Appendix:List of Proto-Nivkh reconstructions

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The following list of reconstructed Proto-Nivkh forms is from Fortescue (2016: 182-194).

List[edit]

Gloss Proto-Nivkh Page
abdomen of fish *daql 182
accompany *k(ə)r- 182
acorn *bulkr 182
acrid *xa 182
(be) afraid *klu- 182
again *an’d’aj 182
agree *doɣt- 182
aim at *(n’ə)kra- 182
alder *hewŋi 182
alive *morqa- 182
all *cik 182
almost *ara 182
already *ark 182
always *aɣrciŋ 182
anchor *cavʀ 182
angry *um- 182
animal *ŋa 182
ant *ozr 182
appear *boj- 182
appearance *boc 182
apron *qorqŋ 182
argue *law(law)- 182
arm *dot 182
armour *pet 182
arrow *ku 182
ashamed *jacʀa- 182
ashes *bləŋr, *hi(l)mr 182
ask *ot- 182
ask for *ek- 182
aspic *mor 182
at last *əkəkə 182
attach to belt *ilk- 182
attack *wez- 182
autumn *d’ilv 182
axe *duɣ, *kə 182
babble (stream) *gurɣjo- 182
baby *ojdam 182
back *gadr 182
back or spine *ŋarki 182
back of neck *oɣri 182
bad *əki- 182
bait *am 182
bald *ɢat- 182
bandage *bar 182
bark *oɣm 182
bark (dog) *aɣ- 182
basket *mulk 182
bay *ŋalu 182
be (somewhere) *pi- 182
be or do such *ha- 182
be or do like this *damci- 182
beach *d’o 182
bear *cɣəv 182
bear cub *olp 182
beard *av 182
become *mu- 182
bed *tuɣr 182
believe or hope *aʀt- 182
bell *ɢoŋ(ɢoŋ) 182
(sleeping) bench *naɣŋ 182
bend over *hətŋə- 182
bent *berq(a)- 182
(get) better *paj- 182
big *bil- 182
bilberry *cəmɣi 182
birch (bark) *hiv 182
bird *bəjŋa 182
(small) bird *crat, *d’evrq 182
boat *mu 182
body *wut 182
bottom *waj 182
bow *bunt 182
bow (of boat) *məɣ 182
bow or pray *meɣra- 182
bowl *ŋirŋ 182
box *waqi 182
braid or weave *no- 182
brain *ŋawrk 182
brake *qawr 182
branch *d’er 182
break or be broken *d’orq- 182
breast *məc(ɣ) 182
breathe *ta- 182
bridge *turi 182
bright or light *ɢalʀala- 182
brine *giɣ 183
broom *bucir 183
brother (of woman) *kiwŋ 183
bullfinch *gəvŋi 183
bullhead (fish) *larq 183
bun of hair *bop 183
bundle (of fish) *ar 183
burn *u- 183
burn oneself *ge(j)zqo- 183
bury *kəmz- 183
butterfly *guɣl, *dap(i) 183
buttocks *oŋ(q)ti 183
button *uɣr 183
buy or trade *jerki- 183
buzz or ring *beŋjo- 183
cage *ŋaɣ 183
call *az- 183
capercaillie *darkraʀ 183
careful *azra- 183
carp *pirŋər 183
carry in arms *tik- 183
cartilage *ŋak 183
cartilage (fish head) *buk 183
carve or make cuts in *dak- 183
catch up with *al- 183
cedar thicket *himŋ 183
chain *walk(i) 183
change *dakr- 183
chase *tu- 183
chase away *mraŋi- 183
cheap *piŋr- 183
cheat *d’al(qa)- 183
cheat or deceive *walt- 183
chest *ŋarɣər 183
chew *wawu- 183
chicken *peq 183
chief *d’aŋki 183
child *eʀlaŋ 183
(get) chilled *lakr- 183
chimney pipe *qol(a) 183
chin *iti 183
choose *duɣ- 183
chop *ta- 183
chop up *kəv- 183
claw or nail *dakn’ 183
clay *ormi 183
clean *avrk- 183
clean fish *maɣ- 183
cliff or promontory *krə 183
close *arp- 183
clothes *haɣ(ar) 183
cloud *laɣ 183
cloudberry *erŋi 183
coal *wezvaʀ 183
cod *ɢaŋi 183
cold *tiv- 183
(freezing) cold *hoʀ- 183
(a bad) cold *χana 183
collar *halŋ, *ozi 183
colour *wal 183
comb *e 183
come *prə- 183
come ashore *maʀ- 183
come or go out *pu- 183
come out *guz- 183
congeal *liɣr- 183
(bark) container *dək 183
contract *lo- 183
cook *he- 183
cool *bur(bur)- 183
cool (down) *duz- 183
copulate *dav- 183
corner *d’on’ʀ 183
cotton *joχan 183
cough *eʀ(j)eʀ- 183
count or read *uru- 183
cover *atu- 183
cow *eχaŋ 183
crab *davʀəj 183
cradle *d’aq 183
cranberry *dam 183
crane *loʀaj 183
crawl *pul(pul)- 183
cross river *orqo- 183
crow *ɢar(ŋ) 183
crown of head *ta 183
crumb *gukur 183
crush *ban’- 183
cry *do- 183
cry (animal) or sing *ce- 183
cry or yelp *ɢaʀju- 183
cuckoo *buk(u) 183
custom *dor 184
cut *haq- 184
cut or mow *ku- 184
cut hair *moʀ- 184
cut into pieces *moq- 184
cut off *wal- 184
cut out *gul- 184
dance *plisi- 184
dance (women’s) *d’iɣ- 184
dark *ŋə- 184
dark *wukwuk- 184
daughter-in-law *joʀ 184
dawn *kru- 184
day *muɣv 184
day (24 hours) *gu 184
decide *nəjnə- 184
deep *wew- 184
dense *lətlət(ʀar)- 184
devil *ginr, *milk 184
die *mu- 184
dig *kəz- 184
dip or soak *hupu- 184
direction from shore onto water *ta- 184
direction from shore to interior *he- 184
dirt *ger 184
dirty *ŋalzqo- 184
disappear *ujɣi- 184
dish *un’r 184
divide *doz- 184
do *aj- 184
do (what) *nu- 184
dog *ɢanŋ 184
dog team *ikr 184
dolphin *bomi 184
don’t *ta 184
door *tə 184
down *ɢo- 184
downriver *a- 184
dream *təj- 184
dress *huɣt 184
dried fish *ma 184
drill *luŋ 184
drink *da- 184
drip *cal- 184
drum *qar 184
drunk *coxt(o)- 184
dry *ce- 184
dry *qaw- 184
drying rack *halŋr 184
duck *awŋq, *kəŋri 184
dust(y) *duj- 184
eagle *camŋ 184
ear *nor, *mla 184
ear ring *mezq 184
ear wax *toʀ 184
earlier *an(ə)k(i) 184
earth or land *miv 184
eat *n’i- 184
edge *d’ər, *or 184
egg *ŋojeq 184
eight *minr 184
elbow *domʀ 184
elder (tree) *qoŋəj 184
elk *toʀ(ŋa) 184
emaciated *ke- 184
empty *hon’ʀa- 184
enough *naw- 184
enough or much *ler 184
equal in quantity *ara- 184
equipment *aʀaʀr 184
estuary or bay *twaʀ 184
evening *barv 184
excellent *hekila- 184
excrement *otɣ 184
explain *azkəm- 184
eye *n’(ə)ŋaɣ 184
eyebrow *binr 184
eyelashes *n’evrqəj 184
face *ŋən’k 184
fail to reach *amt(r)er- 184
fall (precipitation) *gə- 184
fall (leaves) *guku- 184
fall down *gut- 184
fall over *bol- 184
far *təl(v) 184
fast *eɣ- 184
fat *tom 184
(get) fat *ŋar- 184
father *ətək 184
father or uncle *er 184
father-in-law *aɣmalk 185
feathers or down *dupr 185
fed up *lazŋu- 185
feed *ar- 185
female *an’aʀ 185
female genitals *malʀ 185
fight *uɣmu-, *wa- 185
file *mrar 185
filter *gez- 185
fin *mark 185
finger *dun’ 185
finish *tvi- 185
fir *ŋarŋi 185
fire *tuɣ(u)r 185
firm *d’eqa- 185
fish *co 185
fish (kaluga) *parq 185
fish guts *oɣr 185
fish skin *mand’ 185
fish with line *kerqo- 185
fishing tackle *gitŋ 185
fishing vessel *guŋkas 185
fist *cvəɣ 185
five *to(r) 185
fix into the earth *buɣu- 185
fix net *ov- 185
flame or blaze up *hil- 185
flap wings *par(par)- 185
flatfish *loq 185
flea *ŋarqi 185
flense *ci- 185
flense (bear) *lark- 185
flesh or meat *dur 185
float *lark- 185
float (fishing) *waŋ 185
floor *pal(ŋ) 185
floor *lawr 185
flour *ofaŋ 185
flow *ajɣ- 185
flower (verb) *eŋv- 185
fly *bəj- 185
fly (insect) *coŋi 185
foam *bovtr 185
follow or go behind *ari- 185
foot or sole *ŋazl 185
footwear *gi 185
forehead *taɣ 185
forest *cɣaɣ 185
forget *tɣarp- 185
four *nə(r) 185
fox *keq 185
(black-grey) fox *herv 185
(cross) fox *blajrəv 185
fox hole *hu 185
freeze *gəŋ- 185
fresh *loqr- 185
friend *ŋavq 185
(be) frightened *laʀo- 185
frog *ralŋ 185
front *ozk 185
(in) front *nuɣi- 185
front of body *ul 185
frown *n’olju- 185
fruit or berry *alr 185
full *car- 185
full or satiated *krəz- 185
fur coat *oq 185
gadfly *lavŋi 185
gall (bladder) *tvirk 185
gather *opu- 185
gather (berries) *pe- 185
get or hold *bo- 185
gift *azmur 185
gills *azŋi 185
give *kim- 185
give water to *aɣ- 185
glove *wamp(a)q 185
gnash teeth *keqrju- 185
gnaw *q(ə)r- 185
go *wi- 185
go along shore *lark- 185
go down *maɣ(v)- 185
go down or sink *dujuɣ- 185
go downstream *ɢa- 185
go for *ŋa- 185
go into *juɣ- 185
go out (fire) *d’oz- 185
go over *tmə- 185
go side by side *lav- 185
go up *mar(ev)- 185
go up (from shore) *teɣ- 185
go upstream *du- 185
gold *ajz(ŋ) 186
good *ur- 186
good or diligent *nama- 186
gossip *irvtɣop- 186
gouge out *k(ə)r- 186
grandfather or father-in-law *atak 186
grandmother or mother-in-law *acik 186
grass *c(ə)ŋər 186
grey *cavr- 186
groats *raq 186
ground squirrel *taɣr 186
(hazel) grouse *haŋ 186
grow or produce *ban(t)- 186
guest *antʀ 186
gum *ŋən’ŋər 186
gun *meuci(ŋ) 186
hail *a(ra)qm 186
hair or fur *ŋamrki 186
half *barq 186
hammer *cvəvr 186
hand *damk 186
hand span *ɢovr 186
handle *gep- 186
hang *kro- 186
happiness *kər 186
hare *həjk 186
harness *d’və- 186
harpoon (dolphin) *weɣl 186
harpoon (shaft) *dla 186
hat *haq 186
hate *cqa- 186
have or exist *iv- 186
hawk *ŋaj- 186
he or she *ivŋ 186
head *d’oŋkr 186
heal *cu- 186
hear or listen *mə- 186
heart *ŋiv 186
hearth *tut 186
heavy *ber(la)- 186
heel *anɣi 186
help *do- 186
heron *wazaʀ 186
hide *ep-, *piŋ- 186
high *ul- 186
hill *ulav 186
(bare) hill *cir 186
hit *d’a- 186
hold back *garu- 186
hole *kuti 186
(make) hole *porloʀ- 186
hole in ice *tə 186
hollow *hurki- 186
hoof *qarp 186
hook *tav- 186
hook or catch on *jakz- 186
hoop *kuvr 186
hoop or ring *dutəɣ 186
hoot *wuwu- 186
horn *murki 186
horse *murŋ 186
hot *qav- 186
house *dav 186
how *janəŋ 186
how much *taŋz 186
human being *n’iɣvŋ 186
hunchback *boku 186
hundred *n’taŋk 186
hungry *kər- 186
hunt *ŋanɣ- 186
hunt on sea ice *joz- 186
hurt *ɢo- 186
husband *ivn 186
(storage) hut *prə 186
I *n’i 186
ice *lur 186
(wooden) idol *məjk 186
ill *mujn- 186
image or amulet *cŋaj 186
imitate *hiɣr- 186
influenza (epidemic) *daʀ 186
(turn) inside out *duŋv- 186
(straw) insole *giwr 186
intend or direct oneself towards *tʀa- 186
interrogative particle *i 186
intestines *k(ə)vər 186
intestines or guts *ŋawr 186
intestines of bird *kuŋ(t)r 186
iron *wat 186
island *ur 187
jealous *an’- 187
join *baru- 187
joint *du 187
jump *d’aq(a)r- 187
keep or guard *tu- 187
kick *d’ic(v)-, *t(ə)kuj- 187
kidney *ŋalr 187
kill *ku- 187
kill a bear *hiw- 187
kind or sort *qacŋ 187
kingdom of the dead *mləwo 187
kiss *moc- 187
knee *biɣtə 187
knife *d’aqo 187
knit *juli- 187
know or understand *hajm- 187
ladder *n’(ə)ŋar 187
lake *du 187
lame *hokl(a)- 187
lamp *dəŋr 187
language or word *div 187
larch *ɢoj 187
laugh *haʀa- 187
laugh at *qe(ŋa)v- 187
lazy *mraŋi- 187
leaf *blaŋ(q), *d’omr 187
leak *bun’- 187
(chamois) leather *ilɣŋ 187
leave (provisions) *hunci- 187
left *tajrəŋ 187
left over *pund’i- 187
leg *ŋacɣ 187
leggings *pan’ 187
lick *helel- 187
lie or be located *ku- 187
lie down *bor- 187
light (weight) *hin’gi- 187
light or dawn *kunu- 187
light fire *tuv- 187
lightning *barbaru- 187
(be) like *ŋala- 187
lip *avləɣ 187
(a) little *n’in’ik 187
(too) little *hark(u)- 187
live or be *hunv- 187
liver *divr 187
lizard *memqaj 187
loach *hoj 187
loach *lojmŋ 187
load *ɢond’i- 187
lock *anaq 187
loins *ewr 187
lonely *dərmu- 187
long *gəl- 187
long ago *aɣrəlu 187
(a) long time *d’ək 187
look around *tər- 187
look back *alɣa- 187
loon *aɣn’(iŋ), *uɣn’ 187
lose *bək(ə)z- 187
lose one’s way *ler(wi)- 187
louse *dar, *hirk 187
(head) louse *amrak 187
love *cmo- 187
low *hərk- 187
lung *havav 187
lynx *tləɣi 187
make *lat- 187
male *ar 187
man *arməc 187
man or husband *utkun 187
(be) many *dam- 187
marry *av- 187
mast *d’inkŋ 187
master *əzŋ 187
measure or mark *ŋatr 187
medicine *oχt 187
meet *(w)or- 187
melt *coʀ- 187
mesh *kju 187
middle or inside *hutə 187
midge *pudm 187
milt *ŋar(qaj) 187
mind or soul *qoʀla 187
miss *dor- 187
mist or fog *calu 187
mix *bəlk- 187
mix up *bəzɣ- 187
molar *emr 187
mold *bondal- 188
money *cχa 188
moon *loŋ 188
moor *lav- 188
mooring place *murpi 188
more (than before) *paki 188
morning *tatŋ 188
mosquito *n’emɣ 188
moss *waʀ 188
mother *əmək, *irŋ 188
mountain *bal 188
mouse *muɣtuk 188
mouth *amɣ 188
mouth cavity *al 188
move *cŋaw-, *lirku- 188
move aside *ɢon’i- 188
much or many *malɣo- 188
musk deer *meq 188
mussel *bupk 188
must *nənə 188
nail *crovr 188
naked *wela(ɣ)- 188
name *qa(-) 188
narrow *nork(əl)- 188
navel *kəlm(ə)r 188
near *ma(la)- 188
neck *qor 188
needle *nuɣ 188
nest *ŋavi 188
net *ke 188
new *cur- 188
news *ker 188
night *urk 188
nine *n’an- 188
nit *hirkr 188
nomadize *nuɣt- 188
north (wind) *ari 188
nose *wiɣ 188
not be able to *akzu- 188
not (exist) *qaw- 188
not manage *ali- 188
not want *aɣi 188
now *nav 188
numb *polu(dur)- 188
nut *toɣr 188
oak *gməj 188
oar *kikr, *əvn’ 188
old *hajm-, *mrolv- 188
old man *əcɣ 188
old woman *mam 188
older brother *akan 188
older sister *nanak 188
once *n’rak 188
one *n’ə- 188
one of a pair *n’(ə)lami 188
oneself or only *bark 188
(wild) onion *haɣi 188
open *alɣ- 188
open one’s heart *(w)alɣ- 188
open or release *amzq- 188
order (goods) *ŋawcu- 188
other or stranger *ena- 188
otter *pɣəŋk 188
outside *glə 188
over there *a- 188
owl *ajka 188
padding round ski *it 188
paint *givu- 188
palm *calm 188
paper *χawzul 188
pass *lazi- 188
pattern *daɣr 188
pay *urki- 188
pea or bean *tur 188
peel or skin *hat- 188
penetrate or pull on (clothing) *dulku- 188
penis *ŋoj 188
(try to) persuade *qolv- 188
pestle *kəl(vavr) 188
phlegm or slime *lil(r)- 188
pig *olɣoŋ 188
pigeon *qoj(rq) 188
pillow *mot 188
pincers *capŋ 188
pine needles *d’evr 188
pit *dulk(r) 188
pith *ŋur 188
plane or hew *baʀ- 188
platform for bear ceremony *lezŋ 188
play *ler- 189
play around *dəɣt- 189
point *dun’ɣu- 189
pole *məzr, *qwer 189
pool *lavŋi 189
poor *cola- 189
post *qar 189
pot *wan’ 189
pound *bav- 189
pour *mark- 189
prepare fish *bota- 189
prepare food for journey *lum- 189
press down on *toʀ- 189
pull or drag *tlə- 189
pull net from water *het- 189
pump *ŋurur 189
punch *loɣv- 189
puppy *ŋajq 189
pustule *wəri 189
put *ci- 189
put in *uci- 189
put on (clothing) *ke- 189
put on footwear *ilvi- 189
put on head or shoulders *n’e- 189
put on one’s legs *pa- 189
quarrel or scold *ŋe- 189
quietly *bata- 189
race (on dog sleds) *war- 189
raft *d’omŋ 189
rag or scrap *or(ə)r 189
rain *ləɣ 189
rainbow *memŋ 189
raise *kici- 189
raspberry *gel(ʀam) 189
rat *n’aɣr 189
rattle or drumstick *d’ar 189
raven *wez 189
raw *dal(va)- 189
reach *ak- 189
recently *n’ik 189
red *baɣla- 189
reed *olʀ 189
refuse *ger- 189
reindeer *c(o)laŋi 189
relative *dan(t) 189
relative of same generation *duvŋ 189
remain *gar- 189
remember *hujv- 189
residue of heated seal blubber *daɣ 189
return *p(ə)ɣ- 189
return home *eɣ- 189
rib *ŋajrəm 189
rich *qor- 189
right (side) *ŋəjrəŋ 189
ring *gujvaŋ 189
rip up or unstitch *doq- 189
ripen *bu- 189
ritual staff *inaw 189
river *(er)i 189
river mouth *ərŋ 189
roar (sea) *kuju- 189
roast or bake *ta- 189
rock (baby) *bəpə- 189
roll or fold up *qov- 189
roof *əlvr 189
roof or ceiling *tɣəvr 189
root *oz 189
root (of bush) *mirləɣ 189
rope for tying sail *orvukr 189
(dog) rose *kmirŋ 189
rot *gruŋz- 189
rot *wərk- 189
rotten stump *mruŋzk 189
round *bulk- 189
rowan *mezlaŋ 189
rowlock *miziɣ(a)r 189
rub on or grate *kedr- 189
rubbish *bur 189
rudder *men’ 189
run *tloj- 189
run (animal) *we- 189
run away *kit- 189
run away *pim- 189
rust *jo- 189
sable *lumr, *oɣrov 189
sack or bag *hontq 189
sad *ŋawzork- 189
sail *gaj 189
saliva *aɣri 190
salmon (autumn) *laɣi 190
(Siberian) salmon *hiwco, *weck(co) 190
salmon (summer) *wel 190
(humpback) salmon *deŋi 190
salmon trout *n’alɣ 190
salt *davc(iŋ) 190
same age as *ŋatu- 190
sand *maʀ, *qomr 190
sandy spit *dor 190
sap or juice *cor 190
saucer *pləcir 190
save *ɢon’i- 190
saw *puv- 190
scabbard *qalŋ 190
scissors *χazaŋ 190
scold *ajru- 190
scoop or ladle *muɣr(ə)r 190
scoop up *ɢov- 190
scrape *dat- 190
scraper (for hides) *qarpr 190
scratch *qarp(qav)- 190
scurry or creep (insect) *gmə- 190
sea *gerqŋ 190
sea lion *duŋ 190
seagull *geʀ 190
seal *laŋr 190
(speckled) seal *alʀ 190
(kind of) seal *ba(w)ɣi 190
(young) seal *amzp 190
seaweed *lar, *lər 190
sediment *oɣŋəj 190
see *n(ə)tə- 190
semi-subterranean house *to 190
send *oɣ(ə)rke- 190
separate *baɣzu- 190
servant or slave *weraɣ 190
serve *krəγrə- 190
set trap *da-, *ŋarʀo- 190
seven *ŋamk 190
sew *ot- 190
shake or tremble *gurju- 190
shake off *guku- 190
shallow *ŋaz- 190
shaman *sam 190
shape *durŋ 190
sharp *akn’u- 190
sharpen *tu- 190
shavings *d’aʀ 190
sheep *χon’ 190
shell *hatʀ 190
(kind of) shellfish *welɣ 190
shelter *karvr 190
shin *cin’ɣ 190
shine or glitter *plav(la)- 190
shirt or dress *larq 190
shoot *qa- 190
shore or bank *ərkə(r) 190
short *b(ə)ʀaql- 190
shoulder *ŋaɣri 190
shoulder blade *dəvrk 190
side *qomi 190
side of body *ŋalt(ə)r 190
side or direction *herqŋ 190
silent *dam(a)- 190
silver *toto 190
sin or crime *mraŋ 190
sinew *toŋr 190
sinful *ujɣ- 190
sing *lu- 190
sister (of man) *danr 190
sit *tiv- 190
six *ŋaʀ 190
ski *laq 190
(fur-covered) skis *en’ 190
ski pole (ring) *cʀopŋ 190
ski tracks *et 190
skin (of animal) *ŋaɣr 190
(seal) skin *ŋamad’ 190
skin or body *hal 190
sky *dlə 190
slander *calqa- 190
slave *alc 190
sled *tu 190
sleep *qo- 190
sleep together with *wajʀo- 190
sleeve *ujɣir 190
slip *leʀ(leʀ)- 190
slope *qoriv 190
slow *derter- 191
small *mack(əl)- 191
small of the back *ŋamd’(i) 191
smear *k(ə)n- 191
smell *noʀ- 191
smell *ŋavrqi 191
smelt *arqe, *proŋ 191
smirk or smile *ŋuli- 191
smoke *tawlaŋ 191
smokehole *tomr 191
smooth *laq(laq)- 191
snake *gələŋa 191
snap *prarq- 191
snare *hirkur 191
sneeze *hac(hac)- 191
snore *ŋətrjo- 191
snot *mim 191
snow *ŋaqr 191
snow *qavi 191
soft *ham- 191
son-in-law *əmɣi 191
(feel) sorry for *oŋar- 191
sound *d’iw 191
soup *ban’ɣ 191
spade *qar 191
span between fingers *ma, *ɢovr 191
speak or say *it- 191
spear *qaʀ 191
spear(head) *ormor 191
spend *daw- 191
spend the night *huŋgu- 191
spider *kəvɣəv 191
spill *huk- 191
spill or overflow *belvel- 191
spin (thread) *ce- 191
spirit *taŋ 191
spit *tvaj- 191
splash *pov- 191
split *pət- 191
spoon *luvr 191
spotted or colourful *alʀa- 191
spread *bur-, *lat- 191
spring *honv 191
spruce *twərk 191
squat *amlukz- 191
squeeze or crush *mam- 191
squeeze out *ɢav- 191
squinting *wozk(t) 191
squirrel *laqr 191
stab or pierce *cev- 191
stale or hard *kavkav- 191
stalk *kitnəɣ 191
stammer *jilk- 191
stand *gəpr- 191
stand in a row *war(w)i- 191
stand up *oz- 191
star *un’(i)ɣr 191
starfish *cɣajv 191
starve *urŋu- 191
steal *n’(ə)qŋar- 191
step over *alm- 191
stem *mra 191
stick (n.) *kant 191
stick *avɣ-, *getv- 191
stick hand through an opening *gəm- 191
stick in throat or vomit *d’aʀa- 191
stomach *ɢor 191
stomach of animal *hiɣr 191
stone *baʀ 191
stop or wait *nuk- 191
storehouse *n’o 191
storm *lavr(ə)r 191
story or tale *ŋaztunt 191
straight *məkər- 191
strap *dnoɣ, *ŋaz 191
strength or energy *dəŋ 191
string or rope *poti 191
stroke or pat *d’elm- 191
stroll *blew- 191
strong *maŋɢ-, *werqar- 191
stump *ŋavn’ 191
such *duŋra- 191
suckle *mo(mo)- 191
sufficient *urd 191
sugar *setaŋ 191
summer *dolv 191
summit *tadm 191
sun *keŋ 191
surprised *jaŋr- 191
surround *dakv- 191
swallow (n.) *lezŋ 192
swallow *ɢaw- 192
swan *gəɣ(gəɣ) 192
swamp *cacv 192
sway *lar((lar)- 192
sweat *buɣ 192
sweet *n’en’e- 192
sweetbrier *d’evi 192
swell *təw- 192
swim or bathe *mrə- 192
sword *wa 192
table *dər 192
table for eating on *bər(ə)r 192
tail *ŋaki 192
take (somewhere) *to- 192
take away *azqam- 192
take or get *ge- 192
take off *cəw(u)- 192
tale *təlgu(r) 192
talk or discuss *ɢlaj- 192
tallow or blubber *ŋoʀ 192
taste *amta(ŋ) 192
tasty *hor- 192
teach *daw- 192
tear *n’iɣzaʀ 192
tease *hitru- 192
tell *pur- 192
temple bone (fish) *hemi 192
ten *mɣo- 192
tent *d’ampa 192
tent flap *gajrə 192
textile *bos 192
thankful *n’iɣ- 192
that *hunt 192
that (absent) *gunt 192
that (distant) *eɣ- 192
then *haŋa(n) 192
thick *dol-, *wirkər- 192
thicket *uzu 192
thigh *ŋav 192
thimble *tlə 192
thin *hirki- 192
think *kəmlə- 192
this *dunt 192
thread (v.) *ɢo- 192
thread *kuvaŋ, *hirk 192
three *d’e- 192
throat *ɢorqr, *her(qr) 192
throw *baɣz- 192
thunder (v.) *d’i- 192
thunder (storm) *ləj 192
tickle *ɢom- 192
tidy up *prə- 192
tie *buk- 192
tie or bind *hup- 192
tie belt *biɣv- 192
tiger *at 192
tight *otom- 192
tighten *ol- 192
time *ərŋ 192
tin *tac 192
tinder *evrq 192
tinder pouch *mlə 192
tip or end *aɣ 192
tired *per- 192
toad *miri 192
tobacco *damx 192
tomorrow *bat 192
tomtit *zaq 192
tongue *hilɣ 192
tooth *ŋaɣzər 192
top of boot *gizŋa 192
top of tree *d’a(ŋ)ɣ 192
torment *siŋru- 192
(be) torn *waʀc- 192
touch or agitate *tʀop- 192
tow along shore *mɣəl- 192
town *χotaŋ 192
toy *laqr 192
trail or road *d’iv 192
trap *av(i)ŋ 192
(fox) trap *qarm(l) 192
tread on *kiru- 192
tree or wood *d’iɣar 192
(thorny) tree *kəzm 192
tribe *qalŋ 192
trough *orŋ 192
trousers *war 192
trout *loŋr 192
true or right *maɣ(tur) 192
tundra *dəj 192
Tungus *gilŋ 193
turn *pirk- 193
turn or spin *məw- 193
turn over *bəlŋ- 193
twenty *meʀ 193
twig or stick *ŋakr 193
twin *doŋr 193
twine *matawz 193
twist or weave *gev- 193
two *me- 193
unchain *comru- 193
uncle *apak 193
undress *par- 193
unripe *ɢala- 193
unsuitable *tarɣi- 193
untie *dəru- 193
until now *napə 193
up *ki-, *taga 193
upriver *ke- 193
urine *ki 193
use or wear *kir- 193
(be) used to *daw- 193
(stream) valley *ŋaju 193
very *maɣn 193
very or especially *lele 193
vicious *bari(vari)- 193
village *wo 193
visit *laɣ- 193
visit (as guest) *cma- 193
voice *aw 193
waist *un’ 193
wait *ŋarma- 193
walk or go *amam- 193
wall *ŋaɣr 193
walrus *cuɣnəɣ 193
want *aɣn’(i)- 193
warm *dak- 193
wart *jarq 193
wash *ɢaqv- 193
wash or clean *d’u- 193
wash clothes *cʀoj- 193
wasp or bee *χar 193
watch *n’u-, *ama- 193
watch or observe *daʀr- 193
watch over *atŋu- 193
watchful *taŋra- 193
water *caʀ 193
(expanse of) water *dol 193
wave *lar 193
we (inclusive) *mirn 193
we two *mengin 193
well or hole in ice *catə 193
well then *hala 193
wet *cav(cav)- 193
whale *geŋ 193
what *tunt 193
what kind *tamci- 193
wheel *gulɣu(l)r 193
when *aɣr 193
where *ta- 193
whetstone *cav 193
which *tant 193
whine or growl *oŋju- 193
whirlpool *pol(vol)ʀ 193
whistle *pevr 193
white *ɢon- 193
white or light *dovla- 193
white (animal skin) *cagd’a(la) 193
whitefish *waɣr 193
who *nar 193
whole *data- 193
wide *wer- 193
willow *gujŋi 193
win or beat *kə- 193
wind *la 193
(east or side) wind *claŋi 193
(east or north) wind *lamr 193
(southeast) wind *ŋalɣəvr 193
wind (up) *davʀ- 193
window or glass *paχ 193
wing *ŋajɣəř 193
winter *tul(u)v 193
wipe or rub *pez(pez)- 193
wolf *liɣr 193
woman *taŋq 193
woodpecker *olr 193
work *orbot- 193
work on or exploit *tɣop- 193
world or universe *gurŋ 193
worm *cɣevr 193
worm or (crawling) insect *perŋ 193
(intestinal) worm *ɢorŋi 194
worry *gəɣcu- 194
wound *təv 194
wrap *ŋav- 194
wrist *dorpaŋ 194
write *daju- 194
yawn *tav- 194
year *an’(i) 194
yellow *evrqwala- 194
yesterday *namr 194
yoke (for carrying) *d’amraŋ 194
you *ci 194
you (pl.) *cin(ɣun) 194
young *pŋaʀ- 194
young animal *noŋq 194
younger sibling *ac(i)k(ant) 194

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Fortescue, Michael. 2016. Comparative Nivkh Dictionary. Munich: Lincom Europa.
Vocabulary lists of Mainland Southeast Asian languages
Sino-Tibetan

Greater Bai • p-Naish • p-Ersuic • Akha • Gong • p-Luish • p-Bodo-Garo • Kuki-Chin • Mru • Zakhring • Kho-Bwa • p-Puroik • p-Hrusish • Koro • Dhimalish • Baram-Thangmi • p-Kham • Dura • Bunan • (Nepal)

Austroasiatic

p-Austroasiatic • p-Munda • p-Palaungic • p-Pakanic • p-Pearic • p-Khmeric • p-Aslian • p-Nicobarese

Hmong-Mien

p-Hmong-Mien • Hmong-Mien • Pa-Hng

Kra-Dai

p-Kra • p-Kam-Sui • Kam-Sui (Hunan) • p-Lakkia • p-Tai • p-Be • Jizhao • p-Hlai • Jiamao

Others

Burushaski • Kusunda • Kenaboi • p-Ongan • p-Trans-New Guinea • p-Nivkh