Appendix:Austronesian Swadesh lists

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Chronological dispersal of Austronesian people across the Pacific (per Bellwood in Chambers, 2008).png

This is a Swadesh list of Austronesian languages, specifically Ilocano, Malay, Tagalog, Cebuano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sasak, Chamorro, Malagasy, Tahitian, Maori, Sundanese, Ibanag, Itawit and Javanese, compared with that of English.

  • Ilocano (Ilokano) (Northern Luzon, Philippines)
  • Malay (Sumatra-Indonesia, West Malaysia, Westcoast Borneo, Singapore, Brunei)
  • Tagalog (Southern Luzon, Philippines)
  • Cebuano (Central Visayan Islands, Philippines)
  • Pampangan (Kapampangan) (Central Luzon, Philippines)
  • Pangasinan (Central Luzon, Philippines)
  • Sasak (Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia)
  • Chamorro (Guam and Northern Mariana Islands)
  • Malagasy (Madagascar)
  • Tahitian (Tahiti)
  • Maori (New Zealand)
  • Sundanese (West Java, Indonesia)
  • Ibanag (Northeastern Luzon, Philippines)
  • Itawit (Northeastern Luzon, Philippines)
  • Javanese (Central & East Java, Indonesia)
  • Taivoan (Taiwan)

List[edit]

English Ilocano Malay Tagalog Cebuano Pampangan Pangasinan Sasak Chamorro Malagasy Tahitian Maori Sundanese Ibanag Itawit Javanese Taivoan
1 I siak aku, saya ako ako aku ak, siák aku, tiang guåhu, yu', hu aho au, vau ahau, au, awahau, awau, wau abdi, aing, didieu, sim kuring, urang sakan, so' yakan aku, kula, dalem iyaw, kuri, ku
2 you
(singular)
sika engkau, kamu, awak, anda ikaw, ka ikaw ika siká, ka kamu, side hågu, håo, mu ianao 'oe koe anjeun, manéh, didinya, sia, silaing sikaw ikaw kowe, sampeyan, panjenengan inhu, ko, ho
3 he isu dia (he/she), ia (it) siya siya iya si, sikato, to ie guiya izy 'oia, 'ōna ia anjeunna, manéhna yayya iggina dheweke, panjenenganipun tene
4 we datayo (incl.), dakami (excl.) kita (incl.), kami (excl.) tayo (incl.), kami (excl.) kita (incl.), kami (excl.) ikata (incl.), ikami (excl.), itamu (si)katá (incl.), (si)kamí (excl.) ite hita (incl.), hami (excl.) isika (incl.), izahay (excl.) tātou (incl.), mātou (excl.) tātau, tātou (incl.); mātau, mātou (excl.) arurang, urang sitta (incl. for two people), sittam (incl. for more than two), sikami (excl.) itta (incl. for two people), ittera (incl. for more than two), ikami (excl.) awake dhewe, kawula sami kita (incl.), kame (excl.)
5 you
(plural)
dakayo kalian kayo kamo ika, ikayu (plural) sikayo, kayo, yo [[]] hamyu ianareo 'outou koutou aranjeun, maranéh sikamu ikayu kowe kabeh kamo
6 they isuda mereka sila sila ila sikara, ra [[]] siha isy ireo rātou rātau, rātou aranjeunna, maranéhna ira ira dheweke kabeh naini
7 this daytoy ini ito kiri, kini ini ya, aya ni ini, esti ity teie tēnei ieu yaw yaw iki, puniki kata
8 that dayta, daydiay itu iyan, iyon kana, kadto yan, ita man, tan, aman, atan no enao izany terrā tērā, tēraka éta yatun (near), yari (far yet visible), yuri (far and not visible) yan (near), nay (far) iku, kuwi, puniku (near), ika, punika (far) kana
9 here ditoy sini dito diri, dinhi keni, keti dia leq te mågi, guini eto iho nei konei dieu taw kanyaw, tiyaw kene, riki hia
10 there dita, sadiay sana, situ doon, diyan diha, didto keta, karin diman, ditan leq to guatu ao iho na korā, konā ditu, dinya tatun (near), tari (far yet visible), turi (far and not visible) kanyan, tiyan (near), kannay (far) kono, riku (near), kana, rika (far) hina
11 who asino siapa sino kinsa ninu siopá, opa sai håyi iza vai ko wai, ko saha sinni sinni sapa, sinten timang
12 what ania apa ano unsa nanu antó ape håfa inona aha he aha naon anni hanna apa, punapa mang
13 where ayan mana saan, nasaan asa, hain, diin, dis-a nukarin iner leq mbe manu nai, mångge aiza tei hea kai whea, kai hea, kei hea, kei whea palihmana sitaw betiyaw endi, pundi tumang
14 when kaano bila, apabila, kapan kailan kanus-a kapilan kapigan, pigan piran ngai'an oviana (past), rahoviana (future) ahea āhea, āwhea iraha kanni kanna kapan mano
15 how kasano bagaimana paano unsaon, giunsa makananu pano, panon kembe taimanu manahoana nāhea pēhea kumaha kunnasi kunnasi, manna kepriye, pripun kimang
16 not saan bukan, tidak hindi dili ali ag, aliwá, andí, aleg ndeq åhe', tis tsy 'eaia ehara, kāhore (kaore), kāre, kīhai, kore, kaua, kauaka enteu, lain, sanés, teu ari mari dudu, ora asi
17 all amin semua lahat tanan ngan amín slapuq puru, todu ny ... rehetra anaʻe katoa kabéh, sadaya ngamin ngammin kabeh, sedaya, sedanten imid
18 many adu banyak marami daghan, sagad dakal dakél, amayamay [[]] bula betsaka rahi maha loba, seueur aru aru akeh, kathah banabana
19 some dadduma beberapa ilan ubay-ubay, uban mapilan pigara, piga [[]] [[]] vitsivitsy nau, tau ētahi, tētahi sababaraha karuan karuan sawenèh ruma
20 few sumagmamano sedikit kaunti pipila, diyotay ditak, mapilan daiset [[]] [[]] kely maʻa takitahi, ruarua, torutoru saalit, saeutik, sakedik baddi bissang sithik, sekedhik ateten
21 other sabali lain iba lain aliua arom [[]] otru, palu hafa ʻē , atu, ētahi (atu), ērā (atu) séjén, lian duma tanakuan liya, sanes pani, raruma
22 one maysa satu, esa isa usa metung, isa isá, sakey sekeq, sai un (Spanish), håcha (native) iray, isa hō'ē tahi hiji tadday isa siji, setunggal caha'
23 two dua dua dalawa duha adua dua, dua'ra due dos (Spanish), hugua (native) roa piti rua dua duwa duwa loro, kalih ruha
24 three tallo tiga, telu tatlo tulo atlu talo, talo'ra telu tres (Spanish), tulu (native) telo toru toru tilu tallu tallu telu, tiga toho
25 four uppat empat apat upat apat apat, apatira mpat kuatro (Spanish), fatfat (native) efatra maha whā opat appa' appat papat, sekawan paha'
26 five lima lima, delima lima lima lima lima, lima'ra lime sinko (Spanish), lima (native) dimy pae rima lima lima lima lima, gangsal hima
27 big dakkel besar, raya malaki dako maragul báleg beleq dånkulu lehibe rahi nui ageung, gedé dakal dakal gedhe, ageng maiyan
28 long tiddog panjang mahaba taas makaba andokéy [[]] anåkko lava roa roa panjang, paos apiddu anaddu dawa, panjang mahandah
29 wide lawa lebar, luas, lapang malapad lapad lapad, malapad malapar, maawang [[]] fedda' malalaka 'ā'ano whānui, tīrara, pirara lega, rubak alawa alawa amba, jembar mahaway, mahayhay
30 thick puskol tebal makapal baga kapal, makapal kapal, makapal [[]] potpot matevina meʻumeʻu mātotoru, pōruru, kukū kandel kannak, nakannak kannag, nakannag kandel makunum
31 heavy dagsen berat mabigat bug-at bayat, mabayat belat, ambelat [[]] makkat mavesatra teiaha, taimaha taumaha abot, beurat dammo' dammat abot, awrat balau,madaon
32 small bassit kecil maliit, munti gamay lati, malati melag, melanting, tingot [[]] dikiki' kely iti iti alit, leutik baddi bissang, bissut cilik, alit bisibisi
33 short baba pendek maliit, pandak mubo, putot kuyad, makuyad antikey, kulang, abeba [[]] kadada fohy poto poto pondok alinno' alinnat cendhek asi mahandah
34 narrow kikid sempit makitid gip-ot, hiktin, piot kitid, makitid mainget [[]] anggosto tery oaoa whāiti heurin, heureut, seredek atazzi' atazzit ciyut masi'id
35 thin ingpis tipis, nipis manipis nipis impis, maiimpis maimpis, mabeng [[]] kanifes manify, mahia rairai rahirahi ipis eppi' empit tipis palipih
36 woman babao perempuan babae babaye babai bií [[]] palao'an vehivavy vahine wahine awéwé, istri, wanoja babay babay wadon mu'
37 man
(adult male)
lalaki lelaki lalaki lalaki lalaki laki, bolog [[]] låhi lehilahy tāne tāne lalaki, pameget lalaki lalaki lanang lak
38 man
(human being)
tao orang, manusia tao tawo tau too [[]] taotao olombelona taʻata tangata jalmi, jelema, manusa tolay tolay wong, manungsa pinalang, tau
39 child
(a youth)
anak anak, kanak bata, anak bata, anak anak anak, ogaw [[]] påtgon zaza tamariʻi tamaiti (singular); tamariki (plural) budak, murangkalih ana' anak anak, lare arak
40 wife asawa isteri asawa asawa asawa asawa, akolaw, kaamong [[]] asågua vady vahine faʻaipoipo wahine garwa, pamajikan, pibojong atawa atawa bojo, semah, garwa gegat
41 husband asawa suami asawa bana asawa asawa, masiken, kaamong [[]] asagua, esposu vady tāne faʻaipoipo tāne carogé, salaki atawa atawa bojo, semah, garwa ekega
42 mother ina ibu, emak ina, nanay inahan (ina), nanay Ima ina [[]] nåna reny metua vahine whaea biang, ema, indung yena ina ibu ana'
43 father ama bapa, ayah ama, tatay amahan (ama), tatay Tatang ama [[]] tåta ray metua tane matua abah, bapa, rama yama ama bapa, rama ama'
44 animal ayup binatang, haiwan hayop mananap, hayop [[]] ayep [[]] gå'ga' biby manu kararehe sato ayam ayam sato, kewan ayayam
45 fish ikan, sida ikan isda isda asan sira [[]] guihan trondro, hazan-drano i'a ika lauk manango' manangat iwak, ulam kahan, icikang
46 bird billit burung ibon langgam ayup ayep [[]] paluma vorona manu manu manuk mammanu' mammanuk manuk, peksi ayam
47 dog aso anjing, asu, kuyuk aso iro asu aso [[]] ga'lågu alika, amboa 'ūrī kurī anjing, guguk kitu atu asu, segawon acu, cau
48 louse kuto kutu kuto kuto kutu kuto [[]] hutu hao ʻutu kutu otét, puntang kutu kutu tuma kutu
49 snake uleg ular ahas bitin, halas ubingan oleg [[]] kolepbla bibilava 'ōfī neke (from English) oray iraw zirian ula unut, kulay
50 worm igges ulat uod, bulate ulod bulati biges [[]] [[]] kankana toʻe, tuʻa noke, toke, ngaio cacing karalang karalang uler ku'ay
51 tree kayo pokok, pohon, kayu punungkahoy, puno punoan, kahoy tanaman kiew, tanem [[]] tronkon håyu hazo rā'au rākau tangkal kayu kayu wit kayu
52 forest kakayuan hutan kakahuyan, gubat lasang gubat kakiewan, katakelan [[]] hålomtåno ala aru wao, ngahere leuweung kakayuan kakayuan alas, wono bukun
53 stick
(of wood)
kayo, sanga kayu, batang, tongkat patpat pupot tingting bislak, sanga [[]] [[]] kibay, tehina mauhaʻa rākau, tokotoko régang billa' paluk pang hukar
54 fruit bunga buah bunga, prutas < from Spanish /frutas/ bunga bunga bunga [[]] inasahan voankazo mā'a hua buah vunga vunga woh vua
55 seed bin-i benih, biji binhi, buto binhi butul bokel [[]] pipitas, simiya voa huero kākano, purapura binih, siki vullung vukal wiji ahap
56 leaf bulong daun dahon dahon bulung bulong [[]] håggon ravina raoʻere rau daun don don godhong, ron lai
57 root ramut akar ugat gamot yamut lamot [[]] hale' faka, fototra aʻa aka akar gamu' gamut oyod pata'
58 bark
(of tree)
ukis ti kayo kulit kayu balat ng puno upak tangke obak [[]] [[]] hodi-kazo paʻa, ʻiri hīako, peha papagan [[]] [[]] klika [[]]
59 flower sabong bunga bulaklak bulak sampaga bulaklak [[]] flores voninkazo tiare, pua putiputi, puāwai kembang, kusuma, puspa lappao lappao kembang, sekar hana
60 grass ruot rumput damo balili, sagbut dikut dika [[]] chåguan ahitra, bozaka ʻaihere, matie pātītī jukut kaddo' kaddat suket kubuk
61 rope tali tali tali, lubid pisi lubid singer, lubir [[]] tali tady taura taura tali, tambang galu' galut tali ta'ih,sahini
62 skin
(of a person)
kudil kulit balat panit balat baog, katat [[]] låssas hoditra ʻiri kiri kulit tabbi' gaddang kulit halap
63 meat
(as in flesh)
bagas daging karne, laman unod, karne laman laman, iyan [[]] kåtne hena īnaʻi mīti (from English) daging pattak, karne pattag daging baat
64 blood dara darah dugo dugo daya dala [[]] håga' ra toto toto getih daga daha getih, rah amah
65 bone tulang tulang buto bukog butul pokel [[]] to'lang taolana ivi wheua, kōiwi tulang tulang tulang balung tu'an
66 fat
(noun)
taba lemak, minyak taba tambok taba taba, mataba [[]] yommok taviny hinu ngako gajih taba taba gajih imah
67 egg itlog telur itlog itlog ebun iknol [[]] chåda' atody huero hēki, huamanu endog illuk ilug endhog, tigan munusu
68 horn sara tanduk sungay sungay sagu saklor [[]] bibek tandroka tara pīhi, tara tanduk tagguk [[]] sungu tungaws
69 tail ipus ekor buntot ikog iki ikol [[]] dadalak rambo ʻaero, hiʻu waero, hiku buntut ifu' ifut buntut ikoh
70 feather
(rather not down)
dutdut bulu balahibo balhibo bulbul bago [[]] pulu penina, volom-borona hurhuru, hetehete awe, hou, huruhuru, piki bulu duddu' dudut wulu ilin
71 hair buok rambut, bulu buhok buhok, balhibo buak buek [[]] gapotulu bolo rouru makawe buuk, rambut vu' ahuk rambut mukup
72 head ulo kepala, hulu ulo ulo buntuk ulo [[]] ulu loha upoʻo māhunga, uru, upoko hulu, mastaka, sirah ulu ulu endhas, sirah, mustaka mokot
73 ear lapayag telinga tenga, tainga dalunggan balugbug layag [[]] talanga sofina tariʻa taringa cepil, ceuli talinga talinga, daranggan kuping, talingan tangya
74 eye mata mata mata mata mata mata [[]] måta, atadok maso mata mata, karu panon, soca mata mata mata, mripat, soca mata
75 nose agong hidung ilong ilong arung eleng [[]] gui'eng orona ihu ihu irung, pangambung igung ihung irung muhu
76 mouth bibig mulut bunganga, bibig ba-ba asbuk, balungus sangi [[]] påchot vava vaha māngai, waha baham, sungut simu' simuk cangkem nagut
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
ngipen gigi ngipin ngipon ipan ngipen [[]] nifen nify niho niho huntu, waos ngipan ngipan untu, waja rahui
78 tongue dila lidah dila dila dila dila [[]] hula' lela arero arero ilat, létah zila zila ilat rarira
79 fingernail kuko kuku kuko kuko kuku kuko [[]] papakes hoho maiʻuʻu maikuku kuku, tanggai kuku kuku kuku talukun
80 foot saka kaki paa tiil bitis sali [[]] addeng tongotra 'āvae waewae sampéan, suku takki taka sikil, suku, samparan ruma acipi
81 leg gurong tungkai binti paa, bitiis? bitis bikking [[]] addeng ranjo 'āvae waewae suku, tungkai takki taka sikil, suku, samparan hyapan
82 knee tumeng lutut tuhod tuhod tud pueg [[]] tommo lohalika turi turi teku, tuur atuk [[]] dhengkul kuran
83 hand ima tangan kamay kamot gamat lima, gamet [[]] kånnai tanana rima ringa leungeun, panangan lima ima tangan, asta hima
84 wing payak kepak, sayap pakpak pako pakpak pakpak [[]] pappa elatra pererau pākau, paihau, parirau jangjang paya' [[]] suwiwi payo
85 belly tian perut tiyan tiyan atian eges [[]] tuyan kibo 'ōpū puku, kōpū beuteung, patuangan san, gutu' [[]] weteng, padhaharan fupak
86 guts bagis usus bituka tinae bituka pait, bituka [[]] [[]] tsinay 'ā'au puku, piropiro peujit [[]] [[]] [[]] parno
87 neck tengnged leher leeg liog batal beklew [[]] aga'ga' vozona, tenda 'a'ī kakī beuheung, tengek tangngak [[]] gulu rari
88 back likod punggung likod likod gulut beneg [[]] tatalo' lamosina toa tuarā pungkur, tonggong likuk [[]] geger atan
89 breast suso susu (former), payudara, buah dada suso tutoy, suso susu suso, pagew [[]] susu tratra 'ōuma ū, uma pinarep, susu susu [[]] susu cucu
90 heart puso jantung puso kasingkasing pusu puso [[]] korason (Spanish) fo māfatu manawa jajantung futu [[]] [[]] timtim
91 liver dalem hati atay atay ate altey [[]] higado (Spanish) aty 'ūpa'a ate ati, haté agal [[]] ati hupak
92 to drink inom minum inom - root verb inom minum inom [[]] gimen misotro inu inu leueut, nginum inum [[]] ombe abu', ukan, mima
93 to eat mangan makan kain - root verb kaon mangan akan, mangan, kamot [[]] kånno', chocho mihinana ʻamu kai, kamu dahar, jajablog, neda, nyatu, tuang kuman [[]] mangan abu', ukan
94 to bite kagat gigit kagat - root verb paak, ingkit, kagat ket, ketan ketket [[]] åkka' manaikitra hōhoni ngau gogot, gégél, nyeureud kaga' [[]] cokot ka'at
95 to suck supsop hisap sipsip, suso - root verbs supsop, tupos sisipan supsup, suso [[]] chopchop mifiaka ʻote momi, ngote kenyot, nyerot, seuseup sussup [[]] [[]] uho
96 to spit tupra ludah luwa, dura - root verbs luwa luran lutda [[]] to'la' mandrehoka tuha tuha, tuwha ciduh, ludah lusak [[]] idu dipah
97 to vomit uta muntah suka - root verb suka manyuka uta [[]] muta' madoa pihaʻe ruaki luga, utah uta uta utah [[]]
98 to blow
(as wind)
puyot tiup, hembus ihip - root verb huyop labulan sibok [[]] guaife mitsoka farara puhi, pupuhi niup, tiup sup [[]] vavare
99 to breathe anges hirup, nafas hinga - root verb ginhawa mangisnaua ingas, anges, dongap, linawa [[]] hågong miaina, misefo huti i te aho ngā ambekan, rénghap inango' [[]] ambegan mita'uh
100 to laugh katawa tawa, ketawa tawa - root verb katawa maili elek [[]] chålek hehy, tokelaka ʻata kata gumujeng, seuri galo' [[]] guyu macihaha, makaka
101 to see kita lihat, nampak, tengok tingin, kita - root verbs kita akit, lauen nengneng, mata [[]] li'e' mahita hiʻo kite nempo, ningal, tinggali, neuleu innan ("to see" in itself, no known root) [[]] deleng ukita
102 to hear dengngeg dengar dinig, kinig - root verbs dungog damdam, makiramdam dengel [[]] ekungok, hungok maeno faʻaroʻo rongo dangu, ngadéngé, kuping ginna [[]] rungu kirara, utangya
103 to know
(a fact)
ammo tahu alam - root verb kahibalo baluan amta, kabat [[]] tungo' mahafantatra 'ito mōhio nyaho, terang, uninga ammu [[]] ngerti, mudheng mavangara
104 to think panunot fikir, rasa isip - root verb hunahuna isipan isip, nonot [[]] hasso mieritreritra manaʻo whakāro ngamanah, mikir panono' [[]] mikir pukidi purari
105 to smell
(sense odour)
angot hidu, cium, bau amoy - root verb simhot bauan angob, amoy [[]] nginge' manambolo hauʻa hongi ambung, ngambeu, ngangseu aguk [[]] ambu marangoh
106 to fear kuteng takut takot - root verb hadlok takut takot [[]] ma'a'ñao mataotra mataʻu mataku gimbir, sebér, sieun anassing [[]] wedi takut
107 to sleep turog tidur tulog - root verb tulog tudtud ogip [[]] maigo' matory taoto moe bobo, héés, kulem, saré katuruk [[]] maniku
108 to live biag hidup buhay buhi bie, kumabie bilay [[]] lå'la' velona ora ora hirup, jumeneng tolay [[]] urip mabah
109 to die matay mati patay - root verb matay mate, mete patey, onpatey [[]] måtai maty mate, pohe mate maot, paéh, pati, pupus matay matay mati kacai, mapatay
110 to kill mangpatay bunuh patay, paslang - root verbs buno, patay paten, makamate patey, mamatey [[]] puno' mamono, mahefaty tapataparahi-pohe-roa, haʻapohe patu maéhan, maténi, patos, telas patay [[]] pateni pakacai, pakapatay
111 to fight agapa lawan, gaduh, tarung, kelahi, juang laban - root verb away, bugno laban laban, kolkol, bakal [[]] mumu miady taputō kakari, kairiri gelut, jogol, tarung dama [[]] [[]] masit, marangirangi
112 to hunt
(transitive)
anup buru mangaso mangayam man-ayup managnop, anop, manpana, manpaltog [[]] ega'ga', peska mihaza aʻuaʻu puaʻa whaiwhai bujeng, moro [[]] [[]] [[]] malu'
113 to hit pangor pukul, ketuk tama, hampas - root verbs igo, tama turan, paturan tira, nakna, pekpek [[]] galuti, panak mikapoka taparahi patu babuk, teunggeul, tinggang kanna [[]] [[]] apit
114 to cut balsig potong putol - root verb putol putut tegteg, putot, batang [[]] chåchak, utot mandidy tāpū teukteuk, tuar kattu [[]] kethok tmata
115 to split bisak belah, pisah, bahagi biyak, hati - root verbs pikas, bugha, batak bika, pitnan puter, pisag [[]] ipe', må'pe mamaki tuha, vāhi wāwāhi beulah, duum bakki [[]] [[]] pasapiah
116 to stab
(or stick)
dugsol tikam saksak - root verb dunggab, dugmak, duslak akdakan, tandusan saksak, doyok [[]] dulok, si'ok mantsatoka-antsy pātia oka nojos, nyolok, tewek, tubles dudduk [[]] [[]] tmivur
117 to scratch
(an itch)
kudkod garu, cakar, gores kamot - root verb katol, kamras, gadlas gamusan kiki, gugo [[]] kassas mikiki, mikaoka pāra'u rakuraku garo kabbang [[]] [[]] [[]]
118 to dig kali korek, gali hukay - root verb kalot, kabkab, kalaykay kulkul, kulkulan kotkot [[]] guaddok mihady, mandavaka pao, tūpā, keri kali kokkok [[]] [[]] kma'i
119 to swim langoy renang langoy - root verb langoy, salom kaue langoy [[]] ñanguo'mak milomano ʻau kau ngojai tafuk [[]] nglangi lmangoy
120 to fly tayab terbang lipad - root verb lupad, ligtiw sulapo tekyab [[]] gupu manidina mau'e rere hiber, ngapung kagak [[]] mabur apapayo
121 to walk magna jalan lakad - root verb lakaw lakad, lumakad akar [[]] famokkat, mamokkat mandeha haera haere a waewae badarat, leumpang, papah lakak [[]] mlaku, mlampah unaunang
122 to come umay datang dating - root verb ari, anhi ume, datang sabi, gala, onna [[]] maila' avy, tonga ,tamy haere mai haere mai datang, dongkap, sumping umay umang teka, rawuh tomehin
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
idda baring, bentang higa, hilata - root verbs higda magkera dokol [[]] dagi mivelatra tārava takoto golér, kedeng idda [[]] ngapusi maniku
124 to sit tugaw duduk upo - root verb lingkod lukluk yorong [[]] fatå'chong, matå'chong mipetraka pārahi noho calik, diuk, linggih tubang [[]] lungguh, lengah, pinarak mi'u'un
125 to stand takder diri tayo - root verb barog, tindog tikdo alagey [[]] tohge, kahulo' mifoha, mitsangana ʻotiʻatiʻa tuu adeg, nangtung taddak [[]] ngadek, jumeneng mituko
126 to turn
(change direction)
likko belok, pusing liko - root verb liko mildis liko, telek [[]] bira mihodina tīoi huri méngkol buelta [[]] [[]] dmikur
127 to fall
(as in drop)
tinnag jatuh hulog - root verb hulog mitomba, manabu tumba, pelag [[]] poddong, matomba mianjera topa makere labuh, ragrag taga' tanag tiba, dhawah mineno
128 to give ited beri, bagi bigay - root verb hatag ibie, dinan itdan, iter [[]] na'i manome hōro'a hoatu bikeun, méré, pasihan, parin yawa' [[]] weneh, paring, atur panga
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
mangiggem pegang hawak - root verb hawid, kupot talnan benben [[]] go'ti mitantana mau pupuri cepeng, cekel, muntang tammi' [[]] cekel, cepeng, asta mara
130 to squeeze pespes peras pisil - root verb pisa paslan, sakmalan pespes, mesmes [[]] fugo' mandray tāmau kotē meureut, rames paggal [[]] [[]] pakaparupu
131 to rub radradan, lidliden gosok, sapu kuskos, kaskas - root verbs banyos kaskasan kuskos, gurgor [[]] palai, hulos manakasoka ʻuiʻui ūkuikui kosok guggu' [[]] [[]] smidada
132 to wash ugas basuh, cuci hugas, laba (for clothing articles and fabrics) < from the Spanish verb /lavar/ - root verbs hugas wasan, manos oras [[]] fa'gåsi manasa horoy horoi kumbah, seuseuh baggao [[]] umbah madinu, padiup, miuh
133 to wipe punas, nasnas sapu, lap punas - root verb pahid pulisan, kuskusan punas [[]] saosao mamafa horoi muru mupus funa' [[]] [[]] smidada
134 to pull guyod tarik hila, batak - root verb bitad igutan, gulyutan guyor [[]] hålla mitifitra ʻume kume, hutihuti bedol, betot guggun [[]] tarik vihit
135 to push duron tolak tulak - root verb tuklod isubung, itulak tulak [[]] chonnek manosika turaʻi pei sorong, suntrung tubba' [[]] surung putuah
136 to throw ibato, belleng baling, campak, lempar tapon, hagis - root verb labay iugse, iyatsa, baronggan topak, bantak [[]] dåggao manoraka tāora panga alung tabbo' [[]] balang, sawat smisit, maring
137 to tie igalot ikat tali - root verb hikot tali, itali singer [[]] goddi mamehy, mamatotra ruru, nati herehere mbungkeut galu' [[]] [[]] pukakud, kakigin
138 to sew dait jahit tahi - root verb tahi tayan dait [[]] laksi manjaitra au, nira tui kaput, kecos dage' [[]] dondom mahoahoa
139 to count bilang kira, bilang, hitung bilang - root verb ihap mamilang bilang [[]] tufong, måmfong mamisa nūmera tatau étang, ngitung bilang [[]] [[]] kutung
140 to say kuna kata sabi - root verb sulti, ingon sabian, iagkas, sambiltan baga, tongtong, balikas [[]] alok, sångan milaza, miteny kōrero carios kagi [[]] [[]] pura
141 to sing agkanta nyanyi awit - root verb awit tumaila togtog [[]] lålai, kånta mihara, mikalo pehe, hīmene pūoro, pau, hīmene kawih, nembang kansiyon owaowao
142 to play agay-ayam main laro - root verb dula mamyalung galaw, manay-ayam [[]] hugando, huega milalau haʻuti waiata ameng, maén, ulin gayam mananah
143 to float agtapaw apung lutang - root verb lutaw gato letaw [[]] gama, må'ya mitsinkafona [[]] kārewa kambang [[]]
144 to flow ayus alir, alur, salir, salir agos, daloy - root verbs agas magus agos [[]] [[]] mikoriana tahe tere kocor, kucur, ngalir agi' [[]]
145 to freeze agyelo beku tigas, yelo - root verbs bagtok [[]] kigtel [[]] mama'ais mandry faʻatoʻetoʻe roa whakatio gibleg, kimpel tagga', yelo [[]]
146 to swell lumteg bengkak maga - root verb burot mangalbag larag [[]] pokpok mibontsina ʻoru pupuhi, puku bareuh lappak nunga
147 sun init matahari araw adlaw aldo agew, banua, ugto [[]] atdao masaondra mahāna ra panonpoé bilak isi, maki
148 moon bulan bulan buwan bulan bulan bulan [[]] pulan volana marama mārama bulan vulan buan
149 star bituen bintang bituin bituon batuin bitewen, bitoen [[]] puti'on, estreyas kintana fetiʻa whetū béntang bitun kakiu, sulan, miun
150 water danum air, tirta tubig tubig danum danum [[]] hånom rano vai wai cai danum danum rarum
151 rain tudo hujan ulan ulan muran uran [[]] uchan, ame' orana ua ua hujan, ijih uran uran
152 river karayan sungai, batang, sei ilog suba, sapa ilug ilog [[]] såddok renirano tahora, 'ānāvai awa wahangan, walungan bannag akam
153 lake danaw danau, tasik lawa lanaw lawa ilog, look [[]] hagoi kamory, farihy roto roto situ, talaga pi
154 sea
(as in ocean)
taaw, baybay laut dagat, laot dagat dagat, dayat malat dayat [[]] tåsi riaka, ranomasina miti moana laut, sagara riyar
155 salt asin garam, masin asin asin asin asin [[]] asiga sira miti tote uyah asin vaya
156 stone bato batu bato bato batu bato [[]] åcho' vato 'ōfa'i kōwhatu batu batu batu bato
157 sand darat pasir buhangin balas balas buer [[]] unai fasika one one keusik daga' li'ih
158 dust tapok debu, habuk alikabok abog alikabuk dabok [[]] potbos vovoka one puehu kekebul gavu' rapun, vuravur
159 earth
(as in soil)
daga darat, tanah lupa yuta yatu dalin [[]] tåno tany fenua whenua lemah davvun unai
160 cloud ulep awan alapaap, ulap panganod biga, ulap lorem [[]] mapagåhes, nublådu rahona ata kapua méga kunam kunam baun
161 fog angep kabus, kabut hamog gabon ulap kelpa, malinaew [[]] afao, åsgon zavona rūpehu kohu halimun, limut [[]] baun
162 sky langit langit langit langit banua tawen, banua [[]] langet lanitra raʻi rangi awang, langit langi' homuhomu, kapoa
163 wind
(as in breeze)
angin angin, bayu hangin hangin angin dagem, alamag [[]] guaifon, månglo rivotra mataʻi hau angin, maruta paddak vare
164 snow niebe salji, salju niyebe < from Spanish /nieve/ niyebe yelu linew [[]] [[]] ranomandry, lanezy hiona hukarere salju niebe ula
165 ice yelo ais, es yelo < from Spanish /hielo/ yelo < from Spanish /hielo/ yelu pakigtel [[]] ais < from English /ice/ ranomandry pape toʻetoʻe kōpaka és yelo ula
166 smoke asok asap usok, aso aso asuk asiwek, asewek [[]] asu setroka auauahi auahi haseup, saab atu' ato
167 fire apoy api apoy kalayo api, silab apoy, pool, dalang [[]] guafi afo auahi ahi seuneu afuy, afi apui
168 ash dapo debu, abu abo abo, agiw abu dapol [[]] åpu avenona rehu auahi pungarehu lebu avu apu
169 to burn
(intransitive)
uram bakar sunogin sunog silab pool, silab, sinit [[]] songge' may ʻama tahu beuleum, duruk, huru tuggi tmatulu
170 road dalan jalan daan, kalsada, lansangan dalan dalan dalan, basbas [[]] chålan lalana ea'tia ara jalan dalan ra'an
171 mountain bantay gunung bundok bukid bunduk palandey, buntok [[]] ladera tondrombohitra mouʻa maunga gunung vukik bukin
172 red nalabaga merah pula pula malutu ambalanga [[]] agaga' mena ʻura whero beureum uzzin agaga', ahagang
173 green naata hijau berde, luntian lunhaw, berde aluntian maeta, ampasiseng [[]] betde < from Spanish /verde/ maitso matie kakariki héjo berde tangya
174 yellow duyaw kuning dilaw dalag dilo duyaw [[]] amariyu < from Spanish /amarillo/ mavo reʻareʻa kowhai konéng ngila maocen
175 white puraw putih puti puti maputi amputi, puti [[]] å'paka' fotsy ʻuoʻuo bodas furaw mapuri
176 black nangisit hitam itim itom matuling andeket, deket [[]] åttilong mainty ʻereʻere mangu hideung ngisi maolum
177 night rabii malam gabi gabii bengi labi, ketket [[]] puengi alina ruʻi, peuting, wengi gabi kiyahutau ki maki
178 day
(daytime)
aldaw siang araw adlaw aldo agew [[]] ha'åni andro mahana ao beurang, siang aggaw isi, maki
179 year tawen tahun taon tuig banua taon [[]] såkkan taona matahiti tau taun, warsih dagun, ragun tawin
180 warm
(as in weather)
pudot panas, hangat, suam mainit init mapali ampetang, petang, imeng, sinit [[]] maipe mafana māhanahana mahana haneut patu matak
181 cold
(as in weather)
lamek sejuk, dingin malamig tugnaw, bugnaw marimla ambetel, betel [[]] mañengheng mangatsiaka toʻetoʻe makariri tiis, tiris lammin, lumay mahangun, magun
182 full napno penuh puno puno sapak, katmu naksel, napno [[]] håspok (from food), bula feno api puha pinuh pannu mabuba
183 new baro baharu bago bag-o bayu balo [[]] nuebu vaovao 'āpī hōu anyar, kakara, weuteuh bagu vahu
184 old daan lama luma, matanda daan matua, laun, luma daan [[]] åmko' onta, hantitra tahitro pakeke lawas, lami dana rie
185 good imbag bagus, baik mabuti maayo mayap maong, duga, abig [[]] maolek tsara maitaʻi pai alus, hadé, saé masippo', mapia mahanru
186 bad dakes buruk, jahat, teruk masama dautan marok aliwa, mauges [[]] båba ratsy ʻino kino awon, butut, goréng marakay mausa
187 rotten
(as, a log)
nabangles reput, busuk bulok lata buluk abolok, bolok [[]] lamas bobongolo pirau buruk badyu mat'e mavitih
188 dirty narugit kotor marumi, madumi hugaw dinat, marinat maringot, dingot, marutak, dutak [[]] applacha' maloto repo paru bagedur, kotor nadaping mausa
189 straight natarus, nalinteg terus, lurus tuwid tarong, matuwid matulid, tulid maptek, petek [[]] tunas mahitsy tiʻa, 'āfaro tautika lempeng derecho matiktik
190 round nagbukel bulat, bundar bilog lingin mabilug malimpek, limpek, telek [[]] adamelong boribory menemene buleud, bunder maritong
191 sharp
(as a knife)
natadem tajam matulis, matalim, matalas hait mataram matdem, tarem [[]] kadidok maranitra ʻina koi seukeut nataram marhingat
192 dull
(as a knife)
namudel tumpul mapurol, pudpod habul mapurul epel, mangmang [[]] bulengngo' [[]] mania, tūmū pūhuki kodol, mentud, mintul nangural asi marhingat
193 smooth nalamuyot, nasimpa licin, mulus makinis hamis, kinis makinis, malinatnat palanas, patad [[]] måhlos, finu malama mānina maheni lemes nadalu' kasai ki huping
194 wet basa basah basa basa basa, mabasa ambasa, basa [[]] fotgon mando rari mākū baseuh, jibreg nabasa mahala
195 dry
(adjective)
maga kering tuyo uga malangi amaga, maga [[]] ångglo' maina marō maroke garing, saat, tuus namaga markah
196 right
(correct)
payso betul, benar tama, tumpak tinuod ustu, mausta duga, tua, maong [[]] dinanchi mendrika tiʻa tika bener, estu, leres kuruk, ustu asi maparit
197 near sideg dekat, hampir malapit duol malapit asinger, abay [[]] hihot akaiky fatata tata caket, deukeut aranni to tamang
198 far dayu jauh malayo layo marayu arawi, biek taew [[]] chågu lavitra ātea tawhiti jauh, tebih arayyu itu-tuah
199 right
(side)
kannawan kanan kanan tuo uanan kawanan [[]] agapa havanana ʻatau katau, matau katuhu, tengen ziwanan ziwanan pasiwan
200 left
(side)
kannigid kiri kaliwa wala kaili kawigi [[]] akkague havia ʻaui mauī kénca, kiwa zimigi zimigi pasigit
201 at diay di sa sa keta ed [[]] gi izy i i dina ta kan to
202 in uneg di, di dalam, dalam sa sa atiu, kilub ed [[]] gi anaty i i roto jero, lebet ta kan to, to rbo ki
203 with
(accompanying)
agraman, ken dengan, bersama kasama uban kambe, kayabe iba, mi- [[]] yan amin'ny ma jeung, kalawan, sareng anna, kavulun, konsu lam ki
204 and ken, ket dan, serta at ug ampong, at tan [[]] ya, yan sy, ary ma me, a, hoki sarta, tur anna ka, ki
205 if no jika, apabila, kalau kung kon nung no [[]] yanggen, akasu, kumu raha 'āhiri me (hemea) lamun, upami nu hiro ka
206 because ta sebab, kerana, karena dahil, sapagkat kay, tungod kasi, uling ta, lapu ed, kasi [[]] sa', muna'- satria nō te mea kusabab, lantaran, margi nakwa ta, garay ali ka
207 name nagan nama pangalan, ngalan ngalan lagyu ngaran [[]] na'an anarana iʻoa ingoa jenengan, nami, ngaran ngagan n'nan

See also[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic, Egyptian, Palestinian, Tunisian, Cypriot) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Berber: (Tashelhit) – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon, Zeelandic) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jeju - Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin