Appendix:Celtic Swadesh lists

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This is a Swadesh list of Celtic languages, specifically Proto-Celtic, Proto-Brythonic, Breton, Cornish, Welsh, Old Irish, Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, compared with that of English.

List[edit]

English Proto-Celtic Proto-Brythonic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
1 I *mī *mi me my mi, fi mi mee
2 you *tū *ti te ty ti thu oo
3 he *es *eβ̃ ev ef, fe, fo é e eh
4 we *snīs *ni ni ny ni sní muid, sinn sinn shin
5 you (plural) *swīs, *swīsswīs *hwi c'hwi hwi chi, chwi sib, síi sibh sibh shiu
6 they *yoi [Term?] i, int i hwy, hwynt, nhw é siad 'ad, iad ad
7 this *se-, *sindos, *so-sin [Term?] an ... mañ an ... ma hwn, y ... yma in ... so an ... seo, an ... so an ... seo yn ... shoh
8 that *emo-, *sindo-de [Term?] an ... se an ... na hwnnw, y ... yna in ... sin, in ... tall an ... sin, an ... siúd an ... sin, an ... siud yn ... shen, yn ... shid
9 here *sondo, *uman? [Term?] amañ omma yma sund anseo an-seo ayns shoh, aynshoh
10 there *anda?, *kē [Term?] aze, eno ena yna tall ansin, ansiúd an sin, an siud ayns shen, ayns shid
11 who *kʷēs *puɨ piv piw pwy cía quoi
12 what *kʷid [Term?] petra pyth beth cid cad é, céard ciod, c'red, cre
13 where *kʷuts [Term?] pelec'h ple ble cairm, cía airm, cía dú , cá háit, cén áit càite c'raad
14 when *kʷan(o) [Term?] pedavare, pegoulz, peur, pevare p'eur pryd cuin cá huair, cathain, cén uair cuin cre'n traa, cuin
15 how [Term?] pegiz, penaos, pevod fatel sut cía chruth, cía indas, cindas, co cad é mar, cén chaoiconas, ciamar, cionnas cre'n aght, kanys, kys
16 not *ne, *nīs *ni ne ... ket ny ddim, nid , nícon cha, chan, cha, chan cha, chan
17 all *olyos [Term?] holl, tout oll holl, i gyd, oll uile uile uile ooilley
18 many *ɸilu- [Term?] kalz lies, lower llawer il, imdae, mór a lán, mórán mòran mooarane, ram
19 some *nekʷos [Term?] bennak, meur a nebes rhai, rhyw nach éigin, roinnt eigin, roinn ennagh, kuse, shiartanse
20 few *bikkano, *nekʷos [Term?] nebeut nebes ychydig bec, terc, úathad beagán beagan beggan
21 other *alyos, *aralyos [Term?] all, arall erell arall aile eile eile elley
22 one *oinos, *oynānos *ʉn unan onan un óen aon aon un, unnane
23 two *dwau *dọw daou dew dau dhá daa
24 three *trīs *tri tri tri tair, tri trí trí trì tree
25 four *kʷetwares *pedwar pevar peswar pedwar cethair ceathair ceithir kiare
26 five *kʷenkʷe *pɨmp pemp pymp pump cóic cúig còig queig
27 big *brassos, *māros *mọr bras, meur bras, meur mawr oll, mór mór mòr mooar
28 long *sīros *hir hir hir hir fota, sír fada fada foddey, liauyr
29 wide *ɸlitanos *lɨdan ledan ledan llydan lethan leathan leathann lhean
30 thick *remros, *tegus *teɣ fetis, tev tew tew remor, tiug ramhar, tiubh tiugh roauyr, çhiu
31 heavy *trummos *trumm pounner poes trwm trom trom trom trome
32 small *bikkos *bɨx bihan bian, byghan bach, bychan bec beag beag beg
33 short *birros, *gerros *bɨrr berr berr byr cummair, berr, gerr gearr geàrr giare
34 narrow *angus *kʉl enk, strizh kul cul cáel, cumung cúng cumhang coon
35 thin *tenauyos [Term?] moan, tanav moon, tanow tenau séim, tanae tanaí tana thanney
36 woman *benā *ben, *gwrėg gwreg, maouez benyn benw, benyw, dynes, gwraig, merch ben bean bean ben
37 man (adult male) *wiros *gwur gour, gwaz, den gour, gwas dyn, gŵr fer fear fear dooinney, fer
38 man (human being) *gdonyos *dün den den dyn duine duine duine dooinney
39 child (youth) *mustākos [Term?] bugel flogh plant lenab, noídiu leanbh, páiste leanabh, pàiste lhiannoo, paitçhey
40 wife *gwrėg gwreg gwreg gwraig ben, séitig bean, bean chéile {[l|gd|bean}}, bean-chèile, bean-phòsta ben, ben heshey, ben phoost
41 husband *wiros *gwur gwaz gour gŵr céile, fer fear céile fear-pòsta dooinney, dooinney poost, sheshey, sheshey poost
42 mother *mātīr *mamm mamm mamm mam máthair máthair màthair moir
43 father *ɸatīr *tad tad tas tad athair athair athair ayr
44 animal *mīlom *mil aneval, loen, mil enyval, mil anifail, mil anmandae, míl, robb ainmhí ainmhidh baagh, baaghtagh, bioagh, cretoor
45 fish *ɸēskos *uɨsk pesk pysk pysgodyn íasc iasc iasg eeast
46 bird *ɸatar, *ɸetnos *edn evn, labous edhen aderyn én éan eun ushag
47 dog *kū *ki ki ki ci , matad , gadhar, madadh, madra , madadh coo, moddey
48 louse *luwā [Term?] laou low llau míl, míl étgudo míol cnis mial meeyl
49 snake *natrixs [Term?] naer, sarpant sarf neidr, sarff nathair nathair nathair aarnieu, ardnieu
50 worm *kʷrimis *prɨβ̃ buzhug, preñv pryv abwydyn, mwydyn, pryf, pryf genwair cruim cruimh, péist cnuimh beisht, beishteig, dhiane
51 tree *kʷresnom *prenn gwez gwedh coed, colfen, pren crann, fid bile, crann crann, craobh billey
52 forest *kaito- *koɨd koad koos, koswik coedwig, fforest caill, fid, fidbad, ros, ruud coill coille keyll
53 stick (of wood) *lorgā [Term?] bazh lorgh ffon flesc, maide bata, maide bata, bioran, maide maidjey
54 fruit *sutu- [Term?] frouezh frooth ffrwyth mess, torad toradh meas, toradh mess, troar
55 seed *segeto-, *sīlom [Term?] had has had síl síol sìol rass, sheel
56 leaf *dolnyā, *dolyā [Term?] del delen dail duille duille duilleag duillag
57 root *wridā [Term?] gwrizienn gwreydh gwraidd, gwreiddyn frém, mecon fréamh freumh fraue
58 bark (of tree) *ruskos *risk rusk rusk rhisgl coirt, croiccenn, crottball, rúsc coirt, rúsc}, snamh rùsg roost
59 flower *blātus *blọd bleuñv bleujen blodyn bláth, scoth bláth, scoth blàth blaa
60 grass *gʷeltā *gwelt geot, gwelt gwels gwellt fér féar feur faiyr
61 rope *lomanā [Term?] kordenn lovan rhaff loman, súainem, tét téad ròpa, teud tead
62 skin (of a person) *krokkeno-, *krokno- *krʉn kroc'hen kroghen croen cnes, croiccenn cneas, craiceann cneas,craiceann crackan
63 meat (as in flesh) *kīkos, *mīros [Term?] kig kig cig cúa, feóil feoil feòil feill
64 blood *krowos *krow gwad goos gwaed crú, fuil cró, fuil fuil fuill
65 bone *astkornu, *knāmis [Term?] askorn askorn asgwrn cnáim cnámh cnàimh craue
66 fat (noun) *gʷered- [Term?] druz, lart blonek saim béoil, blonac, geir, íth blonag, saill saill blennick, sahll
67 egg *āuyom [Term?] vi oy wy og ubh ugh ooh
68 horn *kornu- [Term?] korn korn corn adarc, benn, corn adharc, corn adharc, corn corn, eairk
69 tail *lostā [Term?] lost lost cynffon, llost erball, err eireaball earball arbyl, famman
70 feather(rather not down) [Term?] pluñv pluv plu cleitte cleite ite clooie, fedjag
71 hair *woltos *gwolt blev blew, gols blew, gwallt finna folt, grúac folt, gruaig falt, gruag folt, gruag
72 head *kʷennom *penn penn penn pen cenn ceann ceann kione
73 ear *ausos, *kloustā *klʉst skouarn skovarn clust áu, clúas cluas cluas cleaysh
74 eye *lukato- *lugad lagad lagas llygad rosc, súil rosc, súil sùil sooill
75 nose *srognā *froɨn fri troen trwyn srón srón sròn stroin
76 mouth *genus *gen beg, genoù ganow ceg, genau á, bél, gin béal beul beeal
77 tooth (rather not molar) *dantom *dant dant dans dant dét, fíacail déad, fiacail fiacail feeackle
78 tongue *tangʷāss [Term?] teod taves tafod tengae teanga teanga çhengey
79 fingernail *angʷīnā *ėɣwin ivin ewyn ewin ingen ionga ìne ingin
80 foot *tregess [Term?] troad troes troed cos, traig cos, troigh cas cass
81 leg *koxsā *koɨs gar garr coes cos cos cas cass, lurgey
82 knee *glūnos *glin glin glin glin, pen-glin glún glúin glùn glioon
83 hand *ɸlāmā *lọβ̃ dorn dorn llaw lám lámh làmh laue
84 wing *ɸatanī [Term?] askell askell adain, asgell ette, scíath eite, eiteog, sciath, sciathán sgiath fedjag, skian
85 belly *bolgos *bolɣ kof, tor kroth, torr bol, bola bolg, brú bolg broinn, brù bolg
86 guts [Term?] bouzellenn kolodhyon perfedd cáelán, inathar inní caolan collane
87 neck *monis [Term?] gouzoug konna gwddf, mwnwgl brága, muin, muinél muineál muineal mwannal
88 back [Term?] kein keyn cefn cúl, druimm droim druim dreeym
89 breast *brusū, *kīkos *bronn bronn bronn bron cích brollach, cíoch cìoch keeagh
90 heart *kalonā, *kridyom *kalon kalon kolonn calon cride croí cridhe cree
91 liver *awV- [Term?] avu avi afu óa ae adha aane
92 to drink *ɸibeti *ɨβɨd evañ, evet eva yfed ibid ól òl iu
93 to eat *ed-o-, *ɸiteti [Term?] boueta, debriñ dybri bwyta ithid ith ith ee
94 to bite *knā-yo- [Term?] dantañ, krogiñ densel brathu, cnoi benaid, greimm bain greim as bìd greim
95 to suck *di-na- [Term?] sunañ dena, sugna sugno dinid, súigid dúil, súigh sùigh jiole, soo
96 to spit [Term?] skopat berya, trewa poeri do·beir saile caith seile tilg smugaid ceau shelley, tilg shelley
97 to vomit *skeyeti [Term?] c'hwedañ, dislonkañ, reucheutiñ hwyja chwydu sceïd aisig sgeith skeeah
98 to blow (as wind) *swizd-o- *hwɨθɨd c'hwezhañ hwytha chwythu do·infet, séitid séid sèid sheid
99 to breathe *ana- [Term?] alanat, analañ anella anadlu do·beir anál análaigh tarraing anail tayrn ennal
100 to laugh *swar-yo- [Term?] c'hoarzhin hwerthin chwerthin gáirid, tibid déan gáire gàir gear
101 to see *wel-o- [Term?] gwelet gweles gweld ad·cí feic faic faik
102 to hear *klew-o- *klüwid klevet klywes clywed ro·cluinethar clois, cluin cluinn clasht, cluin
103 to know (a fact) *wi-n-d-o *gwɨbod gouzout godhvos gwybod at·tá a ḟis oc, ro·fitir a fhios a buith agat bi fhios aig fys ec
104 to think *ambi-rād-ī- [Term?] prederiañ, soñjal prederi meddwl, tybio imm·rádi, smúainid smaoinigh smaoinich smooinee
105 to smell (sense odor) [Term?] klevet blasa, klywes aroglu, clywed aroglau boltaigidir bolaigh feuch fàileadh soar
106 to fear *obno- [Term?] aoniñ, kaout aon perthi own bod ag ofn, ofni ad·ágathar, eclaigid, gaibid ecla(with subject and object reversed), is ómun la(with subject as the object of) eagla a bheith ort gabh eagal gow aggle roish
107 to sleep *kuɸ-sko- *kuskɨd kousket koska cysgu con·tuili codail bi ann do chadal caddil
108 to live *biwo- [Term?] bevañ bywa byw ar·beir biuth, at·tá beó, maraid bí beo, mair bi beò bee bio, bee er mayrn
109 to die *ba-yo- *marwọd mervel merwel marw at·baill, baïd, fo·gaib bás, téit bás faigh bás bàsaich fow baase
110 to kill *gʷaneti *gwėnɨd lazhañ ladha lladd marbaid, oirgid marbhaigh marbh marr
111 to fight *wiketi [Term?] gouren, stourm omladh brwydro, ymladd cathaigid, fichid troid còmhraig cagg
112 to hunt (transitive) *selgā [Term?] chaseal helghya hela ad·claid, do·seinn seilg sealg shelg
113 to hit *binati [Term?] skoiñ gweskel, skwatya bwrw, taro benaid, boingid, búailid, slaidid, sligid buail buail bwoaill
114 to cut *skiy-o- [Term?] troc'hañ treghi torri do·esc, gerraid, snaidid gearr geàrr giar
115 to split *dlo-n-g-o [Term?] faoutañ folsa hollti dlongid scoilt sgoilt scolt, skeilt
116 to stab (or stick) [Term?] gwanañ gwana, pyghya gwanu, trywanu cailgid, tollaid rop sàth seiy
117 to scratch (an itch) *razd-o- [Term?] kravat, skrabat kravas cosi scrípaid, tochasaid tochais sgròb screeb
118 to dig *kladyeti *klėðɨd kleuzañ palas cloddio, palu claidid claidh, tochail cladhaich cleigh, reuyr
119 to swim *snā- [Term?] neuñviñ neuvya nofio snáïd snámh snàmh snaue
120 to fly *ɸet-o- [Term?] nijal nijal hedfan fo·luathar eitil itealaich etlee, ettyl
121 to walk [Term?] [Term?] bale, kerzhet kerdhes cerdded siblaid, teít siúil coisich, siubhail shooyl
122 to come [Term?] dont dos dod do·icc, do·tét tar thig tar
123 to lie (as on one's side) *leg-o- [Term?] gourvez gorwedhes gorwedd laigid luigh laigh lhie
124 to sit *sed-o- [Term?] azezañ esedha eistedd saidid suigh suidh soie
125 to stand *sistā- [Term?] sevel sevel sefyll do·airissedar seas seas shass
126 to turn (change direction) *suweti [Term?] treiñ treylya troi imm·soí, sóïd cas till cass
127 to fall (as in drop) *ki-yo [Term?] kouezhañ koedha cwympo, disgyn, syrthio do·tuit tit tuit tuitt
128 to give *dāti *roðọd reiñ ry rhoi do·beir tabhair tabhair cur, toyr
129 to hold (in one's hand) *delg-o- [Term?] dalc'hen, derc'hel dalghenna, synsi dal, dala gaibid coinnigh cùm cum
130 to squeeze [Term?] gwaskañ, stardañ gwaska, gwrynya, strotha gwasgu fáiscid, tendaid, timsaigid fáisc teannaich çhionn, craisht, faast
131 to rub [Term?] frotañ rutya rhwbio con·meil cuimil suath rub
132 to wash *nig-yo- [Term?] golc'hiñ, gwalc'hiñ golghi golchi folcaid, fothraicid, ind·aim, nigid nigh nigh niee
133 to wipe [Term?] sec'hañ, torchañ sygha sychu [Term?] cuimil suath glen, rub
134 to pull [Term?] sachañ, tennañ tenna tynnu do·srenga, srengaid tarraing tarraing tayrn
135 to push [Term?] bountañ herdhya, pokya gwthio ad·aig brúigh brùth broo
136 to throw *kat-yo- [Term?] chetañ, teurel tewlel taflu caithid, do·léci, fo·ceird, sneidid, sréïd caith tilg ceau, tilg
137 to tie *wed-o- [Term?] eren, koulmañ kelmi clymu, rhwymo cenglaid, con·rig, sníid ceangail ceangail kiangle
138 to sew *nē-yo- [Term?] gwriat gwrias, sewya gwnïo úaigid fuaigh fuaigh fuaill, whaal
139 to count *rimā [Term?] kontañ akontya, amontya, nivera rhifo rímid cuntais, ríomh cùnnt coont
140 to say *labar-o- [Term?] lavaret leverel dweud as·beir, labraithir, ráidid abair abair abbyr
141 to sing *kaneti *kėnɨd kana, kanañ kana canu canaid can seinn gow arrane, kiaulley
142 to play *kon-rig-o-, *uɸo-rig-o- [Term?] c'hoari gwari chwarae cluichigidir, imm·beir imir cluich cloie
143 to float [Term?] flotañ, neuviñ neuvella nofio snáïd snámh bi a' fleòdradh snaue
144 to flow *liy-o- [Term?] deverañ bera, dinewi llifo bruinnid, dolin, silid, snigid snigh ruith freayney (of sea), gleashaghey (of people), sheel, shiauilley (on surface), thooill
145 to freeze [Term?] reviñ, skornañ rewi rhewi reódaid, téchtaid reoigh reòdh rio
146 to swell *swēd-o- [Term?] c'hwezañ hwythfi chwyddo attaid, bolgaid at at att
147 sun *sāwol [Term?] heol howl haul grían grian grian grian
148 moon *ēskyom, *lugrā *loɨr loar loer lleuad, lloer éscae, gelach, lúan, éasca, gealach gealach eayst
149 star *sterā *ster ster ster sêr rétglu, rind réalt rionnag rollage
150 water *dubros, *udenskyos *duβr dour dowr dŵr dobur, uisce dobhar, uisce uisge ushtey
151 rain *glawā, *wolko- [Term?] glav glaw glaw bráen, flechud báisteach, fearthainn frasachd fliaghey
152 river *abū *aβon aven, rinier, stêr avon afon aub abhainn abhainn awin
153 lake *linnā [Term?] lenn lynn llyn linn, loch linn, loch loch lhingey, logh
154 sea (as in ocean) *mori *mor mor mor môr fairrge, ler, muir, trethan farraige, muir cuan, fairge, muir faarkey, keayn, mooir
155 salt *salanos [Term?] holen holan halen salann salann salann sollan
156 stone *klukā, *magino- *klog maen karrek, men carreg, maen cloch, lía cloch clach clagh
157 sand [Term?] [Term?] traezh tewes tywod gainem gaineamh gainmheach geinnagh
158 dust [Term?] poultrenn doust, polter llwch lúaith, lúaithred deannach, dusta duslach, dust, stùr joan
159 earth (as in soil) *talamū [Term?] douar dor daear talam, úir talamh, úir talamh thalloo
160 cloud [Term?] koumoul kommol cwmwl nél néal, scamall neul, sgòth bodjal, niaul
161 fog *kiwo- [Term?] morenn, nivlenn niwl niwl ceó ceo ceò kay
162 sky *nemos *neβ̃ neñv, oabl ebron awyr, wybren aer, nem aer, neamh, spéir adhar, nèamh, speur aer, speyr
163 wind (as in breeze) *wintos *gwɨnt avel, gwent gwyns gwynt gáeth gaoth gaoth geay
164 snow *snigʷyo- *ėrɣ erc'h ergh eira snechtae sneachta sneachd sniaghtey
165 ice *yegis *jaɣ skorn rew, yey aig oighear eigh, eighre rio
166 smoke *mukV [Term?] moged mog mwg , deatach, toit ceò, deatach, toit jaagh
167 fire *teɸnets [Term?] tan tan tân áed, daig, teine tine teine aile, çhenney
168 ash *loutus [Term?] ludu lusow lludw lúaith luaith luath leoie
169 to burn (intransitive) *dauyeti [Term?] deviñ, leskiñ leski llosgi bruthnaigidir, teinnid dóigh dòth, loisg losht
170 road *sentus *hɨnt hent fordh, hens ffordd, hynt bóthar, conar, rót, slige bóthar, ród rathad bayr, raad
171 mountain *moniyo- *mönɨð menez menydh mynydd benn, slíab sliabh beinn, sliabh beinn, muyne, slieau
172 red *dergos, *roudos *rʉð ruz rudh coch, rhudd derg, rúad dearg, rua dearg, ruadh jiarg, ruy
173 green *glastos *glas glas, gwer gwyrdh glas, gwyrdd glas, úaine glas, uaine glas, uaine eayney, glass
174 yellow *bodyos [Term?] melen melyn melyn buide buí buidhe buigh
175 white *bānos, *gelos, *windos *gwɨnn gwenn gwynn gwyn bán, finn, gel bán, fionn, geal bàn, fionn, geal bane, fynn, gial
176 black *dubus *duβ du du du dub dubh dubh doo
177 night *noxs [Term?] noz nos nos adaig, nocht oíche oidhche oie
178 day (daytime) *dīyos *dið dez, deiz dydh dydd día, latha laa
179 year *blēdnī [Term?] bloavezh, bloaz blydhen blwyddyn blíadain bliain bliadhna blein
180 warm (as in weather) *teɸsmi- [Term?] tomm toemm cynnes, twym te blàth, teth çheh
181 cold (as in weather) *ougros [Term?] yen yeyn oer úar fuar fuar feayr
182 full *ɸlānos *lọn leun leun llawn lán lán làn lane
183 new *nouyos *newɨð nevez nowydh newydd núa nua, úr nuadh, ùr noa, oor
184 old *senos *hen hen, kozh hen, koth hen sen sean sean shenn
185 good *dagos, *matis *mad da, mad da, mas da, mad dag, maith, so- dea-, maith math mie
186 bad *drukos, *ulkos *drug fall, drouk drog drwg droch, olc droch-, {{l|ga|dona}, }olc droch, dona, olc drogh, olk
187 rotten (as, a log) *bragnos *braɨn brein breyn, poder braen, pwdr brén bréan, lofa lobhte breinn, loau
188 dirty *salākos [Term?] lous plos brwnt, budr salach salach salach breinnagh, broghe, sollagh
189 straight [Term?] eeun ewn syth díriuch díreach dìreach jeeragh
190 round *krundis *krunn ront, krenn krenn crwn cruinn cruinn cruinn cruinn
191 sharp (as a knife) *kerbos [Term?] lemm lymm llym, miniog áith, gér géar geur geyre
192 dull (as a knife) *mailos [Term?] dall pŵl máel maol maol moal
193 smooth *slimonos [Term?] levn, lintr gwastas, leven llyfn mín, réid mín mìn meein, rea
194 wet *wlikʷos *gwlɨb gwleb glyb, gwlygh gwlyb fliuch fliuch fliuch fliugh
195 dry (adjective) *siskʷos *sɨx sec'h sych sych tírim tirim tioram çhirrym
196 right (correct) *eɸinos [Term?] reizh ewn certh, cywir, iawn cert, cóir ceart ceart kiart
197 near *onkos [Term?] tost, ogos ogas agos ocus cóngarach, in aice dlùth, faisg er çheu, er gerrey, faggys
198 far *kēnos, *kʷeslos [Term?] pell pell pell cían, i fat fada fada foddey
199 right (side) *dexswos [Term?] dehou deghow de dess deas deas jesh
200 left (side) *klēyos *kluɨð kleiz kledh chwith, cledd clé, túath- clé clì clee, toshtal
201 at *onkos [Term?] da orth at, wrth oc ag aig ec
202 in *en *ɨn ba, e, e-barzh yn mewn, yn i i ann ayns
203 with (accompanying) *kantā, *kom [Term?] gant, get gans â, efo, gan, gyda co, i n-arrad, la le le lesh, marish
204 and *-kʷe, *atkʷe, *eti [Term?] ha ha a ocus agus agus as
205 if *smā [Term?] ma, mar, pe mar os, pe día, , ma, nan ga, my
206 because [Term?] abalamour ma, peogwir drefenn achos, oherwydd hóre óir oir er-yn-oyr
207 name *anman *anw anv hanow enw ainmm ainm ainm ennym
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic, Egyptian, Palestinian, Tunisian, Cypriot) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon, Zeelandic) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin