Appendix:List of Proto-Palaungic reconstructions

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The following list of 885 reconstructed Proto-Palaungic forms is from Sidwell (2015).

Full list of reconstructions[edit]

No. Gloss Proto-Palaungic
1. we (dual) *ʔaːj
2. crow *kə(l)ʔaːk
3. bow, crossbow *ʔaːk
4. crow *ʔaːk
5. molar *ʔaːm
6. wasp *kəʔaːɲ
7. sky *-ʔaːŋ
8. open (mouth) *ʔaːŋ
9. bone *cəʔaːŋ
10. bone *cənʔaːŋ
11. stone *rəʔaːŋ
12. two *ləʔaːr
13. sour *səʔaːr
14. speak *rəʔah
15. he, she, it *ʔan
16. be *ʔan
17. dark *ʔap
18. swell *ʔas
19. poison *ʔɔ/ɤm
20. cough *kənʔɔ/ok
21. three *ləʔɔːj
22. thorn *pəʔɔːk
23. pungent *ʔɔːm
24. hornet *ʔɔːŋ
25. lead *ʔɔːr
26. swell *ʔɔːs
27. wipe *ʔɔːt
28. I, me *ʔɔːʔ
29. we (pl. incl.) *ʔɛʔ
30. give, take *ʔe(ː)h
31. all, out of *ʔɤc
32. cloud *pəʔɤːm
33. he, she, it *ʔɤːn
34. rotten *ʔɤm
35. warm *cəʔɤm
36. warm *cəʔɤ/uːr
37. stop, refrain *ʔɤt
38. hiccough *-ʔɤʔ
39. armpit *ʔiək
40. chicken *ʔiɛr
41. alive, raw *ʔiːm
42. centipede *-ʔiːp
43. person, other(s) *ʔiːʔ
44. water *ʔoːm
45. tears *ʔoːm-ŋaːj
46. chest *cəʔoːŋ
47. crow *rəʔoːʔ
48. stink *ʔu/oːj
49. place, put *ʔuːn
50. loud noise *ʔuːs
51. smell (receive and emit) *ʔuːs
52. cloud, vapor *ʔuːt
53. one person *ʔuːʔ
54. hornet *-ʔɔːr
55. ride *ba/ɔk
56. tray, dish *baːn
57. goat *bɛʔ
58. slap *bah
59. time *bɤn
60. chew *ɓaːm
61. paddy rice *ɓaːʔ
62. small *ɓac
63. bamboo shoots *ɓaŋ
64. flying ant *ɓa/ɤr
65. grass *ɓat
66. carry on back *ɓɔːʔ
67. spider *ɓeːŋ
68. clothes *-ɓeʔ
69. millet, Job's tears *səɓeʔ
70. spit *ɓəc
71. get, obtain *ɓɤːn
72. thick *kəɓɤl
73. hole, cavity *ɓɤŋ
74. lip *-ɓɤr
75. carry on head/back *ɓɤs
76. tear apart *ɓiɛk
77. suck in mouth *ɓiɛt
78. faint *ɓil
79. forget *ɓiːl
80. sticky *ɓiːt
81. stop up *ɓiːt
82. person *ɓiːʔ
83. ash, dust *-ɓoːh
84. dipper, ladle *ɓoːj
85. pierce *ɓoːk
86. evening *ɓoːr
87. younger sibling *ɓoːʔ
88. friend *ɓoːʔ
89. lick, suck *ɓuːc
90. fenced garden *-ɓuːm
91. hold in mouth *ɓuːm
92. foam, scum *ɓuːs
93. breast *ɓuːʔ
94. spirit, soul *ɓuːʔ
95. bubble, foam *ɓVːj
96. bean *rəɓaːj
97. bore, chisel *caːc
98. sated *caːk
99. elephant *caːŋ
100. handspan *caːr
101. grasshopper *caːr
102. comb *caːt
103. morning (time to eat) *caːʔ
104. cut up *cɛt
105. below, outside *cɛh
106. door *-caŋ
107. joint *-caŋ
108. shut *caŋ
109. civet *car
110. red ant *cɔːʔ
111. salt *cɔːk
112. flow swiftly *cɔːr
113. dog *cɔːʔ
114. gore, chisel *cɔk
115. night *cɤːm
116. wake *-cɤh
117. plant *cɤ/am
118. pick up, collect *cɤt
119. chop, split *ciɛk
120. insert, place between *ciɛp
121. bird *ciːm
122. cooked, ripe *ciːn
123. head louse *ciːʔ
124. pour *cuːr
125. grandchild *cuːʔ
126. sick, pain *cuːʔ
127. sickle *kənɟaːn
128. comb *ɟaːs
129. heavy *kəɟan
130. leak; sap *ɟar
131. tasteless *ɟat
132. basket *ɟɔːr
133. fall, drop *ɟɔːt
134. poison (of snakes) *-ɟɔːɁ
135. bewitch *ɟɔːʔ
136. tip, point *ɟɔk
137. follow *ɟɔm
138. soft *ɟəːm
139. light weight *ɟɤːl
140. foot, leg *ɟɤːŋ
141. distant *ɟɤh
142. buy *ɟɤh/s
143. sleepy *ɟ/ʄɤk
144. low *ɟɤm
145. stand *ɟɤŋ
146. shiver, shake *ɟɤs
147. cultivate *ɟiɛk
148. do, make *ɟiːʔ
149. sew *ɟiŋ
150. bad *ɟoːɁ
151. perch, stay *ɟuh
152. spit *ɟuh
153. rain *ɟuŋ
154. descend *ɟuːr
155. wipe *ɟuːt
156. send, lead *ɟVn
157. seed, kernel *ʄak
158. shoulder *ʄak-paʔ
159. straight *kəʄaŋ
160. sneeze *-ʄa/əs
161. chisel, pierce *ʄɔ/oːh
162. tear *ʄiɛs
163. kick *-ʄoːh
164. outer ear *ʄoːr
165. put on, wear *ʄup
166. ashamed *kəce/ɛʔ
167. lightning *kərcaːs
168. knife *təcɔːs
169. bitter *ʦaŋ
170. charcoal *kəʦas
171. clench fist, handful *ʦɔp
172. astringent *ʦik
173. hand span *ʦoːp
174. grass *da(ː)k
175. palm, sole *-daːk
176. large *daːŋ
177. duck *daːʔ
178. cross, ford *daŋ
179. copper/bronze *dɔːŋ
180. short, low *diɛm
181. middle *-diːʔ
182. all gone *doːc
183. long *doːŋ
184. lips *doːr
185. armpit *kəldoːʔ
186. incubate *duːm
187. silk *cədu(ː)ʔ
188. pus *ɗ/luːm
189. near *ɗa/eʔ
190. fry *ɗaːk
191. wilderness *ɗaːk
192. covering *-nɗa(ː)p
193. span (thumb to little finger) *-ɗaːʔ
194. shallow *ɗɛ/ɤl
195. give *ɗɛh
196. arrow *ɗɛj
197. forehead *kəɗah
198. lodge *ɗam
199. cover *ɗap
200. dam *dap
201. pass (through) *ɗat
202. alcohol *kəɗaw
203. gourd bottle *tərɗɔŋ
204. cluck, cackle *kəɗɔt
205. road, way *-ɗeːŋ
206. uncle *ɗeːŋ
207. cook *ɗɤŋ
208. nose *kəɗɤːʔ
209. belly *kəɗɤl
210. hill *ɗɤr
211. small *ɗiɛt
212. bamboo container *ɗi(ː)ŋ
213. big *ɗiːŋ
214. navel *kərɗi(ː)ŋ
215. one, alone *diːʔ
216. self; reflexive *ɗiːʔ
217. burst *pəɗoːh
218. corner *-ɗoːk
219. heel *kənɗoːl
220. end, finish *ɗoːt
221. plantain, banana *kəɗoːʔ
222. fall down *-ɗo/uh
223. run away *ɗu/ɔːʔ
224. cover *ɗuː/ɔp
225. take, bring *ɗuːj
226. ripe *kɗuːm
227. cut up/out *ga/ip
228. break *gaːc
229. house *gaːŋ
230. clamp *gaːp
231. wrap *gaː(r)
232. they (two) *gaːr
233. thin (animate) *rəgaːʔ
234. hatch, be born *gɛh
235. they (two) *gɛʔ
236. bite *gak
237. cook, boil *gaŋ
238. burn *gat
239. slow *gɔːj
240. mountain *gɔːŋ
241. stalk *gɔːŋ
242. friend; relative *gɔːʔ
243. grub, worm *gɔŋ
244. ridge (of nose) *gɔŋ
245. help *gɔr
246. ear (of grain) *-gɔr
247. old *gɔt
248. pine (tree) *-geʔ
249. wear (clothes) *gɤp
250. pick, pinch *gɤ/ɔt
251. pillow *-gɤːŋ
252. coals *rəŋgɤːʔ
253. enough *gɤp
254. tickle *gɔːk-giɛk
255. hold, clasp *giɛm
256. grip *giɛp
257. bite, scratch *giɛt
258. they *giːʔ
259. hornbill *goːk
260. above *goːl
261. blaze *guh
262. burn (tr.) *guːc
263. finger *-guːl
264. point *cəguːl
265. winnow *guːm
266. enter; push in *guːt
267. all, finished *haːc
268. time *phaːn
269. yawn *haːp
270. climb *haːw
271. stuck (in throat) *hak
272. grow, become long *han
273. finished *hɔːc
274. whistle *hɔːc
275. marrow *hɔːkc(ən)ʔaːŋ
276. flow *hɔːr
277. take out, reveal *hɤj
278. go *hɤl
279. climb *hoːk
280. skin, hide *huːr
281. moon, month *kheʔ
282. wash *khoːc
283. lungs *mhoːk
284. brave, to dare *jaːk
285. weep *jaːm
286. female *-jaːŋ
287. we (two) *jaːr
288. destroy *jah
289. die *jam
290. kill *pjam
291. grandmother *jaʔ
292. woman *kəm/njaʔ
293. carry, lift *jɔ/oːŋ
294. good *jɔːŋ
295. see *jɔːt
296. afraid *jɔːʔ
297. moderate, easy *jɔːʔ
298. do *jɤ/ɔh
299. light weight *jɤːŋ
300. see *jɤːʔ
301. raise, lift *jɤk
302. meat *jɤŋ
303. wave, beckon *jɤp
304. extinguish *jɤt
305. slice *cjɛt
306. yawn *ʰjaːp
307. ear *ʰjoːk
308. extinguish (causative) *pjɤt
309. hundred *prjah
310. rainbow *brjɔ(ː)ŋ
311. sambhur deer *tjaːk
312. we (pl. excl.) *ˀjɛ/eːʔ
313. sleep *ˀjɛt
314. excrement *ˀjaŋ
315. drunk *ˀjɤc
316. village *ˀjɤːŋ
317. wink, blink *(kən)ˀjiɛp
318. female *ka/ɤn
319. cooked rice *kaːj
320. branch *kaːk
321. chaff, bran *səkaːm
322. chin, jaw *kaːp
323. untie *kah
324. measure *kal
325. enough *kap
326. time, occasion *kap
327. tortoise *kap-kap
328. cold *kat
329. sick, feverish *kat
330. fish *kaʔ
331. hot *kɔc
332. millet *səkɔːj
333. choke *k(ʔ)ɔːk⁵¹
334. call, crow *kɔːk
335. grasp *kɔːm
336. child *kɔːn
337. neck *kɔːŋ
338. elbow *kɔːŋ
339. carry on shoulder *kɔːt
340. neck *kɔːʔ
341. handle of tool *kɔk
342. carry *kɔk
343. together *kɔm
344. hold *kɔŋ
345. cover *kɔp
346. strong *kɔr
347. thorn *kɤ/at
348. ten *kɤːl
349. dig *kɤːŋ
350. porcupine *-ŋkɤːs
351. wake, get up *kɤh
352. muddy *cəkɤl
353. fell (trees) *kɤl
354. vulva *kiɛl
355. cucumber *təkiɛl
356. finger *-kiɛn
357. snip *kiɛp
358. moon *kiɛr
359. mountain goat *kiɛs
360. head *kiŋ
361. throat *koː/ɔk
362. cut off *koːh
363. lizard *-koːj
364. peacock *koːŋ
365. husked rice *rəŋkoːʔ
366. settled area *kuːŋ
367. bend *kuːn
368. father *kuːɲ
369. wind, air *kuːr
370. body *kuːʔ
371. pigeon, dove *-kuːʔ
372. sleep, to laze *laːc
373. each, other *-laːj
374. squirrel *-laj
375. fruit-bat *-laːk
376. go (on foot) *lan
377. planet *kərlaːŋ
378. burn (tr.) *laːs
379. slice *lah
380. trade *laj
381. good *lak
382. hoe, hammer *lak
383. sharp *lam
384. black *laŋ
385. beat *las
386. pass by/through *-lɔːn
387. boat *-lɔːŋ
388. earthworm *lɔːr
389. draw out *lɔːt
390. snail *-lɔːʔ
391. flash *lak-lɔk
392. exit *le/ih
393. pig *-leːk
394. wheel *-leːŋ
395. take, hold *leːʔ
396. boil *rəla/ɤk
397. swallow *-lə/at
398. on, above *lɤːŋ
399. froth *-lɤk
400. wrap *lɤm
401. waist *liɛm
402. young *liɛŋ
403. lick *liɛt
404. muddy *-loːɁ
405. eggplant/gourd *-luŋ
406. jump *-luŋ
407. take off *luːc
408. tadpole *luːl
409. rest *rəluːʔ
410. firefly *lVŋ
411. enter *lVp
412. tasteless *bleʔ
413. exchange *blɤk
414. spear *bliɛs
415. thigh *bluːʔ
416. thorn *claːʔ
417. rain *cleːʔ
418. return *glaːj
419. blind *ʰlɛp
420. flow *ʰlaj
421. leaf *ʰlaʔ
422. pass *-ʰlɔːh
423. slip, be unfastened *ʰlɔːr
424. long, high *ʰlɤːŋ
425. dive *ʰlɤm
426. arrive, obtain *ʰloːh
427. inundate *ʰluːp
428. deaf *ʰluːt
429. shut *kəʰlap
430. thread *kəʰlɔr
431. hawk, kite, eagle *klaːŋ
432. carry on shoulder *klam
433. testicles *klaw
434. banana *klɔːj
435. seed *kəlɔːŋ
436. drum *klɔːŋ
437. bark (tree) *klɔːʔ
438. river *klɔŋ
439. penis *kleʔ
440. python *klɤn
441. fat (adj.) *klɤɲ
442. protrude *(k)liɛr
443. slippery *kliɛt
444. metal bell *kliːŋ
445. belly; middle *kluːŋ
446. side, direction *plaːk
447. open (eyes etc.) *plaːk
448. bright *plaːŋ
449. shoulder *-plaːŋ
450. spread (mat) *plaːs
451. blade *plaːʔ
452. needle *-lac
453. wheel, spindle *plɛʔ
454. flat *plah
455. thatching-grass *plaŋ
456. burst *plɔk
457. sky *pleːŋ
458. swallow (bird) *pleːŋ
459. set free *ple(ː)h
460. leech (land) *plɤːm
461. beeswax *plɤm
462. fruit *pliːʔ
463. dove *ploːj
464. salt *bluːʔ
465. enter *ˀlac
466. float, swim *ˀlɔːj
467. long time *ˀleːŋ
468. thin *ˀleːr
469. fat, grease *l(əʔ)oːs
470. sand *smaːc
471. widow *kəmaːj
472. seed grain *cəmaːl
473. ask *smaːɲ
474. possess *maːŋ
475. wind, sky *-maːʔ
476. cheek *cəmaːʔ
477. elder (sibling) *maj
478. roll *mar
479. borrow/lend *-maʔ
480. insect *maʔ
481. mother *maʔ
482. what, who *mɔ/ɤːʔ
483. mouth *mɔːɲ
484. swallow *mɔːŋ
485. banana *rəmɔːs
486. weevil *-mɔːt
487. fell, cut down *mɔk
488. cheek *mɔk
489. hat *smɔk
490. hill *mɔl
491. hear; to listen *smɔŋ
492. male *-meːʔ
493. new *-meːʔ
494. sugarcane *-meːʔ
495. mother *meʔ
496. dust *mɤ/uːl
497. crawl *mɤːr
498. dream *rəmɤːʔ
499. vine, cord *smɤːʔ
500. cattle *mɤk
501. roll *-mɤl
502. daughter-in-law *kəmɤn
503. pregnant *-mɤr
504. bamboo flooring *rəmɤs
505. gall, bile *kəmɤt
506. catch *smɤt
507. tea *miɛm
508. cat *miɛw
509. yellow; turmeric *rəmiːt
510. you (singular) *miːʔ
511. one *moːh
512. daughter-in-law *moːj
513. dibble *moːl
514. mouth *-moːm
515. stone *cəmoːʔ
516. grave *-muːc
517. ant *smuːc
518. pimple *muːn
519. name *muːs
520. nose *muːs
521. fragrant; to smell *cəmuːʔ
522. swidden field *ˀmaːr
523. hide (self) *ˀmɔːʔ
524. axe *ˀmɤːj
525. round *ˀmɤl
526. star *səˀmɤɲ
527. love *ˀmɤs
528. cough *ˀmoːk
529. vein, sinew *cənaːk
530. blood *snaːm
531. army, war *naːɲ
532. beads *snaːŋ
533. comb *cənaːs
534. buffalo *mənaːʔ
535. between *cənaːʔ
536. that *nɛɁ
537. boil *cənam
538. spirit *kərnam
539. know *nap
540. young man *cənaw
541. heart *nɔːs
542. cough *cənɔk
543. this (prox.) *nɔʔ
544. rat, mouse *kəneːʔ
545. this *neʔ
546. herb, medicine *cənɤ/am
547. thunder *-nɤm
548. incubate *nɤm
549. year *cənɤm
550. hill *pənɤm
551. above *nɤŋ
552. press *niːt
553. full *noːk
554. urine *nuːm
555. mouth *-nuːs
556. kill *ŋa/ih
557. far *cəŋaːj
558. green *cəŋaːl
559. sweet *ŋaːm
560. know *ŋaːn
561. yawn *sŋaːp
562. itch *ŋaːʔ
563. sesame *ləŋaːʔ
564. speak *ŋɛ/eːʔ
565. fire *ŋal
566. hold *ŋan
567. knife (iron?) *rəŋɔ/aŋ
568. price *ŋɔːs
569. hungry *ŋɔːt
570. paddy rice *sŋɔːʔ
571. swim *ŋɔj
572. hit *ŋe(ː)h
573. stump *-ŋɤl
574. stupid *-ŋɤl
575. soak *ŋɤm
576. still, quiet *ŋɤ/at
577. nod *ŋi(ː)l
578. day *ŋiːʔ
579. sun *cəŋiːʔ
580. morning *ŋuː/ɔp
581. groan *sŋuːr
582. cold *ŋVŋ
583. eye *ˀŋaːj
584. dry up/out *ˀŋat
585. nod (head) *ˀŋɔk
586. clean *cəˀŋaːʔ
587. clear, clean *cəˀŋam
588. laugh *kəɲaːs
589. house *ɲaːʔ
590. wet *ɲac
591. caterpillar *ɲaŋ
592. put in/on *ɲaŋ
593. waist *ɲɔːj
594. suck *ɲɔːk
595. young *kəɲɔːm
596. needle *pəɲeːʔ
597. sweet, tasty *ɲɤːm
598. bear, endure *ɲɤn
599. hair *ɲuːk
600. suckle *ɲuʔ
601. wet *ʰɲaːk
602. difficult *ʰɲaːp
603. sticky *(ʰ)ɲɤk
604. chair *paːŋ
605. you (two) *paːr
606. father *p/baːʔ
607. pointed *pa/ɤc
608. pick, gather *pɛh
609. mortar *pal
610. wrap *par
611. hit, slap *pɔːh
612. calf of leg *pɔːs
613. rub, smear *pɔːt
614. bamboo *cəpɔːʔ
615. tuber *pɔŋ
616. grind, pound *pe/ih
617. you (plural) *pɛʔ
618. father-in-law, uncle *pɤːʔ
619. open *pɤh
620. break (intr.) *pɤk
621. woman *pɤn
622. shoot *pɤɲ
623. fly *pɤr
624. pick, pinch *pɤt
625. tooth *piɛŋ
626. winnowing tray *piɛr
627. squeeze *piɛt
628. pumpkin *-piːr
629. broom *-piːs
630. sweep *piːs
631. flower *po/uːh
632. shadow *-poːj
633. four *poːn
634. barking deer *poːs
635. break, snap *poːt
636. take out with hand *poːɁ
637. dream *-mpoːʔ
638. bridge *-puk
639. hill *puk
640. bury *kərpuːŋ
641. undress *puːc
642. bamboo rat *kəpuːj
643. seven *təpuːl
644. blow *puːt
645. spread out (to dry) *raːj
646. termite *raːk
647. shout, call out *raːk
648. borrow, lend *ra(ː)m
649. decay *raːm
650. flower *raːŋ
651. light *raːŋ
652. scatter *raj
653. take, catch *rap
654. drop off *ras
655. choose *ras
656. sky *-raw
657. steal *-raʔ
658. intestines *rɔːc
659. leak, drip *rɔːc
660. sharpen *rɔːc
661. bark *-rɔːh
662. mole (on skin) *rɔːj
663. housefly *rɔːj
664. borrow *rɔ(ː)m
665. gather *rɔːm
666. ditch, channel *rɔːŋ
667. sprinkle *-rɔːs
668. tighten (knot, rope) *rɔːt
669. get up *rɔj
670. frog *rɔk
671. post, pole *-rɔŋ
672. wall *rɔŋ
673. wrap *-rɔp
674. pestle *-reʔ
675. pull out *rɤc
676. search *rɤh
677. horn *-rɤŋ
678. study, learn *riɛn
679. wasp *-riɛŋ
680. root *riɛs
681. grass *riːp
682. cricket *-riːt
683. pour *-ruːk
684. forest *ru/oːk
685. drizzle *ruːj
686. together *ruːm
687. fishing net *ruːp
688. turtle *ruːs
689. shrink, tighten *ruːt
690. village *-ruʔ
691. steal *-braːɁ
692. portion of food *braːʔ
693. plague *braɲ
694. maggot *breʔ
695. ladle *brɤk
696. forest *briːʔ
697. sky *briːʔ
698. tall, high *ɟərɔŋ
699. skinny *ɟreːl
700. gold *criːl
701. fig, Ficus *ɟriːʔ
702. deep *ɟruːʔ
703. scales *g/kriɛk
704. grind *griːt
705. knee *groːŋ
706. maggot *ʰraːc
707. itch *ʰraw
708. bamboo *ʰrɤŋ
709. seize *ʰriːm
710. drink *ʰruːp
711. grind, nash *kra/əc
712. veranda *kraːs
713. road, way *kraːʔ
714. back *krɔːŋ
715. bear *kreːs
716. break, collapse *krɤp
717. count *krɤs
718. apply, smear on *kriːʔ
719. granary *kroːr
720. drum *kruːŋ
721. under *kruːm
722. rake *kruːs
723. horse *mraŋ
724. body louse *mrɤɲ
725. ant/termite *ŋruːɲ
726. mosquito *-praːŋ
727. depart *praːs
728. sparrow *pərac
729. squirrel *prɔːk
730. agree *prɔːm
731. wolf *-prɔk
732. equal, level *-pre/iŋ
733. side; ribs *prɤːk
734. hail *priɛl
735. fat, oil *priɛŋ
736. old *priːm
737. thin *sraːj
738. cut, snip *sraːj
739. tooth *sraːŋ
740. thousand *sreːŋ
741. swidden field *sreʔ
742. taro *səroːɁ
743. lead (metal) *traːk
744. buffalo *traːk
745. hit *t.rɔːʔ
746. correct *trɔːʔ
747. fallow *triːʔ
748. forehead *-ˀra/ɛl
749. wash, drench *ˀrat
750. noise, cry *ˀrɔːʔ
751. fig *ˀrɤs
752. sand *-saːc
753. bee, wasp *saːj
754. skin, peel *saːk
755. wash, scour *pəsaːk
756. splash *kəsac
757. five *pəsan
758. air *sʋar
759. transfix *sɔːr
760. know *-sɔŋ
761. wood, tree *kəseʔ
762. vomit *sɤːl
763. breath, heart *pəsɤːm
764. sated *sɤk
765. fart *sɤm
766. snake *pəsɤɲ
767. thick *kəsɤt
768. sated, full *sVʔ
769. bee *pəsiɛr
770. claw, nail *rəmsiːm
771. vein, tendon *siːʔ
772. rope, string *-siːʔ
773. steamer *-soːŋ
774. steam (rice) *soːŋ
775. hair *suk
776. sting *suːc
777. give birth *suːm
778. nest *-suːm
779. bathe *suːm
780. bag *suːr
781. emit smell *suːt
782. bee *suːt
783. rub, wipe *suːt
784. soak *ta/əm
785. tongue *-taːk
786. crab *kətaːm
787. weave *taːɲ
788. thin *ta(ː)ŋ
789. prawn, shrimp *-taːs
790. warm (by fire, sun) *taːt
791. eight *taːʔ
792. wash (head) *-taːʔ
793. right (side) *tam
794. egg *kətam
795. roast *taŋ
796. brain, forehead *kətaŋ
797. fathom *tap
798. grandfather *taʔ
799. tail *sntaʔ
800. hive (insect) *kətɔ/ɤːl
801. hold, carry *tɔ/un
802. slash *tɔːh
803. six *tɔːl
804. liver *kətɔːm
805. ladder, stair *tɔ(ː)ŋ
806. stem, section *tɔːŋ
807. follow *tɔj
808. pluck *tɔk
809. boil (food) *tɔŋ
810. roast *tɔŋ
811. earth *kəteːʔ
812. thunder *tɤ/as
813. sell *təc
814. smoke *tɤːʔ
815. join together *-tɤj
816. pull out *tɤk
817. trunk of plant *tɤŋ
818. bury *tɤp
819. torn *tɤt
820. at *taʔ
821. hammer *tiɛm
822. drink *tiɛŋ
823. nine *tiːm
824. wall *ti(ː)ŋ
825. mushroom *tiːs
826. anus; to fart *tiːt
827. hand, arm *tiːʔ
828. pound *toːh
829. send, give *toːl
830. ear *toːr
831. arrive *tuh
832. tie *tuk
833. light, ignite *tuŋ
834. drum *cətuŋ
835. explode *-tuː/ɔːh
836. breast *tuːs
837. foodstuffs *tuːʔ
838. hole *-tuːʔ
839. inside *tuːʔ
840. wash *tuːʔ
841. that (dist.) *tVj
842. fell tree *tVɲ
843. rock, sway *ʋa/ɛt
844. pass, overtake *ʋa/ək
845. knife, sword *ʋaːc
846. borrow *ʋaːj
847. insect, worm *ʋaːk
848. boundary *ʋaːr
849. go *ʋaːʔ
850. left (side) *-ʋeʔ
851. wide *ʋah
852. stir *kʋaj
853. woodpecker *-ʋaw
854. curved, bent *ʋɔk
855. hook *ʋɔk
856. reap, harvest *ʋɔk
857. return *ʋiː/eŋ
858. wander *ʋɤ/er
859. reap, harvest *ʋɤc
860. stir *ʋɤl
861. knife, sword *ʋiɛk
862. wander *ʋiɛŋ
863. avoid, turn away *ʋiɛr
864. repay *ʋiɛt
865. wring *ʋiɛt
866. wrinkled, crooked *-ʋiɛt
867. confused, forget *-ʋi(ː)l
868. return *ʋiːr
869. year; long time *ʋiːt
870. sickle *cəʋɔk
871. wither *ʰʋiɛt
872. beat (with stick) *sʋiɛt
873. beckon *kʋaːc
874. scrape, shave *kʋat
875. above, upper part *kʋɤj
876. fig tree *ləŋʋaːʔ
877. tiger *rəʋaːj
878. door *rəʋaːʔ
879. sour fig *rəʋɔj
880. monkey *sʋaʔ
881. hearth *təʋaːŋ
882. bracken fern *təʋaːʔ
883. Wa people *ˀʋaːʔ
884. abdomen *ˀʋac
885. throw *ˀʋɤr

Selected reconstructions by semantic category[edit]

THe following list of Proto-Palaungic reconstructions by semantic category is from Sidwell (2015: 100-111).

Personal pronouns[edit]

singular dual plural
1st person (inclusive) *ʔɔːʔ *ʔaːj *ʔɛʔ
1st person (exclusive) - *jaːr *ˀjɛ/eːʔ
2nd person *miːʔ *paːr *pɛʔ
3rd person *ʔan; *ʔɤːn *gaːr, *gɛʔ *giːʔ

Demonstratives[edit]

  • *nɔʔ ‘this (prox.)’
  • *neʔ ‘this’
  • *tVj ‘that (dist.)’

Numerals[edit]

  • *diːʔ ‘one, alone’
  • *moːh ‘one’
  • *ləʔaːr ‘two’
  • *ləʔɔːj ‘three’
  • *poːn ‘four’
  • *pəsan ‘five’
  • *tɔːl ‘six’
  • *təpuːl ‘seven’
  • *taːʔ ‘eight’
  • *tiːm ‘nine’
  • *kɤːl ‘ten’

Cereal cultivation[edit]

  • *sŋɔːʔ ‘paddy rice’
  • *-gɔr ‘ear (of grain)’
  • *rəŋkoːʔ ‘husked rice’
  • *ɓaːʔ ‘paddy rice’ (restricted distribution)
  • *səkɔːj ‘millet’
  • *səɓeʔ ‘millet, Job’s tears’
  • *soːŋ ‘to steam (rice)’
  • *səkaːm ‘chaff, bran’
  • *cəmaːl ‘seed grain’
  • *kənɟaːn ‘sickle’
  • *ʋɔk ‘hook’ / ‘to reap, harvest’
  • *ʋɤc ‘to reap, harvest’
  • *moːl ‘to dibble’
  • *ˀmaːr ‘swidden field’
  • *ɟiək ‘to cultivate’
  • *guːm ‘to winnow’
  • *piɛr ‘winnowing tray’
  • *kroːr ‘granary’

Agriculture and village economy[edit]

  • *pɔŋ ‘tuber’
  • *rəɓaːj ‘bean’
  • *kəlɔːŋ ‘seed’
  • *cəmaːl ‘seed’
  • *ləŋaːʔ ‘sesame’
  • *t.kiəl ‘cucumber’
  • *miəm ‘tea’
  • *-meːʔ ‘sugar’
  • *səroːɁ ‘taro’
  • *-piːr ‘pumpkin’
  • *-luŋ ‘eggplant/gourd’
  • *tərɗɔŋ ‘gourd bottle’
  • *rəŋɔ/aŋ ‘knife (iron?)’
  • *ɓoːj ‘dipper, ladle’
  • *kɔk ‘handle of tool’
  • *lak ‘to hoe, hammer’
  • *tiəm ‘to hammer’
  • *bliɛs ‘spear’
  • *plaːʔ ‘blade’
  • *kliːŋ ‘metal bell’
  • *kruːŋ ‘drum’
  • *klɔːŋ ‘drum’
  • *cətuŋ ‘drum’
  • *-ɓeʔ ‘clothes’
  • *-gɤːŋ ‘pillow’
  • *təcɔːs ‘knife’
  • *ʋaːc ‘knife, sword’
  • *-lac ‘needle’ (< ‘insert’)
  • *pəɲeːʔ ‘needle’
  • *ɟiŋ ‘to sew’
  • *cəduːʔ ‘silk’
  • *-siːʔ ‘rope, string’
  • *ruːp ‘fishing net’
  • *ɟɔːr ‘basket’
  • *ɗi(ː)ŋ ‘bamboo container’
  • *baːn ‘tray’
  • *suːr ‘bag’

Fruits and plant products[edit]

  • *ɟriːʔ ‘fig, Ficus
  • *pliːʔ ‘fruit’
  • *ləŋʋaːʔ ‘fig tree’
  • *klɔːj ‘banana’
  • *rəmɔːs ‘banana’
  • *kəɗoːʔ ‘plantain, banana’
  • *rəʋɔj ‘sour fig’
  • *ˀrɤs ‘fig’
  • *cɤ/am ‘to plant’
  • *cənɤ/am ‘herb, medicine’
  • *ˀjɤc ‘drunk’
  • *smɤːʔ ‘vine, cord’

Domesticated animals[edit]

  • *bɛʔ ‘goat’
  • *cɔːʔ ‘dog’
  • *-leːk ‘pig’
  • *mraŋ ‘horse’
  • *miɛw ‘cat’
  • *mɤk ‘cattle’
  • *mənaːʔ ‘buffalo’
  • *traːk ‘buffalo’
  • *ʔiɛr ‘chicken’
  • *daːʔ ‘duck’
  • *koːŋ ‘peacock’

Housing and infrastructure[edit]

  • *gaːŋ ‘house’
  • *rɔŋ ‘wall’
  • *təʋaːŋ ‘hearth’
  • *rəmɤs ‘bamboo flooring’
  • *tɔ(ː)ŋ ‘ladder, stair’
  • *plaŋ ‘thatching-grass’ (Imperata cylindrica)
  • *-rɔŋ ‘post, pole’
  • *ˀjɤːŋ ‘village’
  • *-ruʔ ‘village’
  • *-ɗeːŋ ‘road, way’
  • *rɔːŋ ‘ditch, channel’
  • *dap ‘to dam’
  • *kroːr ‘granary’
  • *kraːs ‘veranda’
  • *kraːʔ ‘road, way’

Invertebrates[edit]

  • *ɓa/ɤr ‘flying ant’
  • *ɓeːŋ ‘spider’
  • *caːr ‘grasshopper’
  • *cɔːʔ ‘red ant’
  • *gɔŋ ‘grub, worm’
  • *ʰraːc ‘maggot’
  • *-lɔːʔ ‘snail’
  • *lVŋ ‘firefly’
  • *maʔ ‘insect’
  • *-mɔːt ‘weevil’
  • *mrɤɲ ‘body louse’
  • *ɲaŋ ‘caterpillar’
  • *ŋruːɲ ‘ant/termite’
  • *pəsiɛr ‘bee’
  • *plɤːm ‘leech (land)’
  • *-praːŋ ‘mosquito’
  • *raːk ‘termite’
  • *rɔːj ‘housefly’
  • *-riːt ‘cricket’
  • *-riɛŋ ‘wasp’
  • *saːj ‘bee, wasp’
  • *smuːc ‘ant’
  • *suːt ‘bee’
  • *ʋaːk ‘insect, worm’
  • *-ʔiːp ‘centipede’
  • *-ʔɔːr ‘hornet’
  • *kəʔaːɲ ‘wasp’

References[edit]

Vocabulary lists of Mainland Southeast Asian languages
Sino-Tibetan

p-Tibeto-Burman • Greater Bai • p-Naish • p-Ersuic • Guiqiong • p-Lalo • Akha • Kathu • Gong • p-Luish • p-Bodo-Garo • Kuki-Chin • Mru • p-W. Tibetan • Zakhring • Tshangla • Kho-Bwa • p-Puroik • p-Hrusish • Koro • Greater Siangic • Dhimalish • Baram-Thangmi • Bhujel • p-Kham • Dura • Bunan • (Nepal)

Austroasiatic

p-Austroasiatic • p-Munda • p-Khasian • p-Palaungic • Quang Lam • p-Pakanic • p-Katuic • p-Pearic • p-Khmeric • p-Monic • p-Aslian • p-Nicobarese

Hmong-Mien

p-Hmong-Mien • Hmong-Mien • p-Hmongic • Pa-Hng • Pana • p-Mienic

Kra-Dai

p-Kra • p-Kam-Sui • Kam-Sui (Hunan) • p-Lakkia • p-Tai • p-Be • Jizhao • p-Hlai • Jiamao

Others

Burushaski • Kusunda • Nihali • Kenaboi • p-Ongan • p-Trans-New Guinea • p-Japanese • p-Ainu • p-Nivkh