User:Gilgamesh~enwiktionary/English words by phonological interest

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Assorted nondeterministic pronunciations[edit]

any /ˈɛni/ (also /ˈæni/) blood /ˈblʌd/ both /ˈboʊlθ/ (also /ˈboʊθ/) broad /ˈbɹɔːd/ broaden /ˈbɹɔːdən/ bury /ˈbɛɹi/ business /ˈbɪznᵻs/ busy /ˈbɪzi/ butte /ˈbjuːt, ˈbɪut/ choir /ˈkwaɪ(ə)ɹ/ clerk /ˈklɑː(ɹ)k, ˈklæɹk/ (also /ˈklɜː(ɹ)k, ˈklɛɹk/) colonel /ˈkɜː(ɹ)nəl, ˈkʌɹn-/ comfortable /ˈkʌmftəɹbəl/ (also /ˈkʌmf(ə(ɹ))təbəl/) coupon /ˈkjuːpɒn, ˈkɪup-/ (also /ˈkuːpɒn/) debt /ˈdɛt/ doubt /ˈdaʊt/ drawer (compartment) /ˈdɹɔəɹ/ (also /ˈdɹɔːə(ɹ)/) England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ English /ˈɪŋɡlᵻʃ/ flood /ˈflʌd/ fount (font) /ˈfɒnt/ (also /ˈfaʊnt/) friend /ˈfɹɛnd/ gaol /ˈdʒeɪl/ heart /ˈhɑː(ɹ)t, ˈhæɹt/ hearth /ˈhɑː(ɹ)θ, ˈhæɹθ/ hiccough /ˈhɪkʌp, -kəp/ Houston (Texas) /ˈhjuːstən, ˈhɪust-/ iron /ˈaɪə(ɹ)n/ lieutenant /lɛfˈtɛnənt/ (also /ljuːˈtɛnənt, lɪu-/) many /ˈmɛni/ (also /ˈmæni/) mayor /ˈmɛə(ɹ), ˈmeɪɹ/ (also /ˈmeɪə(ɹ)/) once /ˈwʌns, ˈwɒns/ one /ˈwʌn, ˈwɒn/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ plaid /ˈplæd/ prayer (petition) /ˈpɹɛə(ɹ), ˈpɹeɪɹ/ pretty /ˈpɹɪti/ receipt /ɹɨˈsiːt/ Sean /ˈʃɔːn/ sergeant /ˈsɑː(ɹ)dʒənt, ˈsæɹdʒ-/ sew /ˈsoʊ/ sewn /ˈsoʊn/ subtle /ˈsʌtəl/ trough /ˈtɹɒθ, ˈtɹɔːθ/ (also /ˈtɹɒf, ˈtɹɔːf/) twenty /ˈtwʌnti, ˈtwʊnti/ (also /ˈtwɛnti/) victual /ˈvɪtəl/ women /ˈwɪmən/

Alternate pronunciations with /ʌ/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the only pronunciations involve either /ʌ/ or /ʊ/.

anybody /ˈɛnibʌdi, ˈæn-/ (also /ˈɛnibɒdi, ˈæn-/) because /bɨˈkʌz/ (also /bɨˈkɒz, -ˈkɔːz/) 'cause /ˈkʌz/ (also /ˈkɒz, ˈkɔːz/) coney, cony /ˈkʌni/ (also /ˈkoʊni/) coven /ˈkʌvən/ (also /ˈkoʊvən/) donjon /ˈdʌndʒən/ (also /ˈdɒndʒən/) donkey /ˈdʌŋki/ (also /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/) everybody /ˈɛv(ə)ɹibʌdi/ (also /ˈɛv(ə)ɹibɒdi/) from /ˈfɹʌm/ (also /ˈfɹɒm/) grovel /ˈɡɹʌvəl/ (also /ˈɡɹɒvəl/) hovel /ˈhʌvəl/ (also /ˈhɒvəl/) hover /ˈhʌvə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈhɒvə(ɹ)/) nobody /ˈnoʊbʌdi/ (also /ˈnoʊbɒdi, -bədi/) of /ˈʌv/ (also /ˈɒv/) once /ˈwʌns/ (also /ˈwɒns/) one /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) somebody /ˈsʌmbʌdi/ (also /ˈsʌmbɒdi, -bədi/) southerly /ˈsʌðə(ɹ)li/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(ɹ)li/) southern /ˈsʌðə(ɹ)n/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(ɹ)n/) sovereign /ˈsʌv(ə)ɹᵻn/ (also /ˈsɒv(ə)ɹᵻn/) tournament /ˈtɜː(ɹ)nəmənt, ˈtʌɹn-/ (also /ˈtʊə(ɹ)nəmənt, ˈtuːɹn-/) tourney /ˈtɜː(ɹ)ni, ˈtʌɹni/ (also /ˈtʊə(ɹ)ni, ˈtuːɹni/) twenty /ˈtwʌnti/ (also /ˈtwɛnti, ˈtwʊnti/) was /ˈwʌz/ (also /ˈwɒz/) wast /ˈwʌst/ (also /ˈwɒst/) what /ˈ(h)wʌt/ (also /ˈ(h)wɒt/) won /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) wont /ˈwʌnt/ (also /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/)

Centering diphthong without /ɹ/[edit]

Graham, graham, Graeme /ˈɡɹɛəm/ (also /ˈɡɹeɪəm, ˈɡɹæm/) Leah /ˈlɪə/ (also /ˈliːə/) mayonnaise /ˈmɛəneɪz/ (also /ˈmeɪəˈneɪz, ˈmæneɪz/) real /ˈɹɪəl/ (also /ˈɹiː(ə)l/) Rhea, rhea /ˈɹɪə/ (also /ˈɹiːə/) theater, theatre /ˈθɪətə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈθiː(ə)tə(ɹ), ˈθiːæt-, ˈθiːeɪt-/) yeah /ˈjɛə/ (also /ˈjæ/)

Fricative and silent plosive before lateral or nasal[edit]

apostle /əˈpɒsəl/ bristle /ˈbɹɪsəl/ bustle /ˈbʌsəl/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ chasten /ˈtʃeɪsən/ chestnut /ˈtʃɛsnʌt/ christen /ˈkɹɪsən/ Christmas /ˈkɹɪsməs/ fasten /ˈfæsən, ˈfɑːs-/ glisten /ˈɡlɪsən/ gristle /ˈɡɹɪsəl/ hasten /ˈheɪsən/ hustle /ˈhʌsəl/ jostle /ˈdʒɒsəl/ listen /ˈlɪsən/ mistletoe /ˈmɪsəltoʊ/ moisten /ˈmɔɪsən/ muscle /ˈmʌsəl/ mustn't /ˈmʌsənt/ nestle /ˈnɛsəl/ often /ˈɒfən, ˈɔːf-/ (also /ˈɒftən, ˈɔːft-/) pestle /ˈpɛsəl/ (also /ˈpɛstəl/) rastle, wrastle /ɹæsəl/ rustle /ˈɹʌsəl/ soften /ˈsɒfən, ˈsɔːf-/ thistle /ˈθɪsəl/ throstle /ˈθɹɒsəl/ whistle /ˈ(h)wɪsəl/ wrestle /ˈɹɛsəl/

‹a› as /ɒ/ or /ɔː/[edit]

Most such words have the spelling combinations ‹wa›, ‹ua› or ‹wha›.

This list does not include:

  • Words only pronounced with /ɑː/, such as qualm or suave.
  • Words pronounced with /ɔː(l)/ from L-vocalization, such as squall or walk.

Bengal /bɛŋˈɡɔːl, bɛn-/ (also /ˈbɛŋɡəl, ˈbɛn-, bɛŋˈɡɑːl, bɛn-/) Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɔːli, bɛn-/ (also /bɛŋˈɡɑːli, bɛn-/) bulwark /ˈbʊlwɔː(ɹ)k, ˈbʌl-, -wɒɹk/ (also /ˈbʊlwə(ɹ)k, ˈbʌl-/) dwarf /ˈdwɔː(ɹ)f, ˈdwɒɹf/ dwarves /ˈdwɔː(ɹ)vz, ˈdwɒɹvz/ Lancelot /ˈlɔːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/ (also /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɑːns-, -lət/) quaff /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/ (also /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/) quag /ˈkwɒɡ/ (also /ˈkwæɡ/) quagmire /ˈkwɒɡmaɪ(ə)ɹ/ (also /ˈkwæɡmaɪ(ə)ɹ/) quantum /ˈkwɒntəm/ quarantine /ˈkwɒɹəntiːn, ˈkwɔːɹ-/ quark /ˈkwɔː(ɹ)k, ˈkwɒɹk/ (also /ˈkwɑː(ɹ)k, ˈkwæɹk/) quarrel /ˈkwɒɹəl, ˈkwɔːɹ-/ quarry /ˈkwɒɹi, ˈkwɔːɹi/ quart /ˈkwɔː(ɹ)t, ˈkwɒɹt/ quarter /ˈkwɔː(ɹ)tə(ɹ), ˈkwɒɹt-/ quarts, quartz /ˈkwɔː(ɹ)ts, ˈkwɒɹts/ quash /ˈkwɒʃ/ sasquatch /ˈsæskwɒtʃ/ (also /ˈsæskwætʃ/) scallop /ˈskɒləp/ (also /ˈskæləp/) Sean /ˈʃɔːn/ Siobhan /ʃɨˈvɔːn/ squabble /ˈskwɒbəl/ squad /ˈskwɒd/ squadron /ˈskwɒdɹən/ squalid /ˈskwɒlᵻd/ squalor /ˈskwɒlə(ɹ)/ squander /ˈskwɒndə(ɹ)/ Squanto /ˈskwɒntoʊ/ squash /ˈskwɒʃ, ˈskwɔːʃ/ squat /ˈskwɒt/ squatch /ˈskwɒtʃ/ (also /ˈskwætʃ/) stanch /ˈstɔːntʃ/ (also /ˈstæntʃ, ˈstɑːntʃ/) swab /ˈswɒb/ swaddle /ˈswɒdəl/ swallow /ˈswɒloʊ/ swamp /ˈswɒmp/ swan /ˈswɒn/ swap /ˈswɒp/ swarm /ˈswɔː(ɹ)m, ˈswɒɹm/ swart /ˈswɔː(ɹ)t, ˈswɒɹt/ swarthy /ˈswɔː(ɹ)ði, ˈswɒɹði, ˈswɔː(ɹ)θi, ˈswɒɹθi/ swash /ˈswɒʃ, ˈswɔːʃ/ swat /ˈswɒt/ swatch /ˈswɒtʃ/ swath /ˈswɒθ, ˈswɔːθ/ swaths /ˈswɒðz, ˈswɔːðz/ twat /ˈtwɒt/ wabble /ˈwɒbəl/ wad /ˈwɒd/ waddle /ˈwɒdəl/ waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/ Wallace /ˈwɒlᵻs/ wallow /ˈwɒloʊ/ Wally /ˈwɒli, ˈwɔːli/ Walsh /ˈwɒlʃ/ wan (pallid) /ˈwɒn/ wand /ˈwɒnd/ wander /ˈwɒndə(ɹ)/ wanna /ˈwɒnə, ˈwɔːnə/ want /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ wanton /ˈwɒntən/ war /ˈwɔː(ɹ), ˈwɒɹ/ warble /ˈwɔː(ɹ)bəl, ˈwɒɹb-/ ward, warred /ˈwɔː(ɹ)d, ˈwɒɹd/ warden /ˈwɔː(ɹ)dən, ˈwɒɹd-/ warm /ˈwɔː(ɹ)m, ˈwɒɹm/ warmth /ˈwɔː(ɹ)mθ, ˈwɒɹmθ/ warn /ˈwɔː(ɹ)n, ˈwɒɹn/ warp /ˈwɔː(ɹ)p, ˈwɒɹp/ warrant /ˈwɒɹənt, ˈwɔːɹ-/ warranty /ˈwɒɹənti, ˈwɔːɹ-/ Warren, warren /ˈwɒɹən, ˈwɔːɹ-/ warrior /ˈwɒɹiə(ɹ), ˈwɔːɹi-, ˈwɒɹjəɹ, ˈwɔː(ɹ)jə(ɹ), ˈwɔɪə(ɹ)/ Warsaw /ˈwɔː(ɹ)sɔː, ˈwɒɹs-/ wart /ˈwɔː(ɹ)t, ˈwɒɹt/ Warwick /ˈwɒɹᵻk, ˈwɔːɹ-, ˈwɔː(ɹ)wᵻk, ˈwɒɹ-/ was /ˈwɒz/ (also /ˈwʌz/) Wash, wash /ˈwɒʃ, ˈwɔːʃ/ Washington /ˈwɒʃᵻŋtən, ˈwɔːʃ-/ wasp /ˈwɒsp/ wassail /ˈwɒsᵻl, -seɪl, wɒˈseɪl/ (also /ˈwæsᵻl, -seɪl, wæˈseɪl/) wast /ˈwɒst/ (also /ˈwʌst/) watch /ˈwɒtʃ/ water /ˈwɔːtə(ɹ)/ watt /ˈwɒt/ whap /ˈ(h)wɒp/ (also /ˈ(h)wæp/) wharf /ˈ(h)wɔː(ɹ)f, ˈ(h)wɒɹf/ wharves /ˈ(h)wɔː(ɹ)vz, ˈ(h)wɒɹvz/ what /ˈ(h)wɒt/ (also /ˈ(h)wʌt/) wrath /ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ/ (also /ˈɹæθ, ˈɹɑːθ/) yacht /ˈjɒt/

‹aCC› as /eɪCC/ invalid IPA characters (CC) and final ‹aC› as /eɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C)[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the consonant cluster sequence is only /Cl/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in table) or only /Cr/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in sabre), since vowels are expected to be long in these spellings.
  • Words where the spelling ‹agC› is pronounced /eɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C) from older /æjC/ invalid IPA characters (C).
  • Words pronounced with /eɪŋ(ɡ)/ or /eɪŋk/, as this is specific and regular to certain dialects of North American English.

Before /mb/[edit]

Cambridge /ˈkeɪmbɹᵻdʒ/ chamber /ˈtʃeɪmbə(ɹ)/ chamberlain /ˈtʃeɪmbə(ɹ)lᵻn/

Before /ndʒ/[edit]

angel /ˈeɪndʒəl/ change /ˈtʃeɪndʒ/ danger /ˈdeɪndʒə(ɹ)/ grange /ˈɡɹeɪndʒ/ mange /ˈmeɪndʒ/ range /ˈɹeɪndʒ/ strange /ˈstɹeɪndʒ/

Before /st/[edit]

baste /ˈbeɪst/ chaste /ˈtʃeɪst/ haste /ˈheɪst/ paste /ˈpeɪst/ pastry /ˈpeɪstɹi/ taste /ˈteɪst/ waste /ˈweɪst/ wastrel /ˈweɪstɹəl/

Influenced[edit]

chasten /ˈtʃeɪsən/ hasten /ˈheɪsən/

Other[edit]

ancient /ˈeɪn(t)ʃənt/ bass (clef) /ˈbeɪs/ Halley /ˈheɪli/ (also /ˈhæli/) nascent /ˈneɪsənt/ (also /ˈnæsənt/) Ralph /ˈɹeɪf/ (also /ˈɹælf, ˈɹɑː(l)f/) scarce /ˈskɛə(ɹ)s, ˈskeɪɹs/

‹ai› and ‹ay› as /aɪ/[edit]

aisle /ˈaɪl/ ay, aye /ˈaɪ/ (also /ˈeɪ/) banzai /ˈbɑːnˈzaɪ/ bonsai /ˈbɒnˈsaɪ, ˈboʊn-, -ˈzaɪ/ Cairo (Egypt) /ˈkaɪɹoʊ/ Dubai /duːˈbaɪ/ Gaia /ˈɡaɪə/ (also /ˈɡeɪə/) Gaius /ˈɡaɪəs/ (also /ˈɡeɪəs/) Hawaii /həˈwaɪi, -ˈvaɪʔi, -ˈwaɪə/ (also /həˈwɑːi, -ˈvɑːʔi/) Isaiah /aɪˈzaɪə/ (also /aɪˈzeɪə/) kaiser /ˈkaɪzə(ɹ)/ Mordecai /ˈmɔː(ɹ)dəˈkaɪ, ˈmɒɹd-/ (also /mɔː(ɹ)dəˈkeɪaɪ, mɒɹd-/) Lorelai /ˈlɒɹəlaɪ, ˈlɔːɹ-/ samurai /ˈsæm(j)ᵿɹaɪ/ sempai /ˈsɛmpaɪ/ senpai /ˈsɛmpaɪ, ˈsɛn-/ Shanghai /ˈʃæŋˈhaɪ/ Taipei /ˈtaɪˈpeɪ/ Taiwan /ˈtaɪˈwɑːn/ Thai /ˈtaɪ/ Thailand /ˈtaɪlænd/

‹ai› and ‹ay› as /ɛ/[edit]

again /əˈɡɛn/ (also /əˈɡeɪn/) against /əˈɡɛnst/ (also /əˈɡeɪnst/) Craig /ˈkɹɛɡ/ (also /ˈkɹeɪɡ/) said /ˈsɛd/ sayeth /ˈsɛθ/ (also /ˈseɪəθ/) says /ˈsɛz/

/æŋ/[edit]

These words mostly have /eɪŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /æŋ/.

anchor /ˈæŋkə(ɹ)/ anger /ˈæŋɡə(ɹ)/ Angle, angle /ˈæŋɡəl/ Anglia /ˈæŋɡliə/ angry /ˈæŋɡɹi/ angst /ˈæŋ(k)st/ anguish /ˈæŋɡwᵻʃ/ angular /ˈæŋɡjᵿlə(ɹ)/ Angus /ˈæŋɡəs/ ankh /ˈæŋk/ ankle /ˈæŋkəl/ anxious /ˈæŋ(k)ʃəs/ bang /ˈbæŋ/ Bangalore /ˈbæŋɡəlɔə(ɹ), -loʊɹ/ Bangkok /ˈbæŋˈkɒk/ Bangladesh /ˈbæŋɡlədɛʃ/ (also /ˈbɑːŋɡlədɛʃ/) bangle /ˈbæŋɡəl/ Bangor /ˈbæŋɡɔː(ɹ), -ɡɒɹ, -ɡə(ɹ)/ bank /ˈbæŋk/ blank /ˈblæŋk/ brang /ˈbɹæŋ/ cankle /ˈkæŋkəl/ chank /ˈtʃæŋk/ clang /ˈklæŋ/ clank /ˈklæŋk/ crank /ˈkɹæŋk/ dang /ˈdæŋ/ dangle /ˈdæŋɡəl/ dank /ˈdæŋk/ doppelganger /ˈdɒpəlɡæŋə(ɹ)/ drank /ˈdɹæŋk/ fang /ˈfæŋ/ fangle /ˈfæŋɡəl/ flank /ˈflæŋk/ franc, Frank, frank /ˈfɹæŋk/ gang /ˈɡæŋ/ handkerchief /ˈhæŋkə(ɹ)tʃiːf, -tʃᵻf/ (also /ˈhændkə(ɹ)tʃiːf, -tʃᵻf/) hang /ˈhæŋ/ hangar, hanger /ˈhæŋə(ɹ)/ Hank /ˈhæŋk/ hanker /ˈhæŋkə(ɹ)/ jangle /ˈdʒæŋɡəl/ Lang /ˈlæŋ/ language /ˈlæŋɡwᵻdʒ/ languid /ˈlæŋɡwᵻd/ languish /ˈlæŋɡwᵻʃ/ lank /ˈlæŋk/ mangle /ˈmæŋɡəl/ Manx /ˈmæŋks/ meringue /məˈɹæŋ/ orangutan /ɵˈɹæŋᵿtæn, -tæŋ/ pang /ˈpæŋ/ plank /ˈplæŋk/ prank /ˈpɹæŋk/ rancor, rancour, ranker /ˈɹæŋkə(ɹ)/ rang /ˈɹæŋ/ rank /ˈɹæŋk/ rankle /ˈɹæŋkəl/ sang /ˈsæŋ/ sanguine /ˈsæŋɡwᵻn/ sank /ˈsæŋk/ Shanghai /ˈʃæŋˈhaɪ/ shank /ˈʃæŋk/ shrank /ˈʃɹæŋk/ skank /ˈskæŋk/ slang /ˈslæŋ/ slank /ˈslæŋk/ spangle /ˈspæŋɡəl/ spank /ˈspæŋk/ sprang /ˈspɹæŋ/ stang /ˈstæŋ/ stank /ˈstæŋk/ strangle /ˈstɹæŋɡəl/ swang /ˈswæŋ/ swank /ˈswæŋk/ Tang, tang /ˈtæŋ/ tangle /ˈtæŋɡəl/ tank /ˈtæŋk/ thank /ˈθæŋk/ trank, tranq /ˈtɹæŋk/ tranquil /ˈtɹæŋkwᵻl/ twang /ˈtwæŋ/ wang /ˈwæŋ/ wank /ˈwæŋk/ whang /ˈ(h)wæŋ/ Wrangel, Wrangell, wrangle /ˈɹæŋɡəl/ yang /ˈjæŋ/ Yank, yank /ˈjæŋk/ Yankee /ˈjæŋki/

‹au› as /ɑː/[edit]

This pronunciation mainly occurs before a cluster of /n/ and another consonant, and most such words also have alternate pronunciations with /ɔː/.

aunt /ˈɑːnt/ (also /ˈænt/) daunt /ˈdɑːnt/ (also /ˈdɔːnt/) Gaunt /ˈɡɑːnt/ (also /ˈɡɔːnt/) gauntlet /ˈɡɑːntlᵻt/ (also /ˈɡɔːntlᵻt/) haunch /ˈhɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈhɔːntʃ/) haunt /ˈhɑːnt/ (also /ˈhɔːnt, ˈhænt/) jaundice /ˈdʒɑːndᵻs/ (also /ˈdʒɔːndᵻs/) jaunt /ˈdʒɑːnt/ (also /ˈdʒɔːnt/) Launcelot /ˈlɑːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/ (also /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɔːns-, -lət/) launch /ˈlɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈlɔːntʃ/) launder /ˈlɑːndə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈlɔːndə(ɹ)/) laundry /ˈlɑːndɹi/ (also /ˈlɔːndɹi/) paunch /ˈpɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈpɔːntʃ/) raunch /ˈɹɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈɹɔːntʃ/) Saunders /ˈsɑːndə(ɹ)z/ (also /ˈsɔːndə(ɹ)z/) saunter /ˈsɑːntə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈsɔːntə(ɹ)/) staunch /ˈstɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈstɔːntʃ/) taunt /ˈtɑːnt/ (also /ˈtɔːnt/) vaunt /ˈvɑːnt/ (also /ˈvɔːnt/)

‹au› and ‹aw› as /ɒ/[edit]

because /bɨˈkɒz/ (also /bɨˈkɔːz, -ˈkʌz/) 'cause /ˈkɒz/ (also /ˈkɔːz, ˈkʌz/) laurel /ˈlɒɹəl/ (also /ˈlɔːɹəl/) Laurence, Lawrence /ˈlɒɹəns/ (also /ˈlɔːɹəns/) Maurice /ˈmɒɹᵻs/ (also /ˈmɔːɹᵻs, mɔːˈɹiːs/) sausage /ˈsɒsᵻdʒ/ (also /ˈsɔːsᵻdʒ/)

/aʊl/[edit]

This sound tends to merge with /æl/ in certain accents of North American English.

bowel /ˈbaʊl/ (also /ˈbaʊəl/) Cowell /ˈkaʊl/ (also /ˈkaʊəl/) cowl /ˈkaʊl/ foul, fowl /ˈfaʊl/ growl /ˈɡɹaʊl/ howl /ˈhaʊl/ owl /ˈaʊl/ (also /ˈaʊəl/) Powell /ˈpaʊl/ (also /ˈpaʊəl, ˈpoʊəl/) prowl /ˈpɹaʊl/ scowl /ˈskaʊl/ towel /ˈtaʊl/ (also /ˈtaʊəl/) trowel /ˈtɹaʊl/ (also /ˈtɹaʊəl/) vowel /ˈvaʊl/ (also /ˈvaʊəl/)

‹augh› and ‹ough› as /ɔː/[edit]

aught, ought /ˈɔːt/ besought /bɨˈsɔːt/ bought /ˈbɔːt/ brought /ˈbɹɔːt/ caught /ˈkɔːt/ daughter /ˈdɔːtə(ɹ)/ distraught /dᵻˈstɹɔːt/ fought /ˈfɔːt/ fraught /ˈfɹɔːt/ haughty /ˈhɔːti/ naught, nought /ˈnɔːt/ onslaught /ˈɒnslɔːt, ˈɔːn-/ slaughter /ˈslɔːtə(ɹ)/ sought /ˈsɔːt/ taught /ˈtɔːt/ thought /ˈθɔːt/ Vaughan, Vaughn /ˈvɔːn/ wrought /ˈɹɔːt/ Youghal /ˈjɔːl/

BATH lexical set[edit]

These words tend to have /æ ~ ɛə/ in North American English and /ɑː/ in Received Pronunciation. Some accents have both sounds, but varying word by word.

Before /f/[edit]

aft /ˈæft, ˈɑːft/ after /ˈæftə(ɹ), ˈɑːft-/ chaff /ˈtʃæf, ˈtʃɑːf/ craft /ˈkɹæft, ˈkɹɑːft/ daft /ˈdæft, ˈdɑːft/ draft, draught /ˈdɹæft, ˈdɹɑːft/ giraffe /dʒᵻˈɹæf, -ˈɹɑːf/ graft, graphed /ˈɡɹæft, ˈɡɹɑːft/ graph /ˈɡɹæf, ˈɡɹɑːf/ laugh /ˈlæf, ˈlɑːf/ laughter /ˈlæftə(ɹ), ˈlɑːft-/ quaff /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/ (also /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/) raft /ˈɹæft, ˈɹɑːft/ shaft /ˈʃæft, ˈʃɑːft/ staff /ˈstæf, ˈstɑːf/

Before /(l)f/ or /(l)v/[edit]

calf /ˈkæ(l)f, ˈkɑː(l)f/ calves /ˈkæ(l)vz, ˈkɑː(l)vz/ calve /ˈkæ(l)v, ˈkɑː(l)v/ half /ˈhæ(l)f, ˈhɑː(l)f/ halves /ˈhæ(l)vz, ˈhɑː(l)vz/ halve /ˈhæ(l)v, ˈhɑː(l)v/ Ralph /ˈɹælf, ˈɹɑː(l)f/ (also /ˈɹeɪf/) salve /ˈsæ(l)v, ˈsɑː(l)v/

Before /mp(ə)l/[edit]

example /ᵻɡˈzæmpəl, ɛɡ-, -ˈzɑːmp-/ sample /ˈsæmpəl, ˈsɑːmp-/

Before /nd(ə)ɹ/[edit]

Alexander /ælᵻɡˈzændə(ɹ), -ˈzɑːnd-/ Alexandra /ælᵻɡˈzændɹə, -ˈzɑːnd-/ Alexandretta /ælᵻɡzænˈdɹɛtə, -zɑːnd-/ Alexandria /ælᵻɡˈzændɹiə, -ˈzɑːnd-/ commander /kəˈmændə(ɹ), -ˈmɑːnd/ Flanders /ˈflændə(ɹ)z, ˈflɑːnd-/ Sanders /ˈsændə(ɹ)z, ˈsɑːnd-/ Sandra /ˈsændɹə, ˈsɑːnd-/ slander /ˈslændə(ɹ), ˈslɑːnd-/

Influenced[edit]

chandler /ˈtʃændlə(ɹ), ˈtʃɑːnd-/ command /kəˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/ demand /dɨˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/ remand /ɹɨˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/

Before /ns/[edit]

advance /ædˈvæns, -ˈvɑːns/ answer /ˈænsə(ɹ), ˈɑːns-/ chance /ˈtʃæns, ˈtʃɑːns/ chancellor /ˈtʃæns(ə)lə(ɹ), ˈtʃɑːns-/ chancery /ˈtʃænsəɹi, ˈtʃɑːns-/ dance /ˈdæns, ˈdɑːns/ enhance /ᵻnˈhæns, ɛn-, -ˈhɑːns/ France /ˈfɹæns, ˈfɹɑːns/ Frances (name), Francis /ˈfɹænsᵻs, ˈfɹɑːns-/ glance /ˈɡlæns, ˈɡlɑːns/ lance /ˈlæns, ˈlɑːns/ Lancelot, Launcelot /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɑːns-, -lət/ (also /ˈlɔːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/) prance /ˈpɹæns, ˈpɹɑːns/ Romance, romance /ɹɵˈmæns, ˈɹoʊˈmæns, -ˈmɑːns/ stance /ˈstæns, ˈstɑːns/ trance /ˈtɹæns, ˈtɹɑːns/ trans- (stressed) /ˈtɹænz-, ˈtɹɑːnz-, ˈtɹæns-, ˈtɹɑːns-/

Before /nt/[edit]

advantage /ædˈvæntᵻdʒ, -ˈvɑːnt-/ aunt /ˈænt, ˈɑːnt/ can't /ˈkænt, ˈkɑːnt/ chant /ˈtʃænt, ˈtʃɑːnt/ Grant, grant /ˈɡɹænt, ˈɡɹɑːnt/ plant /ˈplænt, ˈplɑːnt/ rant /ˈɹænt, ˈɹɑːnt/ shan't /ˈʃænt, ˈʃɑːnt/

Before /ntʃ/[edit]

blanch, Blanche /ˈblæntʃ, ˈblɑːntʃ/ branch /ˈbɹæntʃ, ˈbɹɑːntʃ/ panch /ˈpæntʃ, ˈpɑːntʃ/ ranch /ˈɹæntʃ, ˈɹɑːntʃ/ stanch /ˈstæntʃ, ˈstɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈstɔːntʃ/)

Before /s/[edit]

alas /əˈlæs, əˈlɑːs/ ask /ˈæsk, ˈɑːsk/ ass (arse) /ˈæs, ˈɑːs/ bask, Basque, basque /ˈbæsk, ˈbɑːsk/ basket /ˈbæskᵻt, ˈbɑːsk-/ bastard /ˈbæstə(ɹ)d, ˈbɑːst-/ Belfast /ˈbɛlfæst, -fɑːst/ blast /ˈblæst, ˈblɑːst/ brass /ˈbɹæs, ˈbɹɑːs/ cask /ˈkæsk, ˈkɑːsk/ casket /ˈkæskᵻt, ˈkɑːsk-/ cast, caste /ˈkæst, ˈkɑːst/ caster, castor /ˈkæstə(ɹ), ˈkɑːst-/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ clasp /ˈklæsp, ˈklɑːsp/ class /ˈklæs, ˈklɑːs/ contrast (noun) /ˈkɒntɹæst, -tɹɑːst/ contrast (verb) /kənˈtɹæst, -ˈtɹɑːst/ disaster /dᵻˈzæstə(ɹ), -ˈzɑːst-/ drastic /ˈdɹæstᵻk, ˈdɹɑːst-/ fast /ˈfæst, ˈfɑːst/ fasten /ˈfæsən, ˈfɑːs-/ flask /ˈflæsk, ˈflɑːsk/ gasp /ˈɡæsp, ˈɡɑːsp/ gast, ghast /ˈɡæst, ˈɡɑːst/ Glasgow /ˈɡlæsɡoʊ, ˈɡlɑːs-, -koʊ/ glass /ˈɡlæs, ˈɡlɑːs/ grasp /ˈɡɹæsp, ˈɡɹɑːsp/ grass /ˈɡɹæs, ˈɡɹɑːs/ last /ˈlæst, ˈlɑːst/ mask, masque /ˈmæsk, ˈmɑːsk/ mast /ˈmæst, ˈmɑːst/ master /ˈmæstə(ɹ), ˈmɑːst-/ nasty /ˈnæsti, ˈnɑːsti/ pass /ˈpæs, ˈpɑːs/ passed, past /ˈpæst, ˈpɑːst/ pastor /ˈpæstə(ɹ), ˈpɑːst-/ pasture /ˈpæstʃə(ɹ), ˈpɑːst-/ plaster /ˈplæstə(ɹ), ˈplɑːst-/ plastic /ˈplæstᵻk, ˈplɑːst-/ rasp /ˈɹæsp, ˈɹɑːsp/ task /ˈtæsk, ˈtɑːsk/ vast /ˈvæst, ˈvɑːst/

Influenced[edit]

raspberry /ˈɹæzb(ɛ)ɹi, ˈɹɑːz-/

Before /θ/ or /ð/[edit]

Bath, bath /ˈbæθ, ˈbɑːθ/ baths /ˈbæðz, ˈbɑːðz, ˈbæθs, ˈbɑːθs/ lather /ˈlæðə(ɹ), ˈlɑːð-/ path /ˈpæθ, ˈpɑːθ/ paths /ˈpæðz, ˈpɑːðz, ˈpæθs, ˈpɑːθs/ rather /ˈɹæðə(ɹ), ˈɹɑːð-/ wrath /ˈɹæθ, ˈɹɑːθ/ (also /ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ/)

Other[edit]

banana /bəˈnænə, -ˈnɑːnə/ corral /kɵˈɹæl, -ˈɹɑːl/ locale /loʊˈkæl, -ˈkɑːl/ moustache, mustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ, məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/ plaque /ˈplæk, ˈplɑːk/ soprano /sɵˈpɹænoʊ, -ˈpɹɑːn-/ stache /ˈstæʃ, ˈstɑːʃ/

‹ch› as /ʃ/[edit]

bouche /ˈbuːʃ/ cache /ˈkæʃ/ caroche /kəˈɹɒʃ, -ˈɹoʊʃ/ (also /kəˈɹoʊtʃ/) chagrin /ʃəˈɡɹɪn/ Champagne, champagne /ʃæmˈpeɪn/ charade /ʃəˈɹɑːd, -ˈɹeɪd/ Charlene /ʃɑː(ɹ)ˈliːn, ʃæɹ-/ Charlotte /ˈʃɑː(ɹ)lət, ˈʃæɹ-/ Charmaine /ʃɑː(ɹ)ˈmeɪn, ʃæɹ-/ chef /ˈʃɛf/ Cher, cher /ˈʃɛə(ɹ), ˈʃeɪɹ/ Cheryl /ˈʃɛɹᵻl/ chevron /ˈʃɛvɹɒn, -ɹən/ chic /ˈʃiːk/ chiv /ˈʃɪv/ (also /ˈtʃɪv/) chivalrous /ˈʃɪvəlɹəs/ chivalry /ˈʃɪvəlɹi/ chute /ˈʃuːt, ˈʃɪut/ douche /ˈduːʃ/ duchy /ˈdjuːʃi, ˈdɪuʃi/ (also /ˈdʌtʃi/) ganache /ɡəˈnæʃ, -ˈnɑːʃ/ gauche /ˈɡoʊʃ/ machine /məˈʃiːn/ Michelle /mᵻˈʃɛl/ moustache, mustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ, məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/ niche /ˈniːʃ/ (also /ˈnɪtʃ/) panache /pəˈnæʃ, -ˈnɑːʃ/ parachute /ˈpæɹəʃuːt, -ʃɪut/ pastiche /pæˈstiːʃ, pɑː-/ quiche /ˈkiːʃ/ stache /ˈstæʃ, ˈstɑːʃ/ Welch /ˈwɛlʃ/ (also /ˈwɛltʃ/)

CLOTH lexical set[edit]

These words tend to have /ɔː/ in North American English and /ɒ/ in Australian English and Received Pronunciation. Some accents have both sounds, but varying word by word.

Before /f/[edit]

coffee /ˈkɒfi, ˈkɔːfi/ coffer /ˈkɒfə(ɹ), ˈkɔːf-/ coffin /ˈkɒfᵻn, ˈkɔːf-/ cough /ˈkɒf, ˈkɔːf/ croft /ˈkɹɒft, ˈkɹɔːft/ dolphin /ˈdɒlfᵻn, ˈdɔːlf-/ golf /ˈɡɒ(l)f, ˈɡɔː(l)f/ loft /ˈlɒft, ˈlɔːft/ off /ˈɒf, ˈɔːf/ offal /ˈɒfəl, ˈɔːf-/ Offaly /ˈɒfəli, ˈɔːf-/ offence, offense /ˈɒfɛns, ˈɔːfɛns/ (also /ɵˈfɛns/) offer /ˈɒfə(ɹ), ˈɔːf-/ office /ˈɒfᵻs, ˈɔːf-/ oft /ˈɒft, ˈɔːft/ often /ˈɒf(t)ən, ˈɔːf(t)-/ quaff /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/ (also /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/) soft /ˈsɒft, ˈsɔːft/ soften /ˈsɒfən, ˈsɔːf-/ toffee, toffy /ˈtɒfi, ˈtɔːfi/ trough /ˈtɹɒf, ˈtɹɔːf/ (also /ˈtɹɒθ, ˈtɹɔːθ/) waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/

Before /ɡ/[edit]

blog /ˈblɒɡ, ˈblɔːɡ/ bog /ˈbɒɡ, ˈbɔːɡ/ clog /ˈklɒɡ, ˈklɔːɡ/ cog /ˈkɒɡ, ˈkɔːɡ/ demagog, demagogue /ˈdɛməɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ dog /ˈdɒɡ, ˈdɔːɡ/ flog /ˈflɒɡ, ˈflɔːɡ/ fog /ˈfɒɡ, ˈfɔːɡ/ frog /ˈfɹɒɡ, ˈfɹɔːɡ/ hog /ˈhɒɡ, ˈhɔːɡ/ log /ˈlɒɡ, ˈlɔːɡ/ -log, -logue /-lɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ smog /ˈsmɒɡ, ˈsmɔːɡ/ synagog, synagogue /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ vlog /ˈvlɒɡ, ˈvlɔːɡ/ vog /ˈvɒɡ, ˈvɔːɡ/

Before /n/[edit]

gone /ˈɡɒn, ˈɡɔːn/ gonna /ˈɡɒnə, ˈɡɔːnə/ (also /ˈɡʌnə/) on /ˈɒn, ˈɔːn/ shone /ˈʃɒn, ˈʃɔːn/ (also /ˈʃoʊn/) wanna /ˈwɒnə, ˈwɔːnə/ (also /ˈwʌnə/) want /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ wont /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ (also /ˈwʌnt/)

Before /ŋ/[edit]

bong /ˈbɒŋ, ˈbɔːŋ/ bonk /ˈbɒŋk, ˈbɔːŋk/ conk /ˈkɒŋk, ˈkɔːŋk/ dong /ˈdɒŋ, ˈdɔːŋ/ dongle /ˈdɒŋɡəl, ˈdɔːŋɡ-/ donkey /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/ (also /ˈdʌŋki/) gong /ˈɡɒŋ, ˈɡɔːŋ/ honk /ˈhɒŋk, ˈhɔːŋk/ long /ˈlɒŋ, ˈlɔːŋ/ longer /ˈlɒŋɡə(ɹ), ˈlɔːŋɡ-/ pong /ˈpɒŋ, ˈpɔːŋ/ prong /ˈpɹɒŋ, ˈpɹɔːŋ/ song /ˈsɒŋ, ˈsɔːŋ/ strong /ˈstɹɒŋ, ˈstɹɔːŋ/ stronger /ˈstɹɒŋɡə(ɹ), ˈstɹɔːŋɡ-/ thong /ˈθɒŋ, ˈθɔːŋ/ throng /ˈθɹɒŋ, ˈθɹɔːŋ/ tong /ˈtɒŋ, ˈtɔːŋ/ wonk /ˈwɒŋk, ˈwɔːŋk/ wrong /ˈɹɒŋ, ˈɹɔːŋ/

Influenced[edit]

longevity /lɒnˈdʒɛvᵻti, lɔːn-/ longitude /ˈlɒndʒᵻtjuːd, ˈlɔːndʒ-, -tɪud/

Before /s/[edit]

albatross /ˈælbətɹɒs, -tɹɔːs/ boss /ˈbɒs, ˈbɔːs/ Boston /ˈbɒstən, ˈbɔːst-/ cost /ˈkɒst, ˈkɔːst/ cross /ˈkɹɒs, ˈkɹɔːs/ floss /ˈflɒs, ˈflɔːs/ foster /ˈfɒstə(ɹ), ˈfɔːst-/ frost /ˈfɹɒst, ˈfɹɔːst/ gloss /ˈɡlɒs, ˈɡlɔːs/ Gloster, Gloucester /ˈɡlɒstə(ɹ), ˈɡlɔːst-/ hoss /ˈhɒs, ˈhɔːs/ loss /ˈlɒs, ˈlɔːs/ lost /ˈlɒst, ˈlɔːst/ mosque /ˈmɒsk, ˈmɔːsk/ moss /ˈmɒs, ˈmɔːs/ ostrich /ˈɒstɹᵻtʃ, ˈɔːst-/ Ross /ˈɹɒs, ˈɹɔːs/ sausage /ˈsɒsᵻdʒ, ˈsɔːs-/ toss /ˈtɒs, ˈtɔːs/

Before /θ/ or /ð/[edit]

betroth /bɨˈtɹɒθ, -ˈtɹɔːθ/ (also /bɨˈtɹoʊð/) bothy /ˈbɒθi, ˈbɔːθi/ broth /ˈbɹɒθ, ˈbɹɔːθ/ brothel /ˈbɹɒθəl, ˈbɹɔːθ-, ˈbɹɒð-, ˈbɹɔːð-/ cloth /ˈklɒθ, ˈklɔːθ/ cloths /ˈklɒðz, ˈklɔːðz, ˈklɒθs, ˈklɔːθs/ froth /ˈfɹɒθ, ˈfɹɔːθ/ moth /ˈmɒθ, ˈmɔːθ/ mother (moth) /ˈmɒðə(ɹ), ˈmɔːð-, ˈmɒθ-, ˈmɔːθ-/ moths /ˈmɒðz, ˈmɔːðz, ˈmɒθs, ˈmɔːθs/ Roth /ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ/ sloth /ˈslɒθ, ˈslɔːθ/ (also /ˈsloʊθ/) swath /ˈswɒθ, ˈswɔːθ/ swaths /ˈswɒðz, ˈswɔːðz/ troth /ˈtɹɒθ, ˈtɹɔːθ/ (also /ˈtɹoʊθ/) trough /ˈtɹɒθ, ˈtɹɔːθ/ (also /ˈtɹɒf, ˈtɹɔːf/) wrath /ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ/ (also /ˈɹæθ, ˈɹɑːθ/) wroth /ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ/ (also /ˈɹoʊθ/)

After /w/ and before /ʃ/[edit]

squash /ˈskwɒʃ, ˈskwɔːʃ/ swash /ˈswɒʃ, ˈswɔːʃ/ Wash, wash /ˈwɒʃ, ˈwɔːʃ/ Washington /ˈwɒʃᵻŋtən, ˈwɔːʃ-/

Other[edit]

because /bɨˈkɒz, bɨˈkɔːz/ (also /bɨˈkʌz/) 'cause /ˈkɒz, ˈkɔːz/ (also /ˈkʌz/) chocolate /ˈtʃɒk(ɵ)lᵻt, ˈtʃɔːk-/

Initial /dw/[edit]

Duane /ˈdweɪn/ (also /duːˈeɪn/) dwarf /ˈdwɔː(ɹ)f, ˈdwɒɹf/ dwarves /ˈdwɔː(ɹ)vz, ˈdwɒɹvz/ Dwayne /ˈdweɪn/ dweeb /ˈdwiːb/ dwell /ˈdwɛl/ dwelt /ˈdwɛlt/ Dwight /ˈdwaɪt/

Initial /ð/[edit]

than /ˈðæn/ that /ˈðæt/ the /ˈðiː, ðə, ði/ thee /ˈðiː/ their, there, they're /ˈðɛə(ɹ), ˈðeɪɹ/ theirs, there's /ˈðɛə(ɹ)z, ˈðeɪɹz/ them /ˈðɛm/ then /ˈðɛn/ thence /ˈðɛns/ these /ˈðiːz/ they /ˈðeɪ/ thine /ˈðaɪn/ this /ˈðɪs/ thither /ˈðɪðə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈθɪðə(ɹ)/) those /ˈðoʊz/ thou (pronoun) /ˈðaʊ/ though /ˈðoʊ/ thus /ˈðʌs/ thy /ˈðaɪ/

Interchangeable /ð/ and /θ/[edit]

baths /ˈbæðz, ˈbɑːðz, ˈbæθs, ˈbɑːθs/ blithe /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ Blyth /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ (also /ˈblaɪ/) Booth, booth /ˈbuːð, ˈbuːθ/ cloths /ˈklɒðz, ˈklɔːðz, ˈklɒθs, ˈklɔːθs/ loath /ˈloʊð, ˈloʊθ/ mother (moth) /ˈmɒðə(ɹ), ˈmɔːð-, ˈmɒθ-, ˈmɔːθ-/ moths /ˈmɒðz, ˈmɔːðz, ˈmɒθs, ˈmɔːθs/ oaths /ˈoʊðz, ˈoʊθs/ paths /ˈpæðz, ˈpɑːðz, ˈpæθs, ˈpɑːθs/ scythe /ˈsaɪð, ˈsaɪθ/ Smithee, smithy /ˈsmɪði, ˈsmɪθi/ Smyth /ˈsmaɪð, ˈsmaɪθ/ (also /ˈsmɪθ/) swarthy /ˈswɔː(ɹ)ði, ˈswɒɹði, ˈswɔː(ɹ)θi, ˈswɒɹθi/ thither /ˈðɪðə(ɹ), ˈθɪð-/ truths /ˈtɹuːðz, ˈtɹɪuðz, ˈtɹuːθs, ˈtɹɪuθs/ with /ˈwɪð, ˈwɪθ/ wreaths /ˈɹiːðz, ˈɹiːθs/ youths /ˈjuːðz, ˈjuːθs/ zither /ˈzɪðə(ɹ), ˈzɪθ-/

‹e› as /eɪ/[edit]

beta /ˈbeɪtə/ (also /ˈbiːtə/) dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/ (also /ˈdɛŋɡi/) eh /ˈeɪ/ (also /ˈɛ/) ere /ˈɛə(ɹ), ˈeɪɹ/ eta /ˈeɪtə/ (also /ˈiːtə/) mega- /meɪɡə-/ (also /mɛɡə-/) Megan /ˈmeɪɡən/ (also /ˈmɛɡən/) omega /oʊˈmeɪɡə/ (also /oʊˈmɛɡə, -ˈmiːɡə, ˈoʊmɨɡə/) Peking /ˈpeɪˈkɪŋ/ (also /ˈpiːˈkɪŋ/) re /ˈɹeɪ/ suede /ˈsweɪd/ there /ˈðɛə(ɹ), ˈðeɪɹ/ theta /ˈθeɪtə/ (also /ˈθiːtə/) Vega /ˈveɪɡə/ (also /ˈviːɡə/) where /ˈ(h)wɛə(ɹ), ˈ(h)weɪɹ/ zeta /ˈzeɪtə/ (also /ˈziːtə/)

‹ea› as /ɛ/[edit]

already /ɔːlˈɹɛdi/ bread /ˈbɹɛd/ breadth /ˈbɹɛ(d)θ/ breakfast /ˈbɹɛkfəst/ breast /ˈbɹɛst/ breath /ˈbɹɛθ/ cleanly /ˈklɛnli/ cleanse /ˈklɛnz/ dead /ˈdɛd/ deaden /ˈdɛdən/ deaf /ˈdɛf/ deafen /ˈdɛfən/ dealt /ˈdɛlt/ dearth /ˈdɜː(ɹ)θ, ˈdɛɹθ/ death /ˈdɛθ/ dread /ˈdɹɛd/ dreamt /ˈdɹɛmt/ Earl, earl /ˈɜː(ɹ)l, ˈɛɹl/ early /ˈɜː(ɹ)li, ˈɛɹli/ earn /ˈɜː(ɹ)n, ˈɛɹn/ earnest /ˈɜː(ɹ)nᵻst, ˈɛɹn-/ Earp /ˈɜː(ɹ)p, ˈɛɹp/ earth /ˈɜː(ɹ)θ, ˈɛɹθ/ earthen /ˈɜː(ɹ)θən, ˈɛɹθ-/ endeavor, endeavour /ᵻnˈdɛvə(ɹ), ɛn-/ feather /ˈfɛðə(ɹ)/ health /ˈhɛlθ/ heard /ˈhɜː(ɹ)d, ˈhɛɹd/ hearse /ˈhɜː(ɹ)s, ˈhɛɹs/ Hearst /ˈhɜː(ɹ)st, ˈhɛɹst/ Heather, heather /ˈhɛðə(ɹ)/ heaven /ˈhɛvən/ heavy /ˈhɛvi/ jealous /ˈdʒɛləs/ Kearney /ˈkɜː(ɹ)ni, ˈkɛɹni/ Kearns /ˈkɜː(ɹ)nz, ˈkɛɹnz/ lead (metal) /ˈlɛd/ leant /ˈlɛnt/ leapt /ˈlɛpt/ learn /ˈlɜː(ɹ)n, ˈlɛɹn/ learned /ˈlɜː(ɹ)nᵻd, ˈlɛɹn-/ (also /ˈlɜː(ɹ)nd, ˈlɛɹnd/) learnt /ˈlɜː(ɹ)nt, ˈlɛɹnt/ leather /ˈlɛðə(ɹ)/ leaven /ˈlɛvən/ meadow /ˈmɛdoʊ/ meant /ˈmɛnt/ measure /ˈmɛʒə(ɹ)/ pearl /ˈpɜː(ɹ)l, ˈpɛɹl/ peasant /ˈpɛzənt/ pheasant /ˈfɛzənt/ pleasant /ˈplɛzənt/ pleasure /ˈplɛʒə(ɹ)/ read (past) /ˈɹɛd/ Reading /ˈɹɛdᵻŋ/ ready /ˈɹɛdi/ realm /ˈɹɛlm/ search /ˈsɜː(ɹ)tʃ, ˈsɛɹtʃ/ spread /ˈspɹɛd/ stead /ˈstɛd/ steady /ˈstɛdi/ stealth /ˈstɛlθ/ sweat /ˈswɛt/ thread /ˈθɹɛd/ threat /ˈθɹɛt/ threaten /ˈθɹɛtən/ treacherous /ˈtɹɛtʃəɹəs/ treachery /ˈtɹɛtʃəɹi/ tread /ˈtɹɛd/ treasure /ˈtɹɛʒə(ɹ)/ wealth /ˈwɛlθ/ weapon /ˈwɛpən/ weather /ˈwɛðə(ɹ)/ yearn /ˈjɜː(ɹ)n, ˈjɛɹn/ zealot /ˈzɛlət/ zealous /ˈzɛləs/

‹ea› as /eɪ/[edit]

bear /ˈbɛə(ɹ), ˈbeɪɹ/ break /ˈbɹeɪk/ great /ˈɡɹeɪt/ lea /ˈleɪ/ (also /ˈliː/) pear /ˈpɛə(ɹ), ˈpeɪɹ/ steak /ˈsteɪk/ swear /ˈswɛə(ɹ), ˈsweɪɹ/ tear (rip) /ˈtɛə(ɹ), ˈteɪɹ/ wear, were (man) /ˈwɛə(ɹ), ˈweɪɹ/ yea /ˈjeɪ/ Yeager /ˈjeɪɡə(ɹ)/ Yeats, Yeates /ˈjeɪts/

‹ed› as irregular /ᵻd/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᵻ), invalid IPA characters (ᵻ)[edit]

Alfred /ˈælfɹᵻd/ (also /ˈælfɹɛd/) beloved /bɨˈlʌvᵻd/ (also /bɨˈlʌvd/) crooked /ˈkɹʊkᵻd/ (also /ˈkɹʊkt/) hatred /ˈheɪtɹᵻd/ hundred /ˈhʌndɹᵻd/ jagged /ˈdʒæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈdʒæɡd/) Jared /ˈdʒæɹᵻd/ kindred /ˈkɪndɹᵻd/ learned /ˈlɜː(ɹ)nᵻd, ˈlɛɹn-/ (also /ˈlɜː(ɹ)nd, ˈlɛɹnd/) legged /ˈlɛɡᵻd/ (also /ˈlɛɡd/) naked /ˈneɪkᵻd/ ragged /ˈɹæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈɹæɡd/) rugged /ˈɹʌɡᵻd/ sacred /ˈseɪkɹᵻd/ wicked /ˈwɪkᵻd/ (also /ˈwɪkt/) wretched /ˈɹɛtʃᵻd/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /aɪ/[edit]

Ebeye /ˈiːbaɪ/ either /ˈaɪðə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈiːðə(ɹ)/) eye /ˈaɪ/ eyrie, eyry /ˈaɪ(ə)ɹi/ (also /ˈɪəɹi, ˈiːɹi, ˈɛəɹi, ˈeɪɹi/) feist /ˈfaɪst/ geyser /ˈɡaɪzə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈɡiːzə(ɹ)/) gneiss /ˈnaɪs/ heigh /ˈhaɪ/ (also /ˈheɪ/) height /ˈhaɪt/ heighten /ˈhaɪtən/ heist /ˈhaɪst/ leitmotif /ˈlaɪtmoʊtiːf/ Lorelei /ˈlɒɹəlaɪ, ˈlɔːɹ-/ meister /ˈmaɪstə(ɹ)/ neither /ˈnaɪðə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈniːðə(ɹ)/) poltergeist /ˈpoʊltə(ɹ)ɡaɪst, ˈpɒlt-/ Poseidon /pɵˈsaɪdən/ sleight /ˈslaɪt/ zeitgeist /ˈtsaɪtɡaɪst, ˈzaɪt-/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /ɛ/[edit]

Leicester /ˈlɛstə(ɹ)/ leisure /ˈlɛʒə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈliːʒə(ɹ)/) Reynold /ˈɹɛnəld/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /eɪ/[edit]

beige /ˈbeɪʒ/ Beijing /ˈbeɪˈ(d)ʒɪŋ/ convey /kənˈveɪ/ deign /ˈdeɪn/ eight /ˈeɪt/ eighteen /ˈeɪˈtiːn/ eighth /ˈeɪ(t)θ/ eighty /ˈeɪti/ Eyre, eyre, heir /ˈɛə(ɹ), ˈeɪɹ/ eyrie, eyry /ˈɛəɹi, ˈeɪɹi/ (also /ˈɪəɹi, ˈiːɹi, ˈaɪ(ə)ɹi/) feign /ˈfeɪn/ feint /ˈfeɪnt/ fey /ˈfeɪ/ freight /ˈfɹeɪt/ Grey, grey /ˈɡɹeɪ/ heigh /ˈheɪ/ (also /ˈhaɪ/) heinous /ˈheɪnəs/ heiress /ˈɛəɹᵻs, ˈeɪɹ-/ hey /ˈheɪ/ lei /ˈleɪ/ ley /ˈleɪ/ (also /ˈliː/) neigh /ˈneɪ/ neighbour /ˈneɪbə(ɹ)/ obey /oʊˈbeɪ/ osprey /ˈɒspɹeɪ/ (also /ˈɒspɹi/) prey /ˈpɹeɪ/ reign, rein /ˈɹeɪn/ sheik /ˈʃeɪk/ (also /ˈʃiːk/) sleigh /ˈsleɪ/ survey /ˈsɜː(ɹ)veɪ, ˈsʌɹ-/ Taipei /ˈtaɪˈpeɪ/ their, they're /ˈðɛə(ɹ), ˈðeɪɹ/ theirs /ˈðɛə(ɹ)z, ˈðeɪɹz/ they /ˈðeɪ/ Trey, trey /ˈtɹeɪ/ veil /ˈveɪl/ vein /ˈveɪn/ weigh /ˈweɪ/ weight /ˈweɪt/ whey /ˈ(h)weɪ/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /iː/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ei› or ‹ey› only represents the HAPPY vowel /i/.

ceil /ˈsiːl/ conceit /kənˈsiːt/ conceive /kənˈsiːv/ deceit /dɨˈsiːt/ deceive /dɨˈsiːv/ either /ˈiːðə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈaɪðə(ɹ)/) eyrie, eyry /ˈɪəɹi, ˈiːɹi/ (also /ˈɛəɹi, ˈeɪɹi, ˈaɪ(ə)ɹi/) geyser /ˈɡiːzə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈɡaɪzə(ɹ)/) keister /ˈkiːstə(ɹ)/ Keith /ˈkiːθ/ key /ˈkiː/ leisure /ˈliːʒə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈlɛʒə(ɹ)/) ley /ˈliː/ (also /ˈleɪ/) Neil /ˈniːl/ neither /ˈniːðə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈnaɪðə(ɹ)/) perceive /pə(ɹ)ˈsiːv/ receipt /ɹɨˈsiːt/ receive /ɹɨˈsiːv/ Reid /ˈɹiːd/ seize /ˈsiːz/ sheik /ˈʃiːk/ (also /ˈʃeɪk/) transceive /tɹænˈsiːv/ weir /ˈwɪə(ɹ), ˈwiːɹ/ weird /ˈwɪə(ɹ)d, ˈwiːɹd/

Final ‹el› and ‹ell› as /əl/[edit]

Abel /ˈeɪbəl/ angel /ˈeɪndʒəl/ Ariel, ariel /ˈɛəɹiəl/ Axel /ˈæksəl/ Babel /ˈbeɪbəl, ˈbæb-/ bagel /ˈbeɪɡəl/ barrel /ˈbæɹəl/ Bethel /ˈbɛθəl/ (also /ˈbɛθˈɛl/) bevel /ˈbɛvəl/ bowel /ˈbaʊəl/ (also /ˈbaʊl/) camel /ˈkæməl/ channel /ˈtʃænəl/ chapel /ˈtʃæpəl/ chattel /ˈtʃætəl/ chisel /ˈtʃɪzəl/ Connell /ˈkɒnəl/ Daniel /ˈdænjəl/ diesel /ˈdiːzəl/ dishevel /ðᵻˈʃɛvəl/ Donnell /ˈdɒnəl/ drivel /ˈdɹɪvəl/ duel /ˈdjuːəl, ˈdɪu-/ (also /ˈdjuːl/) easel /ˈiːzəl/ Farrell /ˈfæɹəl/ flannel /ˈflænəl/ fuel /ˈfjuːəl, ˈfɪu-/ (also /ˈfjuːl/) funnel /ˈfʌnəl/ Gabriel /ˈɡeɪbɹiəl/ gavel /ˈɡævəl/ gimel /ˈɡɪməl/ gospel /ˈɡɒspəl/ gravel /ˈɡɹævəl/ grovel /ˈɡɹɒvəl, ˈɡɹʌv-/ gruel /ˈɡɹuːəl, ˈɡɹɪu-/ (also /ˈɡɹuːl/) Handel /ˈhændəl/ hostel /ˈhɒstəl/ hovel /ˈhɒvəl, ˈhʌv-/ Israel /ˈɪzɹiəl, -ɹeɪ-/ jewel /ˈdʒuːəl, ˈdʒɪu-/ (also /ˈdʒuːl/) Joel /ˈdʒoʊəl/ (also /ˈdʒoʊl/) kennel /ˈkɛnəl/ kernel /ˈkɜː(ɹ)nəl, ˈkɛɹn-/ label /ˈleɪbəl/ level /ˈlɛvəl/ Lowell /ˈloʊəl/ (also /ˈloʊl/) Mabel /ˈmeɪbəl/ marvel /ˈmɑː(ɹ)vəl, ˈmæɹv-/ Mendel /ˈmɛndəl/ Mitchell /ˈmɪtʃəl/ model /ˈmɒdəl/ Muriel /ˈmjʊəɹiəl, ˈmjuːɹ-, ˈmɪʊəɹ-/ mussel /ˈmʌsəl/ navel /ˈneɪvəl/ nickel /ˈnɪkəl/ Noel /ˈnoʊəl/ (also /ˈnoʊl, noʊˈɛl, nɵˈwɛl/) novel /ˈnɒvəl/ Orel /ˈɔəɹəl/ panel /ˈpænəl/ pixel /ˈpɪksəl/ (also /ˈpɪksɛl/) pommel /ˈpɒməl/ Powell /ˈpaʊəl, ˈpoʊ-/ (also /ˈpaʊl/) pummel /ˈpʌməl/ Rachel /ˈɹeɪtʃəl/ ravel /ˈɹævəl/ rebel (noun) /ˈɹɛbəl/ Russell /ˈɹʌsəl/ Samuel /ˈsæmjuəl, -mɪu-/ satchel /ˈsætʃəl/ scalpel /ˈskælpəl/ scoundrel /ˈskaʊndɹəl/ shovel /ˈʃʌvəl/ shrapnel /ˈʃɹæpnəl/ shrivel /ˈʃɹɪvəl/ snivel /ˈsnɪvəl/ snorkel /ˈsnɔː(ɹ)kəl, ˈsnɒɹk-/ spinel /ˈspɪnəl/ (also /spᵻˈnɛl/) squirrel /ˈskwɪɹəl/ (also /ˈskwɜː(ɹ)l, ˈskwɪɹl/) swivel /ˈswɪvəl/ towel /ˈtaʊəl/ (also /ˈtaʊl/) travel /ˈtɹævəl/ trowel /ˈtɹaʊəl/ (also /ˈtɹaʊl/) tunnel /ˈtʌnəl/ vowel /ˈvaʊəl/ (also /ˈvaʊl/) wastrel /ˈweɪstɹəl/ weasel /ˈwiːzəl/ yodel /ˈjoʊdəl/ yokel /ˈjoʊkəl/

/ɛŋ/[edit]

These words mostly have /eɪŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /ɛŋ/.

Bengal /ˈbɛŋɡəl, bɛŋˈɡɑːl, -ˈɡɔːl/ (also /ˈbɛnɡəl, bɛnˈɡɑːl, -ˈɡɔːl/) Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɑːli, -ˈɡɔːli/ (also /bɛnˈɡɑːli, -ˈɡɔːli/) dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ, ˈdɛŋɡi/ ginseng /ˈdʒɪnsɛŋ/ (also /ˈdʒɪnsᵻŋ/) length /ˈlɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈlɛnθ/) penguin /ˈpɛŋɡwᵻn/ strength /ˈstɹɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈstɹɛnθ/) wrength /ˈɹɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈɹɛnθ/)

‹eo› as one syllable[edit]

Geoffrey /ˈdʒɛfɹi/ George /ˈdʒɔː(ɹ)dʒ, ˈdʒɒɹdʒ/ Georgia /ˈdʒɔː(ɹ)dʒə, ˈdʒɒɹdʒə/ jeopardy /ˈdʒɛpə(ɹ)di/ Leonard /ˈlɛnə(ɹ)d/ leopard /ˈlɛpə(ɹ)d/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ theory /ˈθɪəɹi/ (also /ˈθiːɵɹi/) yeoman, yeomen /ˈjoʊmən/

‹f› and ‹ph› as /v/[edit]

nephew /ˈnɛvjuː, -vɪu/ (also /ˈnɛfjuː, -fɪu/) of /ˈɒv, ˈʌv/ Stephen /ˈstiːvən/ (also /ˈstɛfən/)

‹g› as /ɡ/ before ‹e›, ‹i› or ‹y›[edit]

This list does not include:

anger /ˈæŋɡə(ɹ)/ bagel /ˈbeɪɡəl/ begin /bɨˈɡɪn/ bogey, bogy /ˈboʊɡi, ˈbʊɡi, ˈbuːɡi/ booger /ˈbʊɡə(ɹ)/ boogie /ˈbʊɡi, ˈbuːɡi/ bugger /ˈbʌɡə(ɹ), ˈbʊɡ-/ buggy /ˈbʌɡi/ burger /ˈbɜː(ɹ)ɡə(ɹ), ˈbʌɹɡ-/ dagger /ˈdæɡə(ɹ)/ doppelganger /ˈdɒpəlɡæŋə(ɹ)/ eager /ˈiːɡə(ɹ)/ finger /ˈfɪŋɡə(ɹ)/ forget /fɔː(ɹ)ˈɡɛt, fɒɹ-/ forgive /fɔː(ɹ)ˈɡɪv, fɒɹ-/ forgiven /fɔː(ɹ)ˈɡɪvən, fɒɹ-/ gear /ˈɡɪə(ɹ), ˈɡiːɹ/ gecko /ˈɡɛkoʊ/ geek /ˈɡiːk/ geese /ˈɡiːs/ geezer /ˈɡiːzə(ɹ)/ gelding /ˈɡɛldᵻŋ/ Gertrude /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)tɹuːd, ˈɡɛɹ-, -tɹɪud/ get /ˈɡɛt/ geyser /ˈɡaɪzə(ɹ), ˈɡiːz-/ gibbon /ˈɡɪbən/ Gibbs /ˈɡɪbz/ giddy /ˈɡɪdi/ Gifford /ˈɡɪfə(ɹ)d/ gift /ˈɡɪft/ giga- /ɡɪɡə-, ɡaɪɡə-/ (also /dʒɪɡə-/) giggle /ˈɡɪɡəl/ Gil, gill /ˈɡɪl/ Gilbert /ˈɡɪlbə(ɹ)t/ gild /ˈɡɪld/ Gilliam /ˈɡɪliəm/ gilt /ˈɡɪlt/ gimp /ˈɡɪmp/ ginkgo /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/ gird /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)d, ˈɡɪɹd/ girdle /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)dəl, ˈɡɪɹd-/ girl /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)l, ˈɡɪɹl/ girth /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)θ, ˈɡɪɹθ/ git /ˈɡɪt/ give /ˈɡɪv/ given /ˈɡɪvən/ gizzard /ˈɡɪzə(ɹ)d/ hamburger /ˈhæmbɜː(ɹ)ɡə(ɹ), -bʌɹɡ-/ hoagie, hoagy /ˈhoʊɡi/ jagged /ˈdʒæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈdʒæɡd/) legged /ˈlɛɡᵻd/ (also /ˈlɛɡd/) liger /ˈlaɪɡə(ɹ)/ linger /ˈlɪŋɡə(ɹ)/ meager /ˈmiːɡə(ɹ)/ nugget /ˈnʌɡᵻt/ poltergeist /ˈpoʊltə(ɹ)ɡaɪst, ˈpɒlt-/ ragged /ˈɹæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈɹæɡd/) rugged /ˈɹʌɡᵻd/ stagger /ˈstæɡə(ɹ)/ target /ˈtɑː(ɹ)ɡᵻt, ˈtæɹɡ-/ tiger /ˈtaɪɡə(ɹ)/ together /tᵿˈɡɛðə(ɹ)/

Lenited ‹g› and ‹c›[edit]

align /əˈlaɪn/ arraign /əˈɹeɪn/ benign /bɨˈnaɪn/ campaign /kæmˈpeɪn/ Champagne, champagne /ʃæmˈpeɪn/ deign /ˈdeɪn/ design /dɨˈzaɪn/ feign /ˈfeɪn/ foreign /ˈfɒɹᵻn, ˈfɔːɹ-/ impugn /ᵻmˈpjuːn, -ˈpɪun/ indict /ᵻnˈdaɪt/ malign /məˈlaɪn/ paradigm /ˈpæɹədaɪm/ reign /ˈɹeɪn/ repugn /ɹɨˈpjuːn, -ˈpɪun/ resign (yield) /ɹɨˈzaɪn/ sign /ˈsaɪn/ sovereign /ˈsɒv(ə)ɹᵻn, ˈsʌv-/ Thegn, thegn /ˈθeɪn/

Initial ‹gn› as /n/[edit]

gnarl /ˈnɑː(ɹ)l, ˈnæɹl/ gnash /ˈnæʃ/ gnat /ˈnæt/ gneiss /ˈnaɪs/ gnoll /ˈnoʊl/ gnome /ˈnoʊm/ Gnostic /ˈnɒstᵻk/ gnu /ˈnjuː, ˈnɪu/

Initial silent ‹h›[edit]

heir /ˈɛə(ɹ), ˈeɪɹ/ herb /ˈɜː(ɹ)b, ˈɛɹb/ (also /ˈhɜː(ɹ)b, ˈhɛɹb/) homage /ˈɒmᵻdʒ/ (also /ˈhɒmᵻdʒ/) honest /ˈɒnᵻst/ honor, honour /ˈɒnə(ɹ)/ hour /ˈaʊ(ə)ɹ/

/(h)w/[edit]

Juan /ˈ(h)wɑːn/ marijuana /mæɹɨˈ(h)wɑːnə/ whack /ˈ(h)wæk/ whale /ˈ(h)weɪl/ wham /ˈ(h)wæm/ whang /ˈ(h)wæŋ/ whap /ˈ(h)wɒp, ˈ(h)wæp/ wharf /ˈ(h)wɔː(ɹ)f, ˈ(h)wɒɹf/ wharves /ˈ(h)wɔː(ɹ)vz, ˈ(h)wɒɹvz/ what /ˈ(h)wɒt, ˈ(h)wʌt/ wheat /ˈ(h)wiːt/ wheel /ˈ(h)wiːl/ wheeze /ˈ(h)wiːz/ Whelan /ˈ(h)wiːlən/ whelk /ˈ(h)wɛlk/ whelm /ˈ(h)wɛlm/ whelp /ˈ(h)wɛlp/ when /ˈ(h)wɛn/ whence /ˈ(h)wɛns/ where /ˈ(h)wɛə(ɹ), ˈ(h)weɪɹ/ whet /ˈ(h)wɛt/ whey /ˈ(h)weɪ/ which /ˈ(h)wɪtʃ/ whiff /ˈ(h)wɪf/ whiffle /ˈ(h)wɪfəl/ whig /ˈ(h)wɪɡ/ while /ˈ(h)waɪl/ whilst /ˈ(h)waɪlst/ whim /ˈ(h)wɪm/ whimper /ˈ(h)wɪmpə(ɹ)/ whine /ˈ(h)waɪn/ whinny /ˈ(h)wɪni/ whip /ˈ(h)wɪp/ whir, whirr /ˈ(h)wɜː(ɹ), ˈ(h)wɪɹ/ whirl /ˈ(h)wɜː(ɹ)l, ˈ(h)wɪɹl/ whisk /ˈ(h)wɪsk/ whisker /ˈ(h)wɪskə(ɹ)/ whisper /ˈ(h)wɪspə(ɹ)/ whistle /ˈ(h)wɪsəl/ whit /ˈ(h)wɪt/ white /ˈ(h)waɪt/ whiten /ˈ(h)waɪtən/ whither /ˈ(h)wɪðə(ɹ)/ Whitney /ˈ(h)wɪtni/ whittle /ˈ(h)wɪtəl/ whomp /ˈ(h)wɒmp/ whoosh /ˈ(h)wuːʃ, ˈ(h)wʊʃ/ whop /ˈ(h)wɒp/ why /ˈ(h)waɪ/

/ᵻ/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᵻ), invalid IPA characters (ᵻ) not spelt ‹e›, ‹i› or ‹y›[edit]

-ace (unstressed) /-ᵻs/ -age (unstressed) /-ᵻdʒ/ -ate (unstressed) /-ᵻt/ -ave (unstressed) /-ᵻv/ bargain /ˈbɑː(ɹ)ɡᵻn, ˈbæɹ-/ captain /ˈkæptᵻn/ carriage /ˈkæɹᵻdʒ/ certain /ˈsɜː(ɹ)tᵻn, ˈsɛɹt-/ chamberlain /ˈtʃeɪmbə(ɹ)lᵻn/ character /ˈkæɹᵻktə(ɹ)/ chieftain /ˈtʃiːftᵻn/ curtain /ˈkɜː(ɹ)tᵻn, ˈkʌɹt-/ foreign /ˈfɒɹᵻn, ˈfɔːɹ-/ forfeit /ˈfɔː(ɹ)fᵻt, ˈfɒɹ-/ fountain /ˈfaʊntᵻn/ kerchief /ˈkɜː(ɹ)tʃᵻf, ˈkɛɹ-/ (also /ˈkɜː(ɹ)tʃiːf, ˈkɛɹ-/) Kwajalein /ˈkwɑːdʒəlᵻn, ˈkwɒdʒ-/ lettuce /ˈlɛtᵻs/ marriage /ˈmæɹᵻdʒ/ minute (noun) /ˈmɪnᵻt/ mischief /ˈmɪstʃᵻf/ (also /ˈmɪstʃiːf/) mountain /ˈmaʊntᵻn/ porcelain /ˈpɔə(ɹ)s(ə)lᵻn, ˈpoʊɹs-/ sovereign /ˈsɒv(ə)ɹᵻn, ˈsʌv-/ spinach /ˈspɪnᵻtʃ, -ᵻdʒ/ villain /ˈvɪlᵻn/ wassail /ˈwɒsᵻl, ˈwæs-/ (also /ˈwɒˈseɪl, ˈwæˈs-/)

‹i› and ‹y› as /iː/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹i› and ‹y› only represent the HAPPY vowel /i/.

Camille /kəˈmiːl/ Cecile /sᵻˈsiːl/ Cecilia /sᵻˈsiːljə/ chic /ˈʃiːk/ Christina /kɹᵻˈstiːnə/ Christine /kɹᵻˈstiːn/ clique /ˈkliːk/ (also /ˈklɪk/) Felicia /fᵻˈliːʃə, -ˈliːsiə/ (also /fᵻˈlɪʃə, -ˈlɪsiə/) intrigue /ˈɪntɹiːɡ, ᵻnˈtɹiːɡ/ Janine /dʒəˈniːn/ Katrina /kəˈtɹiːnə/ Lille /ˈliːl/ Lima /ˈliːmə/ Lisa /ˈliːsə, ˈliːzə/ liter, litre /ˈliːtə(ɹ)/ Lucille /ljuːˈsiːl, lɪu-/ machine /məˈʃiːn/ Maria /məˈɹiːə/ (also /məˈɹaɪə/) Marina, marina /məˈɹiːnə/ marine /məˈɹiːn/ Maurice /mɔːˈɹiːs/ (also /ˈmɒɹᵻs, ˈmɔːɹ-/) Mia /ˈmiːə/ Nice /ˈniːs/ Nina /ˈniːnə/ philia /fiːliə, -ljə/ (also /ˈfɪliə, -ljə/) pique /ˈpiːk/ Pisa /ˈpiːzə/ pita /ˈpiːtə/ pizza /ˈpiːtsə/ police /pɵˈliːs, ˈpoʊliːs/ prestige /pɹɛˈstiːʒ, -ˈstiːdʒ/ quarantine /ˈkwɒɹəntiːn, ˈkwɔːɹ-/ Rhys /ˈɹiːs/ Sikh /ˈsiːk/ Tina /ˈtiːnə/ unique /juːˈniːk, ɪu-/ visa /ˈviːzə/ viva /ˈviːvə/ (also /ˈvaɪvə/)

‹iCC› and ‹yCC› as /aɪCC/ invalid IPA characters (CC) and final ‹iC› and ‹yC› as /aɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C)[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the spelling ‹igC› is pronounced /aɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C) from older /iːC/ invalid IPA characters (C) from previous /ɪjC/ invalid IPA characters (C).

bind /ˈbaɪnd/ blind /ˈblaɪnd/ Blyth /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ (also /ˈblaɪ/) child /ˈtʃaɪld/ Christ /ˈkɹaɪst/ climb /ˈklaɪm/ dissect /daɪˈsɛkt/ (also /dɨˈsɛkt/) find /ˈfaɪnd/ grind /ˈɡɹaɪnd/ hind /ˈhaɪnd/ kind /ˈkaɪnd/ mic /ˈmaɪk/ mild /ˈmaɪld/ mind /ˈmaɪnd/ ninth /ˈnaɪnθ/ pint /ˈpaɪnt/ Pisces /ˈpaɪsiːz/ (also /ˈpɪsiːz/) psych /ˈsaɪk/ rind /ˈɹaɪnd/ shyster /ˈʃaɪstə(ɹ)/ Smyth /ˈsmaɪð, ˈsmaɪθ/ (also /ˈsmɪθ/) tryst /ˈtɹaɪst/ (also /ˈtɹɪst/) whilst /ˈ(h)waɪlst/ wild, Wilde /ˈwaɪld/ wind (coil) /ˈwaɪnd/

‹ie› as /iː/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ie› only represents the HAPPY vowel /i/.

achieve /əˈtʃiːv/ belief /bɨˈliːf/ believe /bɨˈliːv/ brie /ˈbɹiː/ brief /ˈbɹiːf/ cashier /kæˈʃɪə(ɹ), -ˈʃiːɹ/ cavalier /kævəˈlɪə(ɹ), -ˈliːɹ/ chandelier /ʃændᵻˈlɪə(ɹ), -ˈliːɹ/ chief /ˈtʃiːf/ chieftain /ˈtʃiːftᵻn/ diesel /ˈdiːzəl/ fief /ˈfiːf/ field /ˈfiːld/ fiend /ˈfiːnd/ fierce /ˈfɪə(ɹ)s, ˈfiːɹs/ frieze /ˈfɹiːz/ frontier /fɹʌnˈtɪə(ɹ), -ˈtiːɹ/ Genevieve /ˈdʒɛnᵻviːv/ grief /ˈɡɹiːf/ grieve /ˈɡɹiːv/ kerchief /ˈkɜː(ɹ)tʃiːf, ˈkɛɹ-/ (also /ˈkɜː(ɹ)tʃᵻf, ˈkɛɹ-/) liege /ˈliː(d)ʒ/ lien (claim) /ˈliːn/ (also /ˈliːən/) Marie /məˈɹiː/ mischief /ˈmɪstʃiːf/ (also /ˈmɪstʃᵻf/) niece /ˈniːs/ piece /ˈpiːs/ pier /ˈpɪə(ɹ), ˈpiːɹ/ pierce /ˈpɪə(ɹ)s, ˈpiːɹs/ priest /ˈpɹiːst/ relief /ɹɨˈliːf/ relieve /ɹɨˈliːv/ reprieve /ɹɨˈpɹiːv/ retrieve /ɹɨˈtɹiːv/ shield /ˈʃiːld/ shriek /ˈʃɹiːk/ siege /ˈsiːdʒ/ thief /ˈθiːf/ thieve /ˈθiːv/ thieves /ˈθiːvz/ tier (rank) /ˈtɪə(ɹ), ˈtiːɹ/ wield /ˈwiːld/ yield /ˈjiːld/

‹igh› and ‹eigh› as /aɪ/[edit]

almighty /ɔːlˈmaɪti/ bight /ˈbaɪt/ blight /ˈblaɪt/ bright /ˈbɹaɪt/ brighten /ˈbɹaɪtən/ delight /dɨˈlaɪt/ Dwight /ˈdwaɪt/ fight /ˈfaɪt/ flight /ˈflaɪt/ fright /ˈfɹaɪt/ frighten /ˈfɹaɪtən/ height /ˈhaɪt/ heighten /ˈhaɪtən/ high /ˈhaɪ/ knight, night /ˈnaɪt/ light /ˈlaɪt/ lightning /ˈlaɪtnᵻŋ/ might /ˈmaɪt/ nigh /ˈnaɪ/ plight /ˈplaɪt/ right, Wright, wright /ˈɹaɪt/ sigh /ˈsaɪ/ sight /ˈsaɪt/ sleight, slight /ˈslaɪt/ spright /ˈspɹaɪt/ thigh /ˈθaɪ/ tight /ˈtaɪt/ tighten /ˈtaɪtən/ Wight, wight /ˈwaɪt/

Final /ᵻl/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᵻ), invalid IPA characters (ᵻ)[edit]

April /ˈeɪpɹᵻl/ Averill /ˈæv(ə)ɹᵻl/ Basil, basil /ˈbæzᵻl, ˈbæs-, ˈbeɪz-, ˈbeɪs-/ Beryl, beryl /ˈbɛɹᵻl/ Cecil /ˈsɛsᵻl, ˈsiːs-/ Cheryl /ˈʃɛɹᵻl/ council /ˈkaʊnsᵻl/ Daryl /ˈdæɹᵻl/ devil /ˈdɛvᵻl/ ethyl /ˈɛθᵻl/ evil /ˈiːvᵻl/ fossil /ˈfɒsᵻl/ gerbil /ˈdʒɜː(ɹ)bᵻl, ˈdʒɛɹb-/ Hamill /ˈhæmᵻl/ -ile /-ᵻl/ (also /-aɪl/) lentil /ˈlɛntᵻl/ Meryl /ˈmɛɹᵻl/ Neville /ˈnɛvᵻl/ nostril /ˈnɒstɹᵻl/ pencil /ˈpɛnsᵻl/ peril /ˈpɛɹᵻl/ stencil /ˈstɛnsᵻl/ tonsil /ˈtɒnsᵻl/ vinyl /ˈvaɪnᵻl/ weevil /ˈwiːvᵻl/

/ɪŋ/[edit]

These words mostly have /iːŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /ɪŋ/.

Beijing /ˈbeɪˈ(d)ʒɪŋ/ bing /ˈbɪŋ/ bingle /ˈbɪŋɡəl/ bingo /ˈbɪŋɡoʊ/ bling /ˈblɪŋ/ blink /ˈblɪŋk/ bring /ˈbɹɪŋ/ brink /ˈbɹɪŋk/ Ching, Qing /ˈtʃɪŋ/ chink /ˈtʃɪnk/ cling /ˈklɪŋ/ clink /ˈklɪŋk/ crinkle /ˈkɹɪŋkəl/ ding /ˈdɪŋ/ Dingle, dingle /ˈdɪŋɡəl/ dingo /ˈdɪŋɡoʊ/ dink /ˈdɪŋk/ drink /ˈdɹɪŋk/ England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ English /ˈɪŋɡlᵻʃ/ finger /ˈfɪŋɡə(ɹ)/ fink /ˈfɪŋk/ fling /ˈflɪŋ/ ginkgo /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/ hinky /ˈhɪŋki/ Ingrid /ˈɪŋɡɹᵻd/ ink /ˈɪŋk/ inkle /ˈɪnkəl/ jingle /ˈdʒɪŋɡəl/ jink /ˈdʒɪŋk/ jinks, jinx /ˈdʒɪŋks/ king /ˈkɪŋ/ kink /ˈkɪŋk/ Lincoln /ˈlɪŋkən/ ling /ˈlɪŋ/ linger /ˈlɪŋɡə(ɹ)/ lingo /ˈlɪŋɡoʊ/ lingua /ˈlɪŋɡwə/ linguist /ˈlɪŋɡwᵻst/ link /ˈlɪŋk/ links, lynx /ˈlɪŋks/ Ming /ˈmɪŋ/ mingle /ˈmɪŋɡəl/ mink /ˈmɪŋk/ Peking /ˈpiːˈkɪŋ, ˈpeɪ-/ ping /ˈpɪŋ/ pink /ˈpɪŋk/ pinken /ˈpɪŋkən/ plink /ˈplɪŋk/ ring, wring /ˈɹɪŋ/ Ringo /ˈɹɪŋɡoʊ/ rink /ˈɹɪŋk/ shingle /ˈʃɪŋɡəl/ shrink /ˈʃɹɪŋk/ sing, Singh /ˈsɪŋ/ Singapore /ˈsɪŋəpɔə(ɹ), -poʊɹ/ single /ˈsɪŋɡəl/ singular /ˈsɪŋɡjᵿlə(ɹ)/ sink, sync, synch /ˈsɪŋk/ skink /ˈskɪŋk/ sling /ˈslɪŋ/ slink /ˈslɪŋk/ sphinx /ˈsfɪŋks/ spring /ˈspɹɪŋ/ sprinkle /ˈspɹɪŋkəl/ sting /ˈstɪŋ/ stink /ˈstɪŋk/ string /ˈstɹɪŋ/ swing /ˈswɪŋ/ synchronise /ˈsɪŋkɹɵnaɪz/ thing /ˈθɪŋ/ think /ˈθɪŋk/ tingle /ˈtɪŋɡəl/ tinkle /ˈtɪŋkəl/ trinket /ˈtɹɪŋkᵻt/ twink /ˈtwɪŋk/ twinkle /ˈtwɪŋkəl/ wing /ˈwɪŋ/ wink /ˈwɪŋk/ wrinkle /ˈɹɪŋkəl/ zinc /ˈzɪŋk/ zing /ˈzɪŋ/

‹kn› as /n/[edit]

knack /ˈnæk/ knapsack /ˈnæpsæk/ knave /ˈneɪv/ knead, kneed /ˈniːd/ knee /ˈniː/ kneel /ˈniːl/ knell /ˈnɛl/ knelt /ˈnɛlt/ knew /ˈnjuː, ˈnɪu/ knickers /ˈnɪkə(ɹ)z/ knife /ˈnaɪf/ knight /ˈnaɪt/ knit /ˈnɪt/ knives /ˈnaɪvz/ knob /ˈnɒb/ knock /ˈnɒk/ knocks, Knox /ˈnɒks/ knoll /ˈnoʊl/ knot /ˈnɒt/ know /ˈnoʊ/ knowledge /ˈnɒlᵻdʒ/ known /ˈnoʊn/ knuckle /ˈnʌkəl/

Silent ‹l›[edit]

alms /ˈɑːmz/ (also /ˈɑːlmz/) balk /ˈbɔːk/ (also /ˈbɔːlk/) balm /ˈbɑːm/ (also /ˈbɑːlm/) calf /ˈkæf, ˈkɑːf/ (also /ˈkælf, ˈkɑːlf/) calk, caulk /ˈkɔːk/ (also /ˈkɔːlk/) calm /ˈkɑːm/ (also /ˈkɑːlm/) calve /ˈkæv, ˈkɑːv/ (also /ˈkælv, ˈkɑːlv/) calves /ˈkævz, ˈkɑːvz/ (also /ˈkælvz, ˈkɑːlvz/) chalk /ˈtʃɔːk/ (also /ˈtʃɔːlk/) Chalmers /ˈtʃɑːmə(ɹ)z/ (also /ˈtʃɑːlmə(ɹ)z/) Chisholm /ˈtʃɪzəm/ could /ˈkʊd/ Dundalk /ˈdʌndɔːk/ (also /ˈdʌndɔːlk/) falcon /ˈfɔːkən/ (also /ˈfɔːlkən, ˈfælk-/) Falkland /ˈfɔːklənd/ (also /ˈfɔːlklənd/) Faulkner /ˈfɔːknə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈfɔːlknə(ɹ)/) folk /ˈfoʊk/ (also /ˈfoʊlk/) golf /ˈɡɒf, ˈɡɔːf/ (also /ˈɡɒlf, ˈɡɔːlf/) guillotine /ˈɡiːɵtiːn/ (also /ˈɡɪlɵtiːn/) half /ˈhæf, ˈhɑːf/ (also /ˈhælf, ˈhɑːlf/) halve /ˈhæv, ˈhɑːv/ (also /ˈhælv, ˈhɑːlv/) halves /ˈhævz, ˈhɑːvz/ (also /ˈhælvz, ˈhɑːlvz/) holm /ˈhoʊm/ (also /ˈhoʊlm/) Holmes, holms /ˈhoʊmz/ (also /ˈhoʊlmz/) Lincoln /ˈlɪŋkən/ Marseille /mɑː(ɹ)ˈseɪ, mæɹ-/ Norfolk /ˈnɔː(ɹ)fək, ˈnɒɹ-, -fɔːk/ palm /ˈpɑːm/ (also /ˈpɑːlm/) Polk /ˈpoʊk/ (also /ˈpoʊlk/) polka /ˈpoʊkə/ (also /ˈpoʊlkə, ˈpɒlkə/) psalm /ˈsɑːm/ (also /ˈsɑːlm/) qualm /ˈkwɑːm/ (also /ˈkwɑːlm/) Ralph /ˈɹeɪf, ˈɹɑːf/ (also /ˈɹælf, ˈɹɑːlf/) salmon /ˈsæmən/ (also /ˈsælmən/) salve /ˈsæv, ˈsɑːv/ (also /ˈsælv, ˈsɑːlv/) should /ˈʃʊd/ solder /ˈsɒdə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈsɒldə(ɹ)/) stalk /ˈstɔːk/ (also /ˈstɔːlk/) Suffolk /ˈsʌfək/ talk /ˈtɔːk/ (also /ˈtɔːlk/) Versailles /vɜː(ɹ)ˈsaɪ, vɛɹ-, vɛə(ɹ)-, veɪɹ-/ (also /vɜː(ɹ)ˈseɪlz, vɛɹ-, vɛə(ɹ)-, veɪɹ-/) walk /ˈwɔːk/ (also /ˈwɔːlk/) would /ˈwʊd/ yolk /ˈjoʊk/ (also /ˈjoʊlk/)

‹le› as /əl/[edit]

-able (unstressed) /-əbəl/ able /ˈeɪbəl/ -acle (unstressed) /-əkəl/ ample /ˈæmpəl/ Angle, angle /ˈæŋɡəl/ ankle /ˈæŋkəl/ apostle /əˈpɒsəl/ apple /ˈæpəl/ Aristotle /ˈæɹᵻstɒtəl/ axle /ˈæksəl/ babble /ˈbæbəl/ baffle /ˈbæfəl/ bangle /ˈbæŋɡəl/ battle /ˈbætəl/ bauble /ˈbɔːbəl/ beagle /ˈbiːɡəl/ beetle /ˈbiːtəl/ bible /ˈbaɪbəl/ bingle /ˈbɪŋɡəl/ bobble /ˈbɒbəl/ boggle /ˈbɒɡəl/ bottle /ˈbɒtəl/ bramble /ˈbɹæmbəl/ bridle /ˈbɹaɪdəl/ bristle /ˈbɹɪsəl/ brittle /ˈbɹɪtəl/ bubble /ˈbʌbəl/ buckle /ˈbʌkəl/ bugle /ˈbjuːɡəl, ˈbɪuɡ-/ bumble /ˈbʌmbəl/ bundle /ˈbʌndəl/ bungle /ˈbʌŋɡəl/ burgle /ˈbɜː(ɹ)ɡəl, ˈbʌɹɡ-/ bustle /ˈbʌsəl/ buttle /ˈbʌtəl/ cable /ˈkeɪbəl/ cackle /ˈkækəl/ candle /ˈkændəl/ cankle /ˈkæŋkəl/ carbuncle /ˈkɑː(ɹ)bʌŋkəl, ˈkæɹ-/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ cattle /ˈkætəl/ caudle /ˈkɔːdəl/ chortle /ˈtʃɔː(ɹ)təl, ˈtʃɒɹt-/ chuckle /ˈtʃʌkəl/ circle /ˈsɜː(ɹ)kəl, ˈsɪɹk-/ cobble /ˈkɒbəl/ coddle /ˈkɒdəl/ couple /ˈkʌpəl/ crackle /ˈkɹækəl/ cradle /ˈkɹeɪdəl/ cringle /ˈkɹɪŋɡəl/ crinkle /ˈkɹɪŋkəl/ cripple /ˈkɹɪpəl/ cuddle /ˈkʌdəl/ curdle /ˈkɜː(ɹ)dəl, ˈkʌɹd-/ cuttle /ˈkʌtəl/ cycle /ˈsaɪkəl/ dabble /ˈdæbəl/ dangle /ˈdæŋɡəl/ dawdle /ˈdɔːdəl/ dazzle /ˈdæzəl/ diddle /ˈdɪdəl/ Dingle, dingle /ˈdɪŋɡəl/ doddle /ˈdɒdəl/ dongle /ˈdɒŋɡəl, ˈdɔːŋɡ-/ doodle /ˈduːdəl/ double /ˈdʌbəl/ drabble /ˈdɹæbəl/ dribble /ˈdɹɪbəl/ drizzle /ˈdɹɪzəl/ eagle /ˈiːɡəl/ embezzle /ᵻmˈbɛzəl, ɛm-/ example /ᵻɡˈzæmpəl, ɛɡ-, -ˈzɑːmp-/ fable /ˈfeɪbəl/ fangle /ˈfæŋɡəl/ feeble /ˈfiːbəl/ fickle /ˈfɪkəl/ fiddle /ˈfɪdəl/ fizzle /ˈfɪzəl/ fondle /ˈfɒndəl/ frazzle /ˈfɹæzəl/ freckle /ˈfɹɛkəl/ fuddle /ˈfʌdəl/ fuzzle /ˈfʌzəl/ gabble /ˈɡæbəl/ gaggle /ˈɡæɡəl/ gamble /ˈɡæmbəl/ gargle /ˈɡɑː(ɹ)ɡəl, ˈɡæɹɡ-/ gentle /ˈdʒɛntəl/ giggle /ˈɡɪɡəl/ girdle /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)dəl, ˈɡɪɹd-/ goggle /ˈɡɒɡəl/ Google, google /ˈɡuːɡəl/ grabble /ˈɡɹæbəl/ grapple /ˈɡɹæpəl/ gribble /ˈɡɹɪbəl/ griddle /ˈɡɹɪdəl/ gristle /ˈɡɹɪsəl/ grizzle /ˈɡɹɪzəl/ grumble /ˈɡɹʌmbəl/ gruntle /ˈɡɹʌntəl/ gurgle /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)ɡəl, ˈɡʌɹɡ-/ guzzle /ˈɡʌzəl/ haggle /ˈhæɡəl/ handle /ˈhændəl/ heckle /ˈhɛkəl/ hobble /ˈhɒbəl/ Hubble, hubble /ˈhʌbəl/ huckle /ˈhʌkəl/ huddle /ˈhʌdəl/ huggle /ˈhʌɡəl/ humble /ˈhʌmbəl/ hurdle /ˈhɜː(ɹ)dəl, ˈhʌɹd-/ hurtle /ˈhɜː(ɹ)təl, ˈhʌɹt-/ hustle /ˈhʌsəl/ -ible (unstressed) /-ᵻbəl/ -icle (unstressed) /-ᵻkəl/ inkle /ˈɪŋkəl/ jangle /ˈdʒæŋɡəl/ jiggle /ˈdʒɪɡəl/ jingle /ˈdʒɪŋɡəl/ jostle /ˈdʒɒsəl/ juggle /ˈdʒʌɡəl/ jumble /ˈdʒʌmbəl/ jungle /ˈdʒʌŋɡəl/ kettle /ˈkɛtəl/ kindle /ˈkɪndəl/ knuckle /ˈnʌkəl/ ladle /ˈleɪdəl/ little /ˈlɪtəl/ mangle /ˈmæŋɡəl/ mantle /ˈmæntəl/ maple /ˈmeɪpəl/ marble /ˈmɑː(ɹ)bəl, ˈmæɹb-/ measle /ˈmiːzəl/ meddle /ˈmɛdəl/ mettle /ˈmɛtəl/ middle /ˈmɪdəl/ mingle /ˈmɪŋɡəl/ mistletoe /ˈmɪsəltoʊ/ muddle /ˈmʌdəl/ muggle /ˈmʌɡəl/ mumble /ˈmʌmbəl/ muscle /ˈmʌsəl/ muzzle /ˈmʌzəl/ myrtle /ˈmɜː(ɹ)təl, ˈmɪɹt-/ needle /ˈniːdəl/ nestle /ˈnɛsəl/ nettle /ˈnɛtəl/ nibble, nybble /ˈnɪbəl/ nimble /ˈnɪmbəl/ nipple /ˈnɪpəl/ noble /ˈnoʊbəl/ noddle /ˈnɒdəl/ noodle /ˈnuːdəl/ nozzle /ˈnɒzəl/ nubble /ˈnʌbəl/ nuzzle /ˈnʌzəl/ ogle /ˈoʊɡəl/ paddle /ˈpædəl/ pebble /ˈpɛbəl/ peddle /ˈpɛdəl/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ pestle /ˈpɛs(t)əl/ pettle /ˈpɛtəl/ pickle /ˈpɪkəl/ pintle /ˈpɪntəl/ poodle /ˈpuːdəl/ prattle /ˈpɹætəl/ prickle /ˈpɹɪkəl/ puddle /ˈpʌdəl/ purple /ˈpɜː(ɹ)pəl, ˈpʌɹp-/ puzzle /ˈpʌzəl/ quibble /ˈkwɪbəl/ raffle /ˈɹæfəl/ ramble /ˈɹæmbəl/ rankle /ˈɹæŋkəl/ rassle, rastle, wrastle /ˈɹæsəl/ rattle /ˈɹætəl/ razzle /ˈɹæzəl/ riddle /ˈɹɪdəl/ riffle /ˈɹɪfəl/ rifle /ˈɹaɪfəl/ ripple /ˈɹɪpəl/ rubble /ˈɹʌbəl/ ruffle /ˈɹʌfəl/ rustle /ˈɹʌsəl/ saddle /ˈsædəl/ sample /ˈsæmpəl, ˈsɑːmp-/ scrabble /ˈskɹæbəl/ scramble /ˈskɹæmbəl/ scribble /ˈskɹɪbəl/ scruple /ˈskɹuːpəl/ scuffle /ˈskʌfəl/ scuttle /ˈskʌtəl/ Seattle /siˈætəl/ settle /ˈsɛtəl/ shackle /ˈʃækəl/ shamble /ˈʃæmbəl/ shingle /ˈʃɪŋɡəl/ shuffle /ˈʃʌfəl/ shuttle /ˈʃʌtəl/ sickle /ˈsɪkəl/ simple /ˈsɪmpəl/ single /ˈsɪŋɡəl/ sizzle /ˈsɪzəl/ skittle /ˈskɪtəl/ smuggle /ˈsmʌɡəl/ sniffle /ˈsnɪfəl/ snuggle /ˈsnʌɡəl/ Spackle, spackle /ˈspækəl/ spangle /ˈspæŋɡəl/ sparkle /ˈspɑː(ɹ)kəl, ˈspæɹk-/ spindle /ˈspɪndəl/ sprinkle /ˈspɹɪŋkəl/ squabble /ˈskwɒbəl/ squiggle /ˈskwɪɡəl/ stable /ˈsteɪbəl/ staple /ˈsteɪpəl/ startle /ˈstɑː(ɹ)təl, ˈstæɹt-/ steeple /ˈstiːpəl/ stickle /ˈstɪkəl/ stifle /ˈstaɪfəl/ straddle /ˈstɹædəl/ straggle /ˈstɹæɡəl/ strangle /ˈstɹæŋɡəl/ struggle /ˈstɹʌɡəl/ stubble /ˈstʌbəl/ subtle /ˈsʌtəl/ suckle /ˈsʌkəl/ supple /ˈsʌpəl/ swaddle /ˈswɒdəl/ swindle /ˈswɪndəl/ swizzle /ˈswɪzəl/ table /ˈteɪbəl/ tackle /ˈtækəl/ tangle /ˈtæŋɡəl/ tattle /ˈtætəl/ temple /ˈtɛmpəl/ thimble /ˈθɪmbəl/ thistle /ˈθɪsəl/ throstle /ˈθɹɒsəl/ throttle /ˈθɹɒtəl/ tickle /ˈtɪkəl/ tingle /ˈtɪŋɡəl/ tinkle /ˈtɪŋkəl/ title /ˈtaɪtəl/ tittle /ˈtɪtəl/ toddle /ˈtɒdəl/ toggle /ˈtɒɡəl/ tootle /ˈtuːtəl/ topple /ˈtɒpəl/ trample /ˈtɹæmpəl/ treble /ˈtɹɛbəl/ tremble /ˈtɹɛmbəl/ trickle /ˈtɹɪkəl/ trifle /ˈtɹaɪfəl/ triple /ˈtɹɪpəl/ trouble /ˈtɹʌbəl/ truffle /ˈtɹʌfəl/ trundle /ˈtɹʌndəl/ tumble /ˈtʌmbəl/ turtle /ˈtɜː(ɹ)təl, ˈtʌɹt-/ twaddle /ˈtwɒdəl/ twinkle /ˈtwɪŋkəl/ uncle /ˈʌŋkəl/ vittle /ˈvɪtəl/ wabble, wobble /ˈwɒbəl/ waddle /ˈwɒdəl/ waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/ warble /ˈwɔː(ɹ)bəl, ˈwɒɹb-/ whiffle /ˈ(h)wɪfəl/ whistle /ˈ(h)wɪsəl/ whittle /ˈ(h)wɪtəl/ wiggle /ˈwɪɡəl/ wrangle /ˈɹæŋɡəl/ wrestle /ˈɹɛsəl/ wriggle /ˈɹɪɡəl/ wrinkle /ˈɹɪŋkəl/

‹mb› as /m/[edit]

bomb /ˈbɒm/ climb /ˈklaɪm/ comb /ˈkoʊm/ combe, coomb /ˈkuːm, ˈkoʊm/ crumb /ˈkɹʌm/ dumb /ˈdʌm/ jamb, jambe /ˈdʒæm/ lamb /ˈlæm/ limb /ˈlɪm/ numb /ˈnʌm/ plumb /ˈplʌm/ succumb /səˈkʌm/ thumb /ˈθʌm/ tomb /ˈtuːm/ womb /ˈwuːm/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /ʌ/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹o› only represents /ə/.

above /əˈbʌv/ amok /əˈmʌk/ (also /əˈmɒk/) among /əˈmʌŋ/ amongst /əˈmʌŋ(k)st/ anybody /ˈɛnibʌdi, ˈæn-/ (also /ˈɛnibɒdi, ˈæn-/) attorney /əˈtɜː(ɹ)ni, əˈtʌɹni/ borough /ˈbʌɹoʊ, -ɹə/ brother /ˈbɹʌðə(ɹ)/ colonel /ˈkɜː(ɹ)nəl, ˈkʌɹn-/ color, colour /ˈkʌlə(ɹ)/ come /ˈkʌm/ comfort /ˈkʌmfə(ɹ)t/ comfortable /ˈkʌmf(ə(ɹ))təbəl, ˈkʌmftə(ɹ)bəl/ company /ˈkʌmpəni/ compass /ˈkʌmpəs/ coney, cony /ˈkʌni/ (also /ˈkoʊni/) coven /ˈkʌvən/ (also /ˈkoʊvən/) covenant /ˈkʌvənənt/ Coventry /ˈkʌvəntɹi/ cover /ˈkʌvə(ɹ)/ discover /dᵻˈskʌvə(ɹ)/ does (verb) /ˈdʌz/ done /ˈdʌn/ donkey /ˈdʌŋki/ (also /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/) dost /ˈdʌst/ doth /ˈdʌθ/ dove (pigeon) /ˈdʌv/ dozen /ˈdʌzən/ enough /ɨˈnʌf/ everybody /ˈɛv(ə)ɹibʌdi/ (also /ˈɛv(ə)ɹibɒdi/) from /ˈfɹʌm/ (also /ˈfɹɒm/) front /ˈfɹʌnt/ frontier /fɹʌnˈtɪə(ɹ), -ˈtiːɹ/ glove /ˈɡlʌv/ govern /ˈɡʌvə(ɹ)n/ grovel /ˈɡɹʌvəl/ (also /ˈɡɹɒvəl/) honey /ˈhʌni/ hovel /ˈhʌvəl/ (also /ˈhɒvəl/) hover /ˈhʌvə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈhɒvə(ɹ)/) London /ˈlʌndən/ love /ˈlʌv/ Monday /ˈmʌndeɪ, -di/ money /ˈmʌni/ monies /ˈmʌniz/ monk /ˈmʌŋk/ monkey /ˈmʌŋki/ month /ˈmʌnθ/ Moray /ˈmʌɹi/ mother (parent) /ˈmʌðə(ɹ)/ nobody /ˈnoʊbʌdi/ (also /ˈnoʊbɒdi, -bədi/) none /ˈnʌn/ nothing /ˈnʌθᵻŋ/ of /ˈʌv/ (also /ˈɒv/) onion /ˈʌnjən/ other /ˈʌðə(ɹ)/ oven /ˈʌvən/ rough /ˈɹʌf/ roughen /ˈɹʌfən/ shove /ˈʃʌv/ shovel /ˈʃʌvəl/ sloven /ˈslʌvən/ smother /ˈsmʌðə(ɹ)/ some /ˈsʌm/ somebody /ˈsʌmbʌdi/ (also /ˈsʌmbɒdi, -bədi/) somersault /ˈsʌmə(ɹ)sɔːlt/ Somerset /ˈsʌmə(ɹ)sɛt/ son /ˈsʌn/ sovereign /ˈsʌv(ə)ɹᵻn/ (also /ˈsɒv(ə)ɹᵻn/) sponge /ˈspʌndʒ/ stomach /ˈstʌmək/ thorough /ˈθʌɹoʊ, -ɹə/ ton, tonne /ˈtʌn/ tongue /ˈtʌŋ/ tough /ˈtʌf/ toughen /ˈtʌfən/ won /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) wont /ˈwʌnt/ (also /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/) word /ˈwɜː(ɹ)d, ˈwʌɹd/ work /ˈwɜː(ɹ)k, ˈwʌɹk/ world /ˈwɜː(ɹ)ld, ˈwʌɹld/ worm /ˈwɜː(ɹ)m, ˈwʌɹm/ worry /ˈwʌɹi/ worse /ˈwɜː(ɹ)s, ˈwʌɹs/ worsen /ˈwɜː(ɹ)sən, ˈwʌɹs-/ worship /ˈwɜː(ɹ)ʃᵻp, ˈwʌɹʃ-/ worst /ˈwɜː(ɹ)st, ˈwʌɹst/ wort /ˈwɜː(ɹ)t, ˈwʌɹt/ (also /ˈwɔː(ɹ)t, ˈwɒɹt/) worth /ˈwɜː(ɹ)θ, ˈwʌɹθ/ worthy /ˈwɜː(ɹ)ði, ˈwʌɹði/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /ʊ/[edit]

bosom /ˈbʊzəm/ wolf /ˈwʊlf/ Wolsey /ˈwʊlzi/ wolverine /ˈwʊlvəˈɹiːn/ wolves /ˈwʊlvz/ woman /ˈwʊmən/ yod /ˈjʊd/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /uː/[edit]

canoe /kəˈnuː/ combe /ˈkuːm/ (also /ˈkoʊm/) do /ˈduː/ domesday /ˈduːmzdeɪ/ lose /ˈluːz/ move /ˈmuːv/ movie /ˈmuːvi/ prove /ˈpɹuːv/ proven /ˈpɹuːvən/ (also /ˈpɹoʊvən/) shoe /ˈʃuː/ to /ˈtuː/ tomb /ˈtuːm/ womb /ˈwuːm/

‹oCC› as /oʊCC/ invalid IPA characters (CC) and final ‹oC› as /oʊC/ invalid IPA characters (C)[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the consonant cluster sequence is only /Cl/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in noble) or only /Cr/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in cobra), since vowels are expected to be long in these spellings.
  • Plurals formed with -s.
  • Words with ‹olC› or final ‹ol›.

almost /ˈɔːlˈmoʊst/ betroth /bɨˈtɹoʊð/ (also /bɨˈtɹɒθ, -ˈtɹɔːθ/) borne /ˈbɔə(ɹ)n, ˈboʊɹn/ Borneo /ˈbɔə(ɹ)nioʊ, ˈboʊɹn-/ both /ˈboʊθ/ (also /ˈboʊlθ/) comb /ˈkoʊm/ divorce /dᵻˈvɔə(ɹ)s, -ˈvoʊɹs/ don't /ˈdoʊnt/ fiord, fjord /ˈfjɔə(ɹ)d, ˈfjoʊɹd/ force /ˈfɔə(ɹ)s, ˈfoʊɹs/ ford /ˈfɔə(ɹ)d, ˈfoʊɹd/ forge /ˈfɔə(ɹ)dʒ, ˈfoʊɹdʒ/ fort /ˈfɔə(ɹ)t, ˈfoʊɹt/ forth /ˈfɔə(ɹ)θ, ˈfoʊɹθ/ ghost /ˈɡoʊst/ gross /ˈɡɹoʊs/ horde /ˈhɔə(ɹ)d, ˈhoʊɹd/ host /ˈhoʊst/ most /ˈmoʊst/ porcelain /ˈpɔə(ɹ)s(ə)lᵻn, ˈpoʊɹs-/ porch /ˈpɔə(ɹ)tʃ, ˈpoʊɹtʃ/ pork /ˈpɔə(ɹ)k, ˈpoʊɹk/ port /ˈpɔə(ɹ)t, ˈpoʊɹt/ portend /ˈpɔə(ɹ)tɛnd, ˈpoʊɹt-/ portent /ˈpɔə(ɹ)tɛnt, ˈpoʊɹt-/ portion /ˈpɔə(ɹ)ʃən, ˈpoʊɹʃ-/ portrait /ˈpɔə(ɹ)tɹᵻt, ˈpoʊɹt-/ post /ˈpoʊst/ shorn /ˈʃɔə(ɹ)n, ˈʃoʊɹn/ sloth /ˈsloʊθ/ (also /ˈslɒθ, ˈslɔːθ/) sport /ˈspɔə(ɹ)t, ˈspoʊɹt/ sword /ˈsɔə(ɹ)d, ˈsoʊɹd/ sworn /ˈswɔə(ɹ)n, ˈswoʊɹn/ torn /ˈtɔə(ɹ)n, ˈtoʊɹn/ troth /ˈtɹoʊθ/ (also /ˈtɹɒθ, ˈtɹɔːθ/) won't /ˈwoʊnt/ worn /ˈwɔə(ɹ)n, ˈwoʊɹn/ wroth /ˈɹoʊθ/ (also /ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ/)

/ɔːl/[edit]

assault /əˈsɔːlt/ bawl /ˈbɔːl/ brawl /ˈbɹɔːl/ cauldron /ˈkɔːldɹən/ caulk /ˈkɔːlk/ (also /ˈkɔːk/) drawl /ˈdɹɔːl/ Faulkner /ˈfɔːlknə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈfɔːknə(ɹ)/) fault /ˈfɔːlt/ Gaul /ˈɡɔːl/ haul /ˈɡɔːl/ maul /ˈmɔːl/ Paul, pawl /ˈpɔːl/ Saul /ˈsɔːl/ scrawl /ˈskɹɔːl/ shawl /ˈʃɔːl/ somersault /ˈsʌmə(ɹ)sɔːlt/ sprawl /ˈskɹɔːl/ trawl /ˈtɹɔːl/ vault /ˈvɔːlt/

‹alC› /ɔːlC/ invalid IPA characters (C) or final ‹al› as /ɔːl/[edit]

Albany /ˈɔːlbəni/ albeit /ɔːlˈbiːᵻt/ Alderney /ˈɔːldə(ɹ)ni/ all /ˈɔːl/ almighty /ɔːlˈmaɪti/ almost /ˈɔːlˈmoʊst/ already /ɔːlˈɹɛdi/ also /ˈɔːlsoʊ/ altar, alter /ˈɔːltə(ɹ)/ alternate (adjective) /ˈɔːltə(ɹ)nᵻt/ alternate (verb) /ˈɔːltə(ɹ)neɪt/ although /ɔːlˈðoʊ/ altogether /ˈɔːltᵿˈɡɛðə(ɹ)/ always /ˈɔːlweɪz, -wiz/ asphalt /ˈæsfɔːlt, ˈæʃ-/ (also /ˈæsfælt, ˈæʃ-/) bald, balled /ˈbɔːld/ Balder, balder /ˈbɔːldə(ɹ)/ balk /ˈbɔːlk/ (also /ˈbɔːk/) ball /ˈbɔːl/ Balt /ˈbɔːlt/ Baltimore /ˈbɔːl(tᵻ)mɔə(ɹ), -moʊɹ/ calk /ˈkɔːlk/ (also /ˈkɔːk/) call /ˈkɔːl/ chalk /ˈtʃɔːlk/ (also /ˈtʃɔːk/) cobalt /ˈkoʊbɔːlt/ Cornwall /ˈkɔː(ɹ)nwɔːl, ˈkɒɹn-/ (also /ˈkɔː(ɹ)nwəl, ˈkɒɹn-/) Dundalk /ˈdʌndɔːlk/ (also /ˈdʌndɔːk/) falcon /ˈfɔːlkən/ (also /ˈfɔːkən, ˈfælk-/) Falkland /ˈfɔːlklənd/ (also /ˈfɔːklənd/) fall /ˈfɔːl/ fallen /ˈfɔːlən/ false /ˈfɔːls/ falter /ˈfɔːltə(ɹ)/ gall /ˈɡɔːl/ hall /ˈhɔːl/ halt /ˈhɔːlt/ mall /ˈmɔːl/ malt /ˈmɔːlt/ Malta /ˈmɔːltə/ Nepal /nᵻˈpɔːl/ (also /nᵻˈpɑːl, -ˈpæl/) pall /ˈpɔːl/ palsy /ˈpɔːlzi/ paltry /ˈpɔːltɹi/ Salisbury /ˈsɔːlzb(ɛ)ɹi/ (also /ˈsælzb(ɛ)ɹi/) salt /ˈsɔːlt/ scald /ˈskɔːld/ small /ˈsmɔːl/ Spalding /ˈspɔːldᵻŋ/ squall /ˈskwɔːl/ stalk /ˈstɔːlk/ (also /ˈstɔːk/) stall /ˈstɔːl/ talk /ˈtɔːlk/ (also /ˈtɔːk/) tall /ˈtɔːl/ thrall /ˈθɹɔːl/ walk /ˈwɔːlk/ (also /ˈwɔːk/) wall /ˈwɔːl/ Walt /ˈwɔːlt/ Walter /ˈwɔːltə(ɹ)/ waltz /ˈwɔːlts/

‹oo› as /oʊ/[edit]

boor /ˈbɔə(ɹ), ˈboʊɹ/ (also /ˈbʊə(ɹ), ˈbuːɹ/) brooch /ˈbɹoʊtʃ/ (also /ˈbɹuːtʃ/) door /ˈdɔə(ɹ), ˈdoʊɹ/ floor /ˈflɔə(ɹ), ˈfloʊɹ/ moor, Moore /ˈmɔə(ɹ), ˈmoʊɹ/ (also /ˈmʊə(ɹ), ˈmuːɹ/) poor /ˈpɔə(ɹ), ˈpoʊɹ/ (also /ˈpʊə(ɹ), ˈpuːɹ/)

‹oo› as /ʊ/[edit]

booger /ˈbʊɡə(ɹ)/ boogie /ˈbʊɡi/ (also /ˈbuːɡi/) book /ˈbʊk/ Booker /ˈbʊkə(ɹ)/ brook, Brooke /ˈbɹʊk/ broom /ˈbɹʊm/ (also /ˈbɹuːm/) cook /ˈkʊk/ cookie, cooky /ˈkʊki/ coop (enclosure) /ˈkʊp/ (also /ˈkuːp/) crook /ˈkɹʊk/ crooked /ˈkɹʊkᵻd, ˈkɹʊkt/ good /ˈɡʊd/ groom /ˈɡɹʊm/ (also /ˈɡɹuːm/) hood /ˈhʊd/ hoof /ˈhʊf/ (also /ˈhuːf/) hook /ˈhʊk/ hoop /ˈhʊp/ (also /ˈhuːp/) hooves /ˈhʊvz/ (also /ˈhuːvz/) look /ˈlʊk/ nook /ˈnʊk/ nookie, nooky /ˈnʊki/ oops /ˈʊps/ (also /ˈuːps/) roof /ˈɹʊf/ (also /ˈɹuːf/) rook /ˈɹʊk/ room /ˈɹʊm/ (also /ˈɹuːm/) shook /ˈʃʊk/ soot /ˈsʊt/ (also /ˈsuːt/) squoosh /ˈskwʊʃ/ stood /ˈstʊd/ swoosh /ˈswʊʃ/ (also /ˈswuːʃ/) took /ˈtʊk/ tootsie /ˈtʊtsi/ whoop /ˈ(h)wʊp/ (also /ˈ(h)wuːp/) whoosh /ˈ(h)wʊʃ/ (also /ˈ(h)wuːʃ/) wood /ˈwʊd/ wooden /ˈwʊdən/ woof /ˈwʊf/ (also /ˈwuːf/) wool /ˈwʊl/ woolen, woollen /ˈwʊlən/ woolly, wooly /ˈwʊli/ Woolsey /ˈwʊlzi/

‹ou› as /ʌ/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ou› only represents /ə/.

adjourn /əˈdʒɜː(ɹ)n, əˈdʒʌɹn/ bourgeon /ˈbɜː(ɹ)dʒən, ˈbʌɹdʒ-/ country /ˈkʌntɹi/ couple /ˈkʌpəl/ courage /ˈkʌɹᵻdʒ/ courier /ˈkɜːɹiə(ɹ), ˈkʌɹ-/ (also /ˈkʊ(ə)ɹiə(ɹ), ˈkuːɹ-/) courteous /ˈkɜː(ɹ)tiəs, ˈkʌɹt-/ courtesy /ˈkɜː(ɹ)t(ᵻ)si, ˈkʌɹt-/ cousin /ˈkʌzᵻn/ double /ˈdʌbəl/ doublet /ˈdʌblᵻt/ doubloon /dʌˈbluːn/ Doug /ˈdʌɡ/ Douglas /ˈdʌɡləs/ flourish /ˈflʌɹᵻʃ/ hiccough /ˈhɪkʌp/ (also /ˈhɪkəp/) journal /ˈdʒɜː(ɹ)nəl, ˈdʒʌɹn-/ journey /ˈdʒɜː(ɹ)ni, ˈdʒʌɹni/ joust /ˈdʒʌst/ (also /ˈdʒaʊst, ˈdʒuːst/) moustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ/ (also /məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/) nourish /ˈnʌɹᵻʃ/ scourge /ˈskɜː(ɹ)dʒ, ˈskʌɹdʒ/ sojourn /ˈsoʊdʒɜː(ɹ)n, -dʒʌɹn/ southerly /ˈsʌðə(ɹ)li/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(ɹ)li/) southern /ˈsʌðə(ɹ)n/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(ɹ)n/) touch /ˈtʌtʃ/ tournament /ˈtɜː(ɹ)nəmənt, ˈtʌɹn-/ (also /ˈtʊə(ɹ)nəmənt, ˈtuːɹn-/) tourney /ˈtɜː(ɹ)ni, ˈtʌɹni/ (also /ˈtʊə(ɹ)ni, ˈtuːɹni/) trouble /ˈtɹʌbəl/ young /ˈjʌŋ/ younger /ˈjʌŋɡə(ɹ)/

‹ou› and ‹ow› as /oʊ/[edit]

This sound historically never overlapped with ‹ou› or ‹ow› as /uː/ or post-Great Vowel Shift /aʊ/.

blow /ˈbloʊ/ blown /ˈbloʊn/ boulder, bowlder /ˈboʊldə(ɹ)/ bourn, Bourne, bourne /ˈbɔə(ɹ)n, ˈboʊɹn/ (also /ˈbʊə(ɹ)n, ˈbuːɹn/) bow (shape) /ˈboʊ/ bowl /ˈboʊl/ course /ˈkɔə(ɹ)s, ˈkoʊɹs/ court /ˈkɔə(ɹ)t, ˈkoʊɹt/ dough /ˈdoʊ/ flow /ˈfloʊ/ flown /ˈfloʊn/ four /ˈfɔə(ɹ), ˈfoʊɹ/ fourteen /ˈfɔə(ɹ)ˈtiːn, ˈfoʊɹ-/ fourth /ˈfɔə(ɹ)θ, ˈfoʊɹθ/ glow /ˈɡloʊ/ gourd /ˈɡɔə(ɹ)d, ˈɡoʊɹd/ (also /ˈɡʊə(ɹ)d, ˈɡuːɹd/) grow /ˈɡɹoʊ/ grown /ˈɡɹoʊn/ growth /ˈɡɹoʊθ/ low, Lowe /ˈloʊ/ Lowell /ˈloʊəl/ (also /ˈloʊl/) lower (descend) /ˈloʊə(ɹ)/ mould /ˈmoʊld/ moult /ˈmoʊlt/ mourn /ˈmɔə(ɹ)n, ˈmoʊɹn/ mow /ˈmoʊ/ mown /ˈmoʊn/ owe /ˈoʊ/ own /ˈoʊn/ poultry /ˈpoʊltɹi/ pour /ˈpɔə(ɹ), ˈpoʊɹ/ row (line) /ˈɹoʊ/ Seymour /ˈsiːmɔə(ɹ), -moʊɹ/ shoulder /ˈʃoʊldə(ɹ)/ show /ˈʃoʊ/ shown /ˈʃoʊn/ slow /ˈsloʊ/ smoulder /ˈsmoʊldə(ɹ)/ snow /ˈsnoʊ/ soul /ˈsoʊl/ source /ˈsɔə(ɹ)s, ˈsoʊɹs/ sow (seed) /ˈsoʊ/ sown /ˈsoʊn/ though /ˈðoʊ/ throw /ˈθɹoʊ/ thrown /ˈθɹoʊn/ tow /ˈtoʊ/ your, you're /ˈjɔə(ɹ), ˈjoʊɹ/ (also /ˈjʊə(ɹ), ˈjuːɹ/) yourn /ˈjɔə(ɹ)n, ˈjoʊɹn/ (also /ˈjʊə(ɹ)n, ˈjuːɹn/) yours /ˈjɔə(ɹ)z, ˈjoʊɹz/ (also /ˈjʊə(ɹ)z, ˈjuːɹz/)

Final unstressed[edit]

arrow /ˈæɹoʊ/ barrow /ˈbæɹoʊ/ bellow /ˈbɛloʊ/ bellows (device) /ˈbɛloʊz/ (also /ˈbɛləz/) billow /ˈbɪloʊ/ borough /ˈbʌɹoʊ/ (also /ˈbʌɹə/) borrow /ˈbɒɹoʊ/ bungalow /ˈbʌŋɡəloʊ/ burrow /ˈbʌɹoʊ/ elbow /ˈɛlboʊ/ fallow /ˈfæloʊ/ farrow /ˈfæɹoʊ/ fellow /ˈfɛloʊ/ follow /ˈfɒloʊ/ furlough /ˈfɜː(ɹ)loʊ, ˈfʌɹ-/ gallows /ˈɡæloʊz/ (also /ˈɡæləz/) hallow /ˈhæloʊ/ harrow /ˈhæɹoʊ/ hollow /ˈhɒloʊ/ mallow /ˈmæloʊ/ Marlowe /ˈmɑː(ɹ)loʊ, ˈmæɹ-/ marrow /ˈmæɹoʊ/ meadow /ˈmɛdoʊ/ mellow /ˈmɛloʊ/ minnow /ˈmɪnoʊ/ morrow /ˈmɒɹoʊ/ Moscow /ˈmɒskoʊ/ (also /ˈmɒskaʊ/) narrow /ˈnæɹoʊ/ pillow /ˈpɪloʊ/ sallow /ˈsæloʊ/ shadow /ˈʃædoʊ/ shallow /ˈʃæloʊ/ sorrow /ˈsɒɹoʊ/ sparrow /ˈspæɹoʊ/ swallow /ˈswɒloʊ/ tallow /ˈtæloʊ/ thorough /ˈθʌɹoʊ/ (also /ˈθʌɹə/) wallow /ˈwɒloʊ/ Wicklow /ˈwɪkloʊ/ widow /ˈwɪdoʊ/ willow /ˈwɪloʊ/ window /ˈwɪndoʊ/ Winslow /ˈwɪnzloʊ/ yellow /ˈjɛloʊ/

‹ou› as /uː/[edit]

All these words imply ‹ou› that remained /uː/ after ‹ou› had regularly shifted to /aʊ/ in the Great Vowel Shift.

For historical reasons, this list also includes ‹ou› as /ʊ/ from older post-GVS /uː/.

bouche /ˈbuːʃ/ boulevard /ˈbuːl(ə)vɑː(ɹ)(d), ˈbʊl-, -væɹ(d)/ cougar /ˈkuːɡə(ɹ)/ could /ˈkʊd/ coupon /ˈkuːpɒn/ (also /ˈkjuːpɒn, ˈkɪup-/) courier /ˈkʊ(ə)ɹiə(ɹ), ˈkuːɹ-/ (also /ˈkɜːɹiə(ɹ), ˈkʌɹ-/) couscous /ˈkuːskuːs/ couth /ˈkuːθ/ douche /ˈduːʃ/ Dougal /ˈduːɡəl/ ghoul /ˈɡuːl/ gourd /ˈɡʊə(ɹ)d, ˈɡuːɹd/ (also /ˈɡɔə(ɹ)d, ˈɡoʊɹd/) group /ˈɡɹuːp/ joust /ˈdʒuːst/ (also /ˈdʒaʊst, ˈdʒʌst/) Lou /ˈluː/ Louie /ˈluːi/ Louis /ˈluːᵻs/ mousse /ˈmuːs/ rouge /ˈɹuːʒ/ route /ˈɹuːt/ (also /ˈɹaʊt/) should /ˈʃʊd/ soup /ˈsuːp/ stoup /ˈstuːp/ through /ˈθɹuː/ tour /ˈtʊə(ɹ), ˈtuːɹ/ tournament /ˈtʊə(ɹ)nəmənt, ˈtuːɹn-/ (also /ˈtɜː(ɹ)nəmənt, ˈtʌɹn-/) tourney /ˈtʊə(ɹ)ni, ˈtuːɹni/ (also /ˈtɜː(ɹ)ni, ˈtʌɹni/) troupe /ˈtɹuːp/ would /ˈwʊd/ wound (injury) /ˈwuːnd/ you /ˈjuː/ your, you're /ˈjʊə(ɹ), ˈjuːɹ/ (also /ˈjɔə(ɹ), ˈjoʊɹ/) yourn /ˈjʊə(ɹ)n, ˈjuːɹn/ (also /ˈjɔə(ɹ)n, ˈjoʊɹn/) yours /ˈjʊə(ɹ)z, ˈjuːɹz/ (also /ˈjɔə(ɹ)z, ˈjoʊɹz/) youth /ˈjuːθ/ youths /ˈjuːðz, ˈjuːθs/

‹olC› as /oʊlC/ invalid IPA characters (C) or final ‹ol› as /oʊl/[edit]

bold, bowled /ˈboʊld/ bolster /ˈboʊlstə(ɹ)/ bolt /ˈboʊlt/ Bolton /ˈboʊltən/ Colby /ˈkoʊlbi/ cold /ˈkoʊld/ Colgate /ˈkoʊlɡeɪt/ colt /ˈkoʊlt/ Colton /ˈkoʊltən/ control /kənˈtɹoʊl/ Dolby /ˈdoʊlbi/ dolt /ˈdoʊlt/ droll /ˈdɹoʊl/ extol /ᵻkˈstoʊl/ fold /ˈfoʊld/ Folger /ˈfoʊldʒə(ɹ)/ folk /ˈfoʊlk/ (also /ˈfoʊk/) gnoll, knoll /ˈnoʊl/ gold /ˈɡoʊld/ golden /ˈɡoʊldən/ hold /ˈhoʊld/ holm /ˈhoʊlm/ (also /ˈhoʊm/) Holmes, holms /ˈhoʊlmz/ (also /ˈhoʊmz/) holster /ˈhoʊlstə(ɹ)/ holt /ˈhoʊlt/ Holton /ˈhoʊltən/ jolt /ˈdʒoʊlt/ mold /ˈmoʊld/ molt /ˈmoʊlt/ molten /ˈmoʊltən/ old /ˈoʊld/ olden /ˈoʊldən/ olfactory /oʊlˈfækt(ɵ)ɹi/ (also /ɒlˈfækt(ɵ)ɹi/) Olsen, Olson /ˈoʊlsən/ patrol /pəˈtɹoʊl/ polder /ˈpoʊldə(ɹ)/ Polk /ˈpoʊlk/ (also /ˈpoʊk/) polka /ˈpoʊlkə/ (also /ˈpoʊkə, ˈpɒlkə/) poll /ˈpoʊl/ poltergeist /ˈpoʊltə(ɹ)ɡaɪst/ (also /ˈpɒltə(ɹ)ɡaɪst/) roll /ˈɹoʊl/ scroll /ˈskɹoʊl/ smolder /ˈsmoʊldə(ɹ)/ smolt /ˈsmoʊlt/ Sol, sol /ˈsoʊl/ (also /ˈsɒl/) sold /ˈsoʊld/ soldier /ˈsoʊldʒə(ɹ)/ stroll /ˈstɹoʊl/ swollen /ˈswoʊlən/ told, tolled /ˈtoʊld/ toll /ˈtoʊl/ troll /ˈtɹoʊl/ volt /ˈvoʊlt/ Volta, volta /ˈvoʊltə/ (also /ˈvɒltə/) wold (forest) /ˈwoʊld/ yolk /ˈjoʊlk/ (also /ˈjoʊk/)

‹our› as /ə(ɹ)/[edit]

arbour /ˈɑː(ɹ)bə(ɹ), ˈæɹb-/ armour /ˈɑː(ɹ)mə(ɹ), ˈæɹm-/ behaviour /bɨˈheɪvjə(ɹ)/ clamour /ˈklæmə(ɹ)/ colour /ˈkʌlə(ɹ)/ endeavour /ᵻnˈdɛvə(ɹ), ɛn-/ favour /ˈfeɪvə(ɹ)/ flavour /ˈfleɪvə(ɹ)/ glamour /ˈɡlæmə(ɹ)/ harbour /ˈhɑː(ɹ)bə(ɹ), ˈhæɹb-/ honour /ˈɒnə(ɹ)/ humour /ˈhjuːmə(ɹ), ˈhɪum-/ labour /ˈleɪbə(ɹ)/ neighbour /ˈneɪbə(ɹ)/ parlour /ˈpɑː(ɹ)lə(ɹ), ˈpæɹ-/ rancour /ˈɹæŋkə(ɹ)/ rigour /ˈɹɪɡə(ɹ)/ rumour /ˈɹuːmə(ɹ), ˈɹɪum-/ saviour /ˈseɪvjə(ɹ)/ savour /ˈseɪvə(ɹ)/ splendour /ˈsplɛndə(ɹ)/ tumour /ˈtjuːmə(ɹ), ˈtɪum-/ vigour /ˈvɪɡə(ɹ)/

PALM lexical set[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words with a common alternate pronunciation with /æ/, /ɒ/ or /ɔː/.
  • Words in the START lexical set.

alms /ˈɑː(l)mz/balm /ˈbɑː(l)m/ barrage /bəˈɹɑːʒ, ˈbæɹɑːʒ/ blah /ˈblɑː/ bra /ˈbɹɑː/ calm /ˈkɑː(l)m/ Chalmers /ˈtʃɑː(l)mə(ɹ)z/ charade /ʃəˈɹɑːd/ (also /ʃəˈɹeɪd/) collage /kɵˈlɑːʒ, koʊ-/ fa /ˈfɑː/ father /ˈfɑːðə(ɹ)/ garage /ɡəˈɹɑːʒ, -ˈɹɑːdʒ, ˈɡæɹɑːʒ/ (also /ˈɡæɹᵻdʒ/) genre /ˈʒɑːnɹə/ ha, hah /ˈhɑː/ la /ˈlɑː/ mirage /mɨˈɹɑːʒ/ montage /mɒnˈtɑːʒ/ palm /ˈpɑː(l)m/ Prague /ˈpɹɑːɡ/ psalm /ˈsɑː(l)m/ qualm /ˈkwɑː(l)m/ ska /ˈskɑː/ spa /ˈspɑː/ svengali /svɛnˈɡɑːli, sfɛn-/ ta /ˈtɑː/ taco /ˈtɑːkoʊ/

Single ‹s› as /z/ or /ʒ/ after a short vowel in an open syllable[edit]

-asm /-æzəm/ busy /ˈbɪzi/ chisel /ˈtʃɪzəl/ closet /ˈklɒzᵻt/ cousin /ˈkʌzᵻn/ doesn't (verb) /ˈdʌzənt/ Elisabeth /ɨˈlɪzəbəθ/ hasn't /ˈhæzənt/ -ism /-ɪzəm/ isn't /ˈɪzənt/ leisure /ˈlɛʒə(ɹ)/ (also /ˈliːʒə(ɹ)/) measure /ˈmɛʒə(ɹ)/ misery /ˈmɪzəɹi/ peasant /ˈpɛzənt/ pheasant /ˈfɛzənt/ pleasant /ˈplɛzənt/ pleasure /ˈplɛʒə(ɹ)/ posit /ˈpɒzᵻt/ present (noun) /ˈpɹɛzənt/ prison /ˈpɹɪzən/ resin /ˈɹɛzᵻn/ risen /ˈɹɪzən/ treasure /ˈtɹɛʒə(ɹ)/ visit /ˈvɪzᵻt/ wasn't /ˈwɒzənt, ˈwʌz-/

‹sl› as /l/[edit]

aisle, isle /ˈaɪl/ Carlisle /ˈkɑː(ɹ)laɪl, ˈkæɹ-/ island /ˈaɪlənd/ islet /ˈaɪlᵻt/

‹ss› and ‹sc› as /z/[edit]

brassiere /bɹəˈzɪə(ɹ), -ˈziːɹ, ˈbɹæziɛə(ɹ), -eɪɹ, ˈbɹæzɪə(ɹ), -ziːr/ (also /ˈbɹæsiɛə(ɹ), -eɪɹ, ˈbɹæsɪə(ɹ), -siːɹ/) crescent /ˈkɹɛzənt/ (also /ˈkɹɛsənt/) dessert /dɨˈzɜː(ɹ)t, -ˈzɛɹt/ dissolve /dᵻˈzɒlv/

‹th› as /t/[edit]

Thai /ˈtaɪ/ Thailand /ˈtaɪlænd/ Thames /ˈtɛmz, ˈteɪmz/ (also /ˈθeɪmz/) Thomas /ˈtɒməs/ Thompson /ˈtɒmpsən/ thyme /ˈtaɪm/ (also /ˈθaɪm/)

Initial /θw/[edit]

thwack /ˈθwæk/ thwaite /ˈθweɪt/ thwap /ˈθwæp/ thwart /ˈθwɔː(ɹ)t, ˈθwɒɹt/ thwomp /ˈθwɒmp/

Silent ‹u› and ‹w›[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Silent ‹w› in ‹wr›.

analogue /ˈænəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ answer /ˈænsə(ɹ), ˈɑːns-/ antique /ænˈtiːk/ baroque /bəˈɹɒk, -ˈɹoʊk/ Basque /ˈbæsk, ˈbɑːsk/ beleaguer /bɨˈliːɡə(ɹ)/ biscuit /ˈbɪskᵻt/ bisque /ˈbɪsk/ Borgue /ˈbɔː(ɹ)ɡ, ˈbɒɹɡ/ brogue /ˈbɹoʊɡ/ brusque /ˈbɹuːsk, ˈbɹʊsk, ˈbɹʌsk/ build /ˈbɪld/ built /ˈbɪlt/ buy /ˈbaɪ/ catalogue /ˈkætəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ cheque /ˈtʃɛk/ chequer /ˈtʃɛkə(ɹ)/ circuit /ˈsɜː(ɹ)kᵻt, ˈsɪɹk-/ cirque /ˈsɜː(ɹ)k, ˈsɪɹk/ clique /ˈklɪk, ˈkliːk/ conquer /ˈkɒŋkə(ɹ)/ dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ, ˈdɛŋɡi/ dialogue /ˈdaɪəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ epilogue /ˈɛpᵻlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ Fenwick /ˈfɛnᵻk/ (also /ˈfɛnwᵻk/) fugue /ˈfjuːɡ, ˈfɪuɡ/ Greenwich /ˈɡɹɛnᵻdʒ, -ᵻtʃ/ (also /ˈɡɹiːnwᵻtʃ, -wᵻdʒ/) grotesque /ɡɹoʊˈtɛsk/ guarantee /ɡæɹənˈtiː/ guaranty /ˈɡæɹənti/ guard /ˈɡɑː(ɹ)d, ˈɡæɹd/ guardian /ˈɡɑː(ɹ)diən, ˈɡæɹd-/ Guernsey /ˈɡɜː(ɹ)nzi, ˈɡɛɹnzi/ guess /ˈɡɛs/ guessed, guest /ˈɡɛst/ guide /ˈɡaɪd/ guild /ˈɡɪld/ guilder /ˈɡɪldə(ɹ)/ guile /ˈɡaɪl/ guillotine /ˈɡiːɵtiːn, ˈɡɪlɵ-/ guilt /ˈɡɪlt/ guise /ˈɡaɪz/ guitar /ɡᵻˈtɑː(ɹ), -ˈtæɹ, ˈɡɪtɑː(ɹ), -tæɹ/ Guy, guy /ˈɡaɪ/ Hague /ˈheɪɡ/ intrigue /ˈɪntɹiːɡ, ᵻnˈtɹiːɡ/ knowledge /ˈnɒlᵻdʒ/ lacquer /ˈlækə(ɹ)/ league /ˈliːɡ/ liquor, liquour /ˈlɪkə(ɹ)/ liquorice /ˈlɪk(ɵ)ɹᵻʃ, -ɹᵻs/ masque /ˈmæsk, ˈmɑːsk/ masquerade /mæskəˈɹeɪd/ meringue /məˈɹæŋ/ monologue /ˈmɒnɵlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ morgue /ˈmɔː(ɹ)ɡ, ˈmɒɹɡ/ mosque /ˈmɒsk, ˈmɔːsk/ mosquito /məˈskiːtoʊ/ Norwich /ˈnɒɹᵻdʒ, ˈnɔːɹ-, -ᵻtʃ/ (also /ˈnɔː(ɹ)wᵻtʃ, ˈnɒɹ-, -wᵻdʒ/) oblique /ɵˈbliːk, oʊ-/ opaque /oʊˈpeɪk/ pique /ˈpiːk/ plague /ˈpleɪɡ/ plaque /ˈplæk/ Prague /ˈpɹɑːɡ/ prologue /ˈpɹoʊlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ queue /ˈkjuː, ˈkɪu/ quiche /ˈkiːʃ/ racquet /ˈɹækᵻt/ rogue /ˈɹoʊɡ/ sword /ˈsɔə(ɹ)d, ˈsoʊɹd/ synagogue /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ technique /tɛkˈniːk/ tongue /ˈtʌŋ/ toque /ˈtoʊk/ torque /ˈtɔː(ɹ)k, ˈtɒɹk/ unique /juːˈniːk, ɪu-/ vague /ˈveɪɡ/ vogue /ˈvoʊɡ/ Warwick /ˈwɒɹᵻk, ˈwɔːɹ-/ (also /ˈwɔː(ɹ)wᵻk, ˈwɒɹ-/) whole /ˈhoʊl/ wholly /ˈhoʊl(l)i/ whore /ˈhɔə(ɹ), ˈhoʊɹ/ (also /ˈhʊə(ɹ), ˈhuːɹ/)

‹u› as /ʊ/[edit]

Bulgaria /bʊlˈɡɛəɹiə, -ˈɡeɪɹ-/ (also /bʌlˈɡɛəɹiə, -ˈɡeɪɹ-/) bull /ˈbʊl/ bullet /ˈbʊlᵻt/ Bullock, bullock /ˈbʊlək/ bully /ˈbʊli/ bulwark /ˈbʊlwə(ɹ)k, -wɔː(ɹ)k, -wɒɹk/ (also /ˈbʌlwə(ɹ)k, -wɔː(ɹ)k, -wɒɹk/) Bush, bush /ˈbʊʃ/ butch /ˈbʊtʃ/ butcher /ˈbʊtʃə(ɹ)/ chutzpa, chutzpah, hutzpa, hutzpah /ˈxʊtspə, ˈhʊts/ Cush /ˈkʊʃ/ (also /ˈkʌʃ/) cushion /ˈkʊʃən/ cushy /ˈkʊʃi/ full /ˈfʊl/ fully /ˈfʊl(l)i/ hummus /ˈhʊməs/ (also /ˈhʌməs/) kibbutz /kɨˈbʊts/ (also /kɨˈbuːts/) mush /ˈmʊʃ/ (also /ˈmʌʃ/) pudding /ˈpʊdᵻŋ/ pull /ˈpʊl/ pulley /ˈpʊli/ pulpit /ˈpʊlpᵻt/ (also /ˈpʌlpᵻt/) push /ˈpʊʃ/ puss /ˈpʊs/ put /ˈpʊt/ schtup, shtup /ˈʃtʊp/ tush (tushie) /ˈtʊʃ/ tushie /ˈtʊʃi/ wuss /ˈwʊs/

‹ugh› as /f/[edit]

cough /ˈkɒf, ˈkɔːf/ draught /ˈdɹæft, ˈdɹɑːft/ enough /ɨˈnʌf/ laugh /ˈlæf, ˈlɑːf/ laughter /ˈlæftə(ɹ), ˈlɑːft-/ rough /ˈɹʌf/ roughen /ˈɹʌfən/ rough /ˈɹʌf/ slough (sluff) /ˈslʌf/ toughen /ˈtʌfən/ trough /ˈtɹɒf, ˈtɹɔːf/ (also /ˈtɹɒθ, ˈtɹɔːθ/)

‹ui› as /(j)uː/[edit]

bruise /ˈbɹuːz, ˈbɹɪuz/ cruise /ˈkɹuːz, ˈkɹɪuz/ fruit /ˈfɹuːt, ˈfɹɪut/ juice /ˈdʒuːs, ˈdʒɪus/ Muir /ˈmjʊə(ɹ), ˈmjuːɹ, ˈmɪʊə(ɹ), ˈmɪuɹ/ nuisance /ˈnjuːsəns, ˈnɪus-/ puisne /ˈpjuːni, ˈpɪuni/ pursuit /pə(ɹ)ˈs(j)uːt, -ˈsɪut/ recruit /ɹɨˈkɹuːt, -ˈkɹɪut/ suit /ˈs(j)uːt, ˈsɪut/

‹wo› as /uː/ and ‹who› as /huː/[edit]

two /ˈtuː/ who /ˈhuː/ whom /ˈhuːm/ who're /ˈhʊə(ɹ), ˈhuːɹ/ whore /ˈhʊə(ɹ), ˈhuːɹ/ (also /ˈhɔə(ɹ), ˈhoʊɹ/) who's, whose /ˈhuːz/

‹wr› as /ɹ/[edit]

wraith /ˈɹeɪθ/ Wrangel, Wrangell, wrangle /ˈɹæŋɡəl/ wrap /ˈɹæp/ wrastle /ˈɹæsəl/ wrath /ˈɹæθ, ˈɹɑːθ, ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ/ wreak /ˈɹiːk/ wreath /ˈɹiːθ/ wreathe /ˈɹiːð/ wreaths /ˈɹiːðz, ˈɹiːθs/ wreck /ˈɹɛk/ wren /ˈɹɛn/ wrench /ˈɹɛntʃ/ wrength /ˈɹɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈɹɛnθ/) wrest /ˈɹɛst/ wrestle /ˈɹɛsəl/ wretch /ˈɹɛtʃ/ wretched /ˈɹɛtʃᵻd/ wriggle /ˈɹɪɡəl/ Wrigley /ˈɹɪɡli/ wright, write /ˈɹaɪt/ wring /ˈɹɪŋ/ wrinkle /ˈɹɪŋkəl/ wrist /ˈɹɪst/ writ /ˈɹɪt/ write /ˈɹaɪt/ writhe /ˈɹaɪð/ written /ˈɹɪtən/ wrong /ˈɹɒŋ, ˈɹɔːŋ/ wrote /ˈɹoʊt/ wroth /ˈɹɒθ, ˈɹɔːθ, ˈɹoʊθ/ wrought /ˈɹɔːt/ wrung /ˈɹʌŋ/ wry /ˈɹaɪ/

/ʒ/ not from modern yod-coalescence[edit]

barrage /bəˈɹɑːʒ, ˈbæɹɑːʒ/ beige /ˈbeɪʒ/ Beijing /ˈbeɪˈʒɪŋ/ (also /ˈbeɪˈdʒɪŋ/) collage /kɵˈlɑːʒ, koʊ-/ garage /ɡəˈɹɑːʒ, ˈɡæɹɑːʒ/ (also /ɡəˈɹɑːdʒ, ˈɡæɹᵻdʒ/) genre /ˈʒɑːnɹə/ liege /ˈliːʒ/ (also /ˈliːdʒ/) luge /ˈljuːʒ, ˈlɪuʒ/ mirage /mɨˈɹɑːʒ/ montage /mɒnˈtɑːʒ/ prestige /pɹɛˈstiːʒ/ (also /pɹɛˈstiːdʒ/) rouge /ˈɹuːʒ/