doter douer
exāmen examen essaim
fabrica fabrique forge
factiō faction façon
fragilis fragile frêle
frīgidus frigide froid
fūsiō fusion foison
gracilis gracile grêle
hērēditārius héréditaire héritier
hospitālis hôpital hôtel
implicāre impliquer employer
inversus inverse envers
lēgālis légal loyal
līberāre libérer livrer
Ludovicus Ludovic Louis
masticāre mastiquer mâcher
mātūrus mature mûr
mediānus médian moyen
mōbilis mobile meuble
mūsculus muscle moule
mūtāre muter muer
nāvigāre naviguer nager
nātālis natal Noël
nātīvus natif naïf
palma palme paume
pāpiliō papillon pavillon
pedester pédestre piètre
peregrīnus pérégrin pèlerin
pietās piété pitié
pōtiō potion poison
prehensiō préhension prison
prīmārius primaire premier
ratiō ration raison
recuperāre récupérer recouvrer
redemptiō rédemption rançon
respectus respect répit
rigidus rigide raide[2]
sacrāmentum sacrement serment
sēparāre séparer sevrer
simulāre[3] simuler sembler
singulāris singulier sanglier
solidus solide sou
sollicitāre solliciter soucier
spatula spatule épaule
Stephanus Stéphane Étienne
strictus strict étroit
subvenīre subvenir souvenir
surgo surgir sourdre
temperāre tempérer tremper[4]
territōrium territoire terroir
trāditiō tradition trahison
ululāre hululer hurler
vitrum vitre verre
Latin Borrowed Inherited

Latinisms[edit]

Latin Latinism Borrowing Inheritance
aquārium aquarium évier
campus campus champ, camp
cursus cursus cours
lapsus lapsus laps
processus processus procès
quattuor quatuor quatre
sinus sinus sein
thēsaurus thésaurus trésor
tībia tibia tige
versus versus (through English) vers

Borrowed at different periods[edit]

Latin Borrowed 2 Borrowed 1
bitūmen bitume béton
cholera choléra colère
communicāre communiquer communier
modulus module moule
organum organe orgue
podager podagre pouacre
scholāris scolaire écolier
speciēs espèce épice
Latin Borrowed 2 Borrowed 1
hebdomadārius hebdomadaire hebdomadier
saeculāris séculaire séculier

Semi-learned[edit]

An inherited term was remodelled after its etymon (a process called réfection), or a borrowing was heavily Frenchified. There are many instances.

Latin Borrowing Semi-learned Inherited
acūtus acut (obsolete, jargony) aigu Old French ëu[5]
canālis canal chenal Old French chenel
capitālis capital cheptel[6] Old French chatel
indūcere induire[7] enduire

Two inherited terms?[edit]

Latin Inherited 1 Inherited 2
*domnicella demoiselle[8] donzelle

Pairs with one obsolete, very rare or jargony term[edit]

Latin Borrowed Inherited
abbreviāre abrévier (obsolete) abréger
aestuārium estuaire étier (jargony)
antecessor antécesseur ancêtre[9]
augurium augure  heur[10] (obsolete)
auricula auricule (jargony) oreille
caementum cément (jargony)  ciment
campānea campagne champagne f (expanse of flat, cultivated earth) (jargony)
canthus canthus (jargony) chant (jargony)
capitulum capitule (jargony) chapitre
cathedra[11] cathèdre (archaic, rare) chaise
cippus cippe (jargony) cep
coctiō coction (rare)[12] cuisson
cōgitāre cogiter cuider[13] (obsolete)
collocāre colloquer (archaic, rare) coucher
constāre conster (obsolete) coûter
conventus convent (archaic, rare) couvent
cōpula copule (jargony) couple
cōpulāre copuler coupler (rare, jargony)
dēnārius dénaire (rare, jargony) denier
despectus despect (obsolete, rare) dépit
discus disque dais (literary)
dormītōrium dormitoire (archaic) dortoir
encaustum encauste (jargony) encre
exprimere exprimer épreindre (archaic, rare)
exsūcāre essucquer (obsolete, jargony) essuyer
fistula fistule felle (archaic, jargony), fêle
flagellum flagelle (jargony) fléau
flēbilis flébile (rare, literary) faible
frātria[14] fratrie frairie (archaic)
gaudēre gaudir (obsolete) jouir
imprimere imprimer empreindre[15] (archaic)
incantāre incanter (rare) enchanter
lābrum labre (jargony) lèvre
lāicus[16] laïc lai
lāmina lamine (jargony) lame
Lazarus Lazare ladre
lenticula lenticule (jargony) lentille
macula macule (rare, jargony) maille
mensa mense (archaic, rare) moise (jargony)
minūtia minutie menuise (archaic)
monastērium[17] monastère moutier (obsolete)
nāvicella navicelle (jargony) nacelle
nitidus nitide (rare) net
oblāta oblat (jargony) oublie (archaic, jargony)
operārī opérer ouvrer (archaic, jargony or literary)[18]
operārius opéraire (rare, jargony) ouvrier
ossifragus ossifrage (jargony) orfraie
ostiārius ostiaire (jargony) huissier
perīculōsus périculeux (rare) périlleux
praestāre prester (regional) prêter
quadrātum cadrat (jargony) carré
rāsus ras[19] rez[20]
rota rote (jargony) roue
rotundus rotond[21] (archaic, rare) rond
signum signe seing (archaic, literary)
sinistre sinistre senestre (jargony, literary)
scūtārius scutaire (jargony) écuyer
spatha[22] spathe (jargony, rare) épée
symphōnia[23] symphonie chifonie (jargony)
tegula tégule (jargony) tuile
tepidus tépide (archaic, rare) tiède
tremulāre trémuler (literary, rare) trembler
verecundia vérécondie (obsolete) vergogne
vigilia vigile (archaic) veille

Latinisms[edit]

Latinisms, also called unadapted borrowings, most of them are scientific terms.

Latin Unadapted borrowing Borrowing Inherited
angelus angélus ange
ātrium atrium (historical) aître (archaic)
bonus bonus (through English) bon
candēla candela (through English, jargony) chandelle
chorus chorus (jargony) chœur (semi-learned)
corpus corpus corps
credo crédo (je) crois
cubitus cubitus coude
focus focus (through English) feu
forum forum for[24] (obsolete), fur[25] (obsolete)
frīgidārium frigidarium (jargony) frigidaire
iēiūnum jéjunum (jargony) jeun
imperātor impérator (historical) empereur
locus locus (jargony) lieu
lupus lupus (medical) loup (from Occitan)
māior major majeur
mansiō mansion (jargony) maison
mediātor médiator médiateur
medulla médulla (jargony) moelle
nimbus nimbus nimbe
nōdus nodus (medical) nœud
oculus oculus (jargony) œil
pensum pensum (literary) poids
podium podium puy (regional)
radius radius (jargony) rai
scrīptōrium scriptorium écritoire
ūvula uvula (jargony) uvule
vitellus vitellus (jargony) veau
vīvārium vivarium vivier

Hellenisms[edit]

Ancient Greek Latin Borrowed Inherited
ἐκκλησία ecclēsia ecclésia (historical) église
θήκη thēca thèque (technical), -thèque taie
κῦμα cȳma cyme (technical) cime

Obsolete[edit]

Middle French[edit]

Middle French had an inherited term, completely replaced by a borrowed one in Modern French. These are very numerous.

Latin Borrowed Modern French Inherited Middle French
rememorārī remémorer remembrer
repatriāre rapatrier repairer[26]
sapidus sapide (literary, rare) sade[27]
suāvis suave souef
victuālia victuaille vitaille[28]

Middle French had a borrowed term which didn't survive

Latin Inherited Modern French Borrowed Middle French
rēgālis royal regal[29]

Old French[edit]

Old French had an inherited term, completely replaced by a borrowed one in Modern French. These are very numerous.

Latin Borrowed Modern French Inherited Old French
applicāre appliquer applier, aploier
baptizāre baptiser baptoier
bestia bête bisse
calumnia calomnie chalonge
*cultivo cultiver coutiver
dignitās dignité deintié
domesticus domestique domesche
factīcius factice faitis
factūra facture faiture
flaccidus flaccide flaistre
fratria fratrie frerie
incarnāre incarner encharner
minimus minime merme
mirāculum miracle mirail
orīginem origine orine
regula règle reille, reule (semi-learned)
supplicāre supplier souploier
tenax tenace tenais
Latin Borrowed Modern French Inherited Old French

Borderline cases[edit]

Too much analogy in the inherited term (change of prefix or suffix, conflation with other words, etc.) for it to be a real doublet.

Latin Borrowing Inherited
candēlābrum candélabre chandelier
captīvus captif chétif
colligere colliger cueillir[30]
dēnūdāre dénuder dénuer
digitālis digital [31]
ērādīcāre éradiquer arracher[32]
fidēlis fidèle féal[33]
gravis grave grief
integer intègre entier[34]
Neptūnus Neptune lutin[35]
papȳrus papyrus papier[36]
pectorālis pectoral poitrail[37]
vāgīna vagin gaine

Partial correspondances[edit]

One is borrowed, the other inherited
Latin French borrowed Latin French inherited
adjacens adjacent adjacentia (neuter plural) aisance
album album alba (feminine) aube
animal animal animālia (neuter plural) aumaille (obsolete), armaille (obsolete)
caseārius casier caseāria (feminine) chasière (jargony, obsolete)
dēbitum débit dēbita (neuter plural) dette
festūca fétuque (jargony) festūcum fétu
insignis insigne insignia (neuter plural) enseigne
minūta (feminine) minute minūtus menu
persicus persique persica (feminine) pêche (peach)
precārius précaire precāria (feminine) prière
ventōsa (feminine) ventouse[38] ventōsus venteux
vocālis vocal vocālis (feminine) voyelle
volātilis volatile volātilia (neuter plural) volaille
Both are inherited
Latin French inherited Latin French inherited
bracchium bras bracchia brasse
cornū cor cornua[39] corne
grānum grain grāna graine
vascellum vaisseau vascella vaisselle

Latinisms[edit]

Latin French borrowed Latin French inherited
foliō (ablative) folio folia (neuter plural) feuille
viā (ablative) via via (nominative) voie

Subjective case/Objective case[edit]

Latin accusative Objective/Accusative Latin nominative Subjective/Nominative
cantōrem chanteur cantor chantre
compāniōnem compagnon compāniō copain
Medieval Latin garciōnem garçon Medieval Latin garciō gars
hominem homme homō on
minōrem mineur[40] minor moindre
majōrem majeur major maire
nonnain (obsolete) nonne
pastōrem pasteur[41] pastor pâtre
putain pute
seniōrem seigneur, sieur senior sire
tropātōrem troubadour[42] tropātor trouvère

Old French 1[edit]

>> OUTSIDE OF SCOPE The inherited terms in Modern French usually come from the objective case, which was longer. For a few words however, the subjective case was kept.

Latin objective case subjective case Modern French
antecessor ancessor ancestre ancêtre
*coquistrō cuistron, coistron questre cuistre
*pinctor[43] peintor peintre peintre
presbyter provoire prestre prêtre
soror seror suer sœur
trāditor traitor traitre traître

Old French 2[edit]

>> OUTSIDE OF SCOPE Useless, but funny.

objective case subjective case
graignor graindre

From spelling variants to doublets[edit]

Formed in French.

1 2
bénit béni
compter conter
différent différend
exhausser exaucer
fonds fond
galle gale
penser panser
repaire repère
veau vau (jargony)

From variants to doublets[edit]

Latin Variant 1 Variant 2
*assopīre assoupir assouvir
cathedra chaire chaise
collum col cou
credentia créance croyance
*dīvīsāre[44] diviser deviser
plicāre ployer plier
rotulus[45] rôle roule
tabula taule tôle
torta tourte tarte
Variant 1 Variant 2
appel appeau
mac mec
oreillon orillon

French participles[edit]

Slightly outside of scope, and not perfectly accurate.

Latin Inherited Analogical
exclūsa écluse exclue
ēmōta émeute émue
ēlecta élite élue
potens puissant pouvant
sapiens savant sachant
serviens sergent servant
torsus[46] tors tordu
valens vaillant valant
volens veuillant voulant
Latin Borrowed French
amans amant aimant (from aimer)
perversus pervers perverti

Borrowings from Dutch[edit]

Latin Borrowed from Dutch French
coquus coq queux
rēgula rigole règle

Dialectal loans[edit]

For some of these, a process that was originally dialectal became temporarily productive in central French due to limited analogy -- this was the case with devoicing of the final palatals, as Mazzola notes.

Latin Inherited Old French Dialect loan Stage Source
granica grange granche Early Old French A northern dialect
vindicāre venger revancher Early Old French A northern dialect
cathedra chaire chaise Middle French A western dialect
franciscus François français Middle French a lower class Paris dialect
benedictus benoît benêt Middle French a Norman dialect or a lower class Paris dialect

Borrowings from English[edit]

A fair amount of them are reborrowings (i.e. the English term was borrowed from French or Old French).

Etymon From English French
Latin *botellīnus pudding boudin
budget bougette (historical)
Latin *buxita box boîte
Latin calumnia challenge calomnie
Latin camera caméra chambre
Latin contrāta country contrée
ticket étiquette
Latin *exquadra square équerre
Latin *focālia fuel, fioul fouaille
gay gai
Latin humor humour humeur
interview entrevue
Latin palātium palace palais
penalty pénalité
Latin rēgula rail règle
Italian schizzo sketch esquisse
standard étendard
Italian studio studio étude
Latin tostus toast tôt

Borrowings from Italian[edit]

Some of them are unadapted borrowings. The musical terms especially could be seen as instances of code-switching rather than plain French terms; some of them are reborrowings from French anyway.

Latin Borrowed from Italian Borrowed from Latin Inherited from Latin
alacer allegro allègre
balneum bagne bain
caballārius cavalier  chevalier
*cadentia cadence chance
calcāre calquer côcher (obsolete, rare)
cauda coda queue
clāra Clara Claire
consuētūdinem costume consuétude coutume
crypta grotte crypte
dēsignāre dessiner désigner
dux doge duc
fiasco flasque
*fortiātus forçat forcé
humilitas omerta[47] humilité
intricāre intriguer intriquer (rare)
lacūna lagune lacune
lentus lento lent
magister maestro maître
numerus numéro nombre
opera opéra œuvre
oratorius oratorio oratoire
palatīnus paladin palatin
phlegma flemme phlegme
plānus piano plain
praestus presto prêt
scāla escale échelle
solus solo seul
*superānus soprano souverain
trombe trompe
vīlla villa ville
vindicta vendetta vindicte

Borrowings from Occitan or Provençal[edit]

Latin Borrowed from Occitan Borrowed from Latin Inherited from Latin
aquila aigle aille (dialectal)
-āta(m) -ade -ée
bicornis bigorne bicorne
cacāre caguer (regional) chier
caput  cap chef
cappa cape chape
capra cabre (regional) chèvre
capsa caisse capse châsse
cardō[48] cardon chardon
carricāre carguer[49] (jargony) charger
carnārium carnier charnier
castanea castagne châtaigne
castellum castel (regional) château
dactylus[50] datte dactyle
fāta fade (regional) fée
forma fourme[51] (jargony) forme
gradus grau (regional) grade
*Hispāniolus espagnol épagneul
iūrātus jurat (regional) juré
lupus loup leu (obsolete)
magistrālis mistral magistral
pilōsus pelouse pileux
presbyter[52] praire presbytre (jargony) prêtre
provincia Provence province
rotāre rôder rouer
spatha espade spathe épée
stella Estelle étoile
*tropātōr(em) troubadour trouvère, trouveur
vicārius viguier (jargony) vicaire voyer

Borrowings from Portuguese[edit]

Latin Portuguese borrowing Borrowed from Latin Inherited from Latin
caldāria caldeira [53] chaudière
colubra[54] cobra couleuvre
factīcius fétiche factice [55]

Borrowings from Spanish[edit]

Latin Borrowed from Spanish Borrowed from Latin Inherited from Latin
adjutantem adjudant aidant
armāta armada armée
domina duègne dame
fābulārī hâbler (archaic) fabuler (rare)
infans infant (historical) enfant
iūncta junte jointe
māsculus macho mâle
niger nègre noir
pannus pagne pan
patella paella patelle poêle
pedō péon pion
pigmentum piment pigment
rēgālis réal royal
rīvus rio ru (archaic, literary)
sexta sieste sexte, sixte

More than two[edit]

Triplets[edit]

Latin 1 2 3
cancer cancer cancre chancre
capitellum caudillo cadeau chapiteau
castellānus castillan castellan châtelain
catēna catène (jargony) cadène chaîne
computāre computer (archaic, rare) compter conter
cucurbita cucurbite (jargony) courge gourde
mediāna médiane misaine moyenne
parabola parabole palabre parole
patella patelle (jargony) paella poêle
pedester pédestre piètre pitre
pensāre penser panser peser[56]
polypūs polype poulpe pieuvre
senior senior (from English) señor sire
quaternī quaterne (jargony) caserne cahier
quiētus quiet (rare) quitte[57] coi
vicārius vicaire viguier (jargony) voyer (jargony)
vīpera vipère guivre (rare) vouivre (rare)
Latin 1 2 3
Ancient Greek French 1 French 2 French 3
ἄγκυρα[58] Ankara Angora ancre
κιθάρα[59] cithare guitare cistre

Quadruplets[edit]

Latin 1 2 3 4
capsa[60] capse casse caisse châsse
cathedra cathèdre cadière chaire chaise
*exquadra escadre escouade square équerre

Quintuplets[edit]

Latin 1 2 3 4 5
benedīctus Bénédicte[61] benoît, Benoît benêt bénit béni
magister magister (borrowing, archaic) magistre (jargony, through Greek) maestro (through Italian) master (through English) maître
Ancient Greek 1 2 3 4 5
φάλαγξ[62] phalange (jargony) palanque (jargony) palanche (regional) palan (jargony) planche

False doublets[edit]

One or both of the terms doesn't directly come from the Latin term, but was formed (*) in French or in the language from which it was borrowed.

Latin 1 2
aquaticus aquatique aigage*
auriculāris auriculaire oreiller*
cāritās charité[63] cherté*
circulāre circuler cercler*
collecta collecte cueillette*
crispāre crisper crêper*
cursārius corsaire* coursier*
dēcadentia décadence déchéance*
dēviāre dévier dévoyer*
ducātus ducat duché*
examināre examiner essaimer*
*explicitāre expliciter* exploiter
explicāre expliquer éployer*
importāre importer emporter*
inclīnātiō inclination inclinaison*
labor labeur labour*
ligāmentum ligament liement*
ministeriālis ministériel* ménestrel
quadrātūra quadrature carrure*
sēcūritās sécurité sûreté*
taxāre taxer tâcher*
tractāre tracter* traiter
virtuōsus virtuose vertueux*

Derived terms of doublets built identically[edit]

1 2
châsse–caisse enchâsser encaisser

Two different intermediaries[edit]

Ultimate source Intermediary one Result Intermediary two Result
*xorvatъ Croata Croate Hr̀vāt cravate

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Compare Old French arteil.
  2. ^ From earlier roide, originally the feminine form of Old French roit.
  3. ^ Also similāre.
  4. ^ A metathetic form of Old French temprer.
  5. ^ Still found in the toponym Montheu.
  6. ^ Altered after chef.
  7. ^ Altered after the inherited form enduire.
  8. ^ See also damoiselle.
  9. ^ From the nominative case.
  10. ^ Still found in the compounds bonheur and malheur.
  11. ^ From Ancient Greek καθέδρα (kathédra).
  12. ^ The prefixed word décoction is much more common.
  13. ^ Still found in outrecuidance.
  14. ^ From Ancient Greek φρατρία (phratría).
  15. ^ Still found as the nominalised past participle empreinte.
  16. ^ From Ancient Greek λαϊκός (laïkós).
  17. ^ From Ancient Greek μοναστήριον (monastḗrion).
  18. ^ Still found in the derived terms ouvrable, ouvrage and ouvrier. See also œuvrer, an analogical form built on œuvre.
  19. ^ Chiefly found in prepositional phrases such as à ras bord.
  20. ^ Exclusively found in rez-de-chaussée.
  21. ^ See also the nominalised feminine rotonde, a borrowing from Italian.
  22. ^ From Ancient Greek σπάθη (spáthē).
  23. ^ From Ancient Greek συμφωνία (sumphōnía).
  24. ^ Found almost exclusively in the phrase for intérieur in Modern French.
  25. ^ Found exclusively in the phrase au fur et à mesure in Modern French.
  26. ^ Still found in the deverbal repaire.
  27. ^ Still found in maussade.
  28. ^ Still found in ravitailler.
  29. ^ Only found in the phrase eau régale in Modern French.
  30. ^ Compare Old French cueudre.
  31. ^ Compare Old French deel.
  32. ^ Compare Old French esrachier.
  33. ^ Compare Old French feel.
  34. ^ Compare Old French entir.
  35. ^ Compare Old French netun.
  36. ^ Compare Old French papir.
  37. ^ Compare Old French poitral.
  38. ^ From ventōsa [cucurbita].
  39. ^ Vulgar Latin *corna.
  40. ^ Borrowing.
  41. ^ Semi-learned form.
  42. ^ Borrowed from Old Occitan trobador, while trouvère is a proper French word. The Old French form of the oblique case is troveor, whence perhaps French trouveur (unless it was coined in French).
  43. ^ Classical Latin pictor.
  44. ^ Also dissimilated Vulgar Latin devisāre.
  45. ^ Medieval Latin rollus.
  46. ^ Unattested? Supine torsum found in Priscian; usual tortus.
  47. ^ From a Southern Italian variant of umiltà.
  48. ^ Medieval; compare Classical carduus.
  49. ^ Undoubtedly comes from the Latin word, but exact path unknown. See also cargaison.
  50. ^ From Ancient Greek δάκτυλος (dáktulos).
  51. ^ See also fromage.
  52. ^ From Ancient Greek πρεσβύτερος (presbúteros).
  53. ^ However, see caldarium.
  54. ^ Vulgar Latin *colobra.
  55. ^ Old French faitis.
  56. ^ See also Middle French poiser.
  57. ^ From Medieval Latin quitus
  58. ^ Latin ancora.
  59. ^ Latin cithara.
  60. ^ See also the diminutive capsula, borrowed as capsule.
  61. ^ Borrowing from the feminine benedīcta
  62. ^ There are several Latin forms: phalanx, phalanga, palanga, *palanca (hypercorrect).
  63. ^ Borrowing with partial Frenchification.

Bibliography[edit]