Appendix:Greater Bai comparative vocabulary list

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

The following is a comparative vocabulary list of Greater Bai languages. The Caijia, Longjia, Luren, and Waxiang languages are included.

All glosses were originally only in Chinese. English glosses, which are not given in any of the sources, have been added here for non-Chinese readers.

Sources and locations[edit]

  • Caijia: spoken in Hezhang County, Guizhou, China. Source: Bo Wenze [薄文泽]. 2004. "A sketch of Caijia [蔡家话概况]". In Minzu Yuwen. Data is from 1. Lijiazhai, Xinying Village, Xingfa Township, Hezhang County (赫章县兴发乡新营村李家寨); and 2. Caijiayuan, Yakou Village, Songlinpo Township, Hezhang County (赫章县松林坡乡垭口村蔡家园).
  • Caijia (Yangjiazhai): spoken in Hezhang County, Guizhou, China, in Yangjiazhai 杨家寨, Liangyan Village 亮岩公社, Xingfa District 兴发区. Source: Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission, linguistic division [贵州省民族识别工作队语言组]. 1982. The language of the Caijia [Caijia de yuyan 蔡家的语言]. m.s.
  • Caijia (Shuicheng): spoken in Shuicheng County, Guizhou, China, in the villages of 1. Chahe 叉河, Jinpen Township 金盆乡; 2. Caijiapo 蔡家坡, Tujiao Township 土角乡, Shuicheng County, Guizhou, China. Source: Liupanshui City Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [六盘水市志: 民族志] (2003). Guiyang: Guizhou People's Press [贵州人民出版社]. Note: Only Chinese character transcriptions were given in this source. Pinyin transliterations have been provided.
  • Longjia: spoken in Pojiao District 坡脚区, Dafang County, Guizhou, China. Source: Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission [贵州省民族识别工作队]. 1984. Report on ethnic classification issues of the Nanlong people (Nanjing-Longjia) [南龙人(南京-龙家)族别问题调查报告]. m.s.
  • Longjia (Dafang): spoken in Pojiao District 坡脚区, Dafang County, Guizhou, China. Source: Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission, linguistic division [贵州省民族识别工作队语言组]. 1982. The language of the Caijia [Caijia de yuyan 蔡家的语言]. m.s.
  • Longjia (Anshun): spoken in Caiguan Town 蔡官镇, Anshun City, Guizhou, China. Source: Caiguan Town Gazetteer [蔡官镇志] (2004). Guiyang: Guizhou People's Press [贵州人民出版社].
  • Luren: spoken in Anluo 安洛, Jinsha County, Guizhou, China. Sources: 1. Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission [贵州省民族识别工作队]. 1984. Report on ethnic classification issues of the Nanlong people (Nanjing-Longjia) [南龙人(南京-龙家)族别问题调查报告]. m.s.; 2. Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002), p. 888. Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  • Waxianghua (Guzhang): spoken in Taojin Village 淘金村, Gaofeng Township 高峰乡, Guzhang County, Xiangxi Prefecture, Hunan, China. Source: Wu Yunji, Shen Ruiqing [伍云姬、沈瑞清]. 2010. An Investigative Report of Waxianghua of Guzhang County, Xiangxi Prefecture [湘西古丈瓦乡话调查报告]. Shanghai Educational Press [上海教育出版社].
  • Waxianghua (Yuanling): spoken in Yuanling County, Hunan, China. Source: Yang Wei [杨蔚]. 1999. A study of Yuanling Waxianghua [沅陵乡话研究]. Changsha: Hunan Educational Press [湖南敎育出版社].

List[edit]

Chinese gloss English gloss Language Word Source Page no.
one Caijia ji³³ Bo (2004) 81
one Longjia i⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
seven Caijia tɕhi⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
ten thousand Caijia wan³³ Bo (2004) 81
ten thousand Longjia vaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
丈夫 husband Caijia muo³³ Bo (2004) 79
丈夫 husband Longjia (Dafang) a⁵⁵ʑe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
丈夫 husband Longjia ʑe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
three Caijia sa³³ Bo (2004) 81
three Longjia sa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
up Caijia dza³¹ Bo (2004) 80
上面 above Caijia du⁵⁵mi³¹ Bo (2004) 77
上面 above Longjia a³³tuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
down Caijia die³¹ Bo (2004) 80
下雨 to rain (verb) Waxianghua (Guzhang) tɕiəɯ⁴¹va²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
下雨 to rain (verb) Waxianghua (Yuanling) dzu⁵³ua⁵³ Yang (1999)
下面 below Caijia tie⁵⁵mi³¹ Bo (2004) 77
not Caijia pu³³ Bo (2004) 81
not Longjia a⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
东西 item, thing Caijia ȵa³¹ȵa³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to throw Longjia (Dafang) a³³ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
丢失 lose Caijia pie⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
classifier (general) Longjia ku³³ Guizhou (1984)
中间 middle, in between Caijia ta³³ Bo (2004) 77
中饭 lunch Luren tsho³³ Guizhou (1984) 51
中饭 lunch Waxianghua (Yuanling) soŋ⁵³ Yang (1999)
中饭 lunch Longjia pɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
string (classifier) Longjia lan⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
乌鸦 crow, raven Longjia la³³ɣo³³ Guizhou (1984)
disciplined, well-behaved Longjia nkua³³ Guizhou (1984)
nine Caijia kuo⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
nine Longjia kau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
乞丐 beggar Longjia nuŋ⁵⁵kɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
also Caijia la³³ Bo (2004) 81
book Longjia so⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
buy Caijia man³¹ Bo (2004) 80
disorderly, messy Waxianghua (Guzhang) dzɤŋ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
乳房 breast Caijia mi⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
乳房 breast Waxianghua (Guzhang) ma⁵⁵(pau⁵⁵) Wu & Shen (2010)
乳房 breast Waxianghua (Yuanling) mi⁵⁵paɔ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
affair Longjia ɕa³³ Guizhou (1984)
事情 affair Caijia tɯ³³ Bo (2004) 79
two Caijia ta⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
two Luren ta²¹ Guizhou (1984) 50
two Longjia (Anshun) to³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
two Longjia (Dafang) ta²¹ Guizhou (1982) 26
two Longjia ta²¹ Guizhou (1984)
two Waxianghua (Guzhang) tso²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
two Waxianghua (Yuanling) tso⁵³ Yang (1999)
二十 twenty Caijia ȵin³¹tɕie³³ Bo (2004) 81
二十 twenty Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɤŋ³³tshɪ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
二十 twenty Waxianghua (Yuanling) ŋ̩²²tshɿ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
five Caijia ɣuŋ³³ Bo (2004) 81
five Longjia (Anshun) atseu¹³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
five Longjia ŋo²¹ Guizhou (1984)
五十 fifty Caijia ɣuŋ³³dzɿ³³ Bo (2004) 81
well (water) Longjia (Dafang) ɕi²¹khu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
bright Caijia tsuo³¹ Bo (2004) 81
person, human being Caijia ɣuo³³tshuo³³ Bo (2004) 79
person, human being Longjia (Anshun) tshun⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
person, human being Caijia (Shuicheng) wocuo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
person, human being Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɤŋ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
person, human being Waxianghua (Yuanling) ŋ̩⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
person, human being Longjia tshuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
person, human being Longjia po³³tshaŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
人中 people Caijia mia³¹ku³³ Bo (2004) 78
什么地方 which place, where Waxianghua (Guzhang) o¹³ɳi³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
3s., he/she Caijia je³³ Bo (2004) 81
3s., he/she Waxianghua (Guzhang) zɤ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
他们 3p., they Waxianghua (Guzhang) zaŋ⁴¹; zaŋ⁴¹xaŋ Wu & Shen (2010)
He is a... Caijia (Shuicheng) yeshi yiguo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
休息 rest Longjia sɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
able to, can Caijia ti³³ Bo (2004) 80
to be able Longjia (Dafang) ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
绣花 to assemble (to embroider) Longjia (Dafang) ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
umbrella Longjia sa²¹ Guizhou (1984)
bottom Longjia ti³³ Guizhou (1984)
低头 to lower (head) Caijia kuŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to live Caijia tɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to live Longjia kau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
何时 when Longjia tɯ⁵⁵sɯ²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
2s., you (sg.) Caijia nɯ³³ Bo (2004) 81
2s., you (sg.) Longjia (Anshun) no⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
2s., you (sg.) Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɳi²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
2s., you (sg.) Longjia nɯ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
2s., you (sg.) Longjia ɕi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
你们 2p., you (pl.) Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɳiɛ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to fix Longjia khei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
倒塌 to collapse Caijia ti³³, len⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
borrow Caijia tsa³³ Bo (2004) 80
to do Caijia tɕe⁵⁵, ku³³ Bo (2004) 80
to do Longjia tso⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
做饭 prepare rice/dishes Waxianghua (Guzhang) lau¹³moŋ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to steal Caijia dau³¹ Bo (2004) 80
儿子 son Caijia tsɿ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
儿子 son Longjia ʑen⁵⁵ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
兄弟 brother Longjia ɬɛ³³en³³ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
before, first Caijia dza³¹ Bo (2004) 81
免去 to leave Longjia mian⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
兔子 rabbit Caijia thu²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
eight Caijia pei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
eight Longjia pu³³ Guizhou (1984)
公鸡 cock (male chicken) Longjia (Anshun) pan⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
six Caijia fu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
six Luren fo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 51
six Longjia (Dafang) so⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
six Longjia so⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
soldier Longjia piaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
support Caijia tʅ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
兽角 horn Caijia ko⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
写字 to write words Caijia (Shuicheng) xiezi Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
ice Waxianghua (Yuanling) luɛ¹³ka⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
cold Caijia ka³¹ Bo (2004) 81
cold Longjia (Dafang) kau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
天气 cool (weather) Caijia lan³¹ Bo (2004) 81
cold (water) Caijia kuo³³ Bo (2004) 81
to wither Longjia tiau²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
凝固 to congeal, solidify Longjia lie⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to exit Caijia tshei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
凿子 chisel Caijia dzu³³ Bo (2004) 79
knife Caijia ɕi⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
knife Longjia (Anshun) ntsun⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
knife Caijia (Shuicheng) 西 xi Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
刀子 knife Longjia (Dafang) a³³ʈuŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
刀子 knife Longjia a³³ʈuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
分娩 childbirth Caijia tu³³ Bo (2004) 80
to cut (vegetables) Longjia tshuŋ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to cut (vegetables) Caijia so³³ Bo (2004) 80
刚才 a moment ago Longjia sɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
不要 do not (neg. imperative) Caijia piau²⁴ Bo (2004) 81
arrive Caijia duo³³ Bo (2004) 80
chop Caijia tau³³ Bo (2004) 80
before, ahead Luren tsʰɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
前面 front side Longjia zuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
剪刀 scissor Longjia a³³ta³³ Guizhou (1984)
to cut, slash Longjia (Anshun) sa⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to cut, slash Longjia (Dafang) sa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
to cut, slash Longjia sa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
庄稼 cut (crop) Caijia sei³³ Bo (2004) 80
to split Longjia ɕaŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
to add Longjia tɕa²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to move Longjia ʑo²¹ Guizhou (1984)
勤快 diligent Caijia ga³¹ Bo (2004) 81
spoon, ladle Caijia (Shuicheng) su Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
勺子 spoon, ladle Caijia gan²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
勺子 spoon, ladle Longjia (Dafang) lei⁵⁵kei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
动词 to wrap Longjia (Dafang) kɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
包裹 package (package) Caijia uŋ³³ Bo (2004) 80
包谷 maize, corn Caijia (Shuicheng) bogu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
包谷 maize, corn Longjia tsɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
包谷 maize, corn Longjia ʑi³³mie²¹(tsɿ⁵⁵) Guizhou (1984)
ten Caijia dzan³³ Bo (2004) 81
ten Luren zau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 51
ten Longjia zu³³ Guizhou (1984)
十一 eleven Caijia tsɿ³¹ji³³ Bo (2004) 81
十二 twelve Caijia dzɿ³³ȵi³¹ Bo (2004) 81
thousand Caijia tɕhien³³ Bo (2004) 81
thousand Longjia tɕe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to ascend, raise Longjia (Anshun) tɕa⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
升子 Longjia sen⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
午饭 lunch Caijia bei³³ Bo (2004) 79
to sell Caijia man³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to sell Longjia mei³³ Guizhou (1984)
南瓜 pumpkin Caijia ɣuŋ³¹luo³¹ Bo (2004) 78
thick Caijia guo³³ Bo (2004) 81
to go Caijia kue³³ Bo (2004) 80
to go Luren koŋ³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
to go Longjia kho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to go Longjia ho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to go Longjia ho²¹ Guizhou (1984)
去玩 to go play Waxianghua (Guzhang) xɑ³³la³³khɤ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
pair (two, double) Longjia ntan³³ Guizhou (1984)
to change Caijia bi³³ Bo (2004) 79
to change Longjia pian²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
口袋 pocket Longjia naŋ⁵⁵ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
to call Longjia (Anshun) khau³¹ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to call Waxianghua (Guzhang) xoŋ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to call (of chickens) Longjia huŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
right (side) Caijia tsɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 77
叶子 leaf Longjia (Dafang) mu³³su³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
叶子 leaf Waxianghua (Guzhang) sɤ⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
叶子 leaf Waxianghua (Yuanling) seɪ⁵³ Yang (1999)
叶子 leaf Longjia mu³³su³³ Guizhou (1984)
to eat Caijia zu³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to eat Luren ʑu³³ Guizhou (1984) 51
to eat Longjia (Anshun) wa³¹ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to eat Longjia (Dafang) ua²¹ Guizhou (1982) 30
to eat Longjia ua²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to eat Longjia ua⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
吃饭 to eat rice Caijia (Shuicheng) yuyu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
吃饭 to eat rice Luren ʑoŋ⁵⁵ʑoŋ⁴⁴ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
吃饭 to eat rice Waxianghua (Yuanling) zəu¹³mõ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
名字 name Caijia mi³¹ Bo (2004) 79
after, behind Caijia ɣuo³³ Bo (2004) 81
after, behind Longjia ɣɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
后边 back side Longjia vu²⁴tau³³ Guizhou (1984)
to spit Longjia tho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
口水 to spit (saliva) Longjia thu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to swallow Waxianghua (Guzhang) uai⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to hold (in mouth) Caijia gan³³ Bo (2004) 80
to listen Caijia thi⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to listen Longjia mi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
吮吸 to suck Waxianghua (Guzhang) fu⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to blow Longjia phu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
呕吐 to vomit Caijia lo³³ Bo (2004) 80
life Longjia mie⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to chew Luren pie³³ Guizhou (1984) 51
to chew Longjia mpiaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to bite Caijia tɕhin³³ Bo (2004) 79
to bite Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɳio⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
to bite Longjia ȵe²¹ Guizhou (1984)
salty Caijia tsen³¹ Bo (2004) 81
哥哥 brother, elder Caijia tsuo³³ Bo (2004) 79
which? Caijia lau²⁴ Bo (2004) 81
哪里 where? Caijia la²⁴ Bo (2004) 81
哪里 where? Longjia tɯ⁵⁵a³³mo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to cry, weep Caijia xəu³³ Bo (2004) 80
to cry, weep Caijia (Shuicheng) 吼 hou Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to cry, weep Longjia (Dafang) ɬei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
to cry, weep Waxianghua (Guzhang) liɛ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to cry, weep Waxianghua (Yuanling) liɛ¹³ Yang (1999)
to cry, weep Longjia ɬei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
唢呐 suona Caijia di²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
to sing Longjia (Anshun) ja⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to peck Longjia tau³³ Guizhou (1984)
to feed Caijia die³¹, tsu³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to feed Longjia zo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
喉咙 throat Caijia an³¹sɿ⁵⁵kha³³ Bo (2004) 78
喉咙 throat Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɣa¹³sɤŋ²⁵tiau¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
喉咙 throat Waxianghua (Yuanling) ɣa¹³tha⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
to shout, cry Longjia huŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
喜鹊 magpie Waxianghua (Guzhang) o⁵⁵tɕhiau⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to drink Caijia an³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to drink Longjia ʑuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
mouth Caijia pi³¹ Bo (2004) 78
mouth Caijia pi³¹ Bo (2004) 78
mouth Longjia (Anshun) mian³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
mouth Longjia (Dafang) mpiaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
嘴唇 lips Caijia pi³¹puo³¹ Bo (2004) 78
to chew Caijia tsu³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to chew Longjia zɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
four Caijia sɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 81
four Luren sɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 50
four Longjia sɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
return Caijia pei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to return, come back Longjia (Dafang) kho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
回去 to return, go back Waxianghua (Guzhang) vɤŋ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
回去 to return, go back Waxianghua (Yuanling) voŋ¹³ta¹³ Yang (1999)
回头 to return, go back Caijia tien⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
囤子 bin (for grain) Caijia go³³ Bo (2004) 79
园子 garden Longjia zau³³ Guizhou (1984)
round Waxianghua (Guzhang) lɤŋ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
corral (for cattle) Longjia zau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
ring (classifier) Longjia nan²¹ Guizhou (1984)
earth, soil Longjia tho³³ Guizhou (1984)
土地 land Longjia li³³ Guizhou (1984)
土山洞 cave (earth) Caijia kha³³ Bo (2004) 77
at, in Longjia tau²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
ground Longjia (Anshun) ɬo⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
ground Longjia (Anshun) ɬi⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
ground Caijia (Shuicheng) tu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
ground Longjia (Dafang) tho³³taŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
ground Longjia li³³ Guizhou (1984)
地方 place Caijia luŋ³³ Bo (2004) 79
地点 place Longjia zɿ²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
plot of land, yard Longjia (Anshun) khai⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
bad Caijia dɯ³³ Bo (2004) 81
to sit Caijia ku³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to sit Caijia (Shuicheng) gu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to sit Longjia kau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
grave Caijia kan³¹ Bo (2004) 79
grave Luren tau⁵⁴ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
grave Longjia tɕuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
坟墓 grave Longjia (Dafang) tɕuŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
hill slope Longjia (Anshun) tsen⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to bury Longjia mo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
city Longjia (Dafang) ntaŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
to plug up Longjia tu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
wall Caijia fu³³ Bo (2004) 79
wall Longjia (Dafang) nʈe⁵⁵tɕhaŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
声音 sound Caijia tshɿ³³pəu³³ Bo (2004) 79
bottle, vase Longjia khau³³ Guizhou (1984)
bottle, vase Longjia thuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
外婆 grandmother, maternal Longjia mɛ³³ʑa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
外面 outside Waxianghua (Guzhang) təɯ⁴¹mai Wu & Shen (2010)
many Caijia tie³³ Bo (2004) 81
many Longjia ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
night Caijia sa⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
night Longjia ɕaŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
night Longjia khɛ⁵⁵mia³³ Guizhou (1984)
夜里 at night Longjia khɛ⁵⁵mia³³ Guizhou (1984)
enough Caijia lo³³ Bo (2004) 81
enough Longjia lau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
big Caijia la³¹ Bo (2004) 81
big Longjia la⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
大家 everyone Waxianghua (Guzhang) lu³³sɪ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
大襟 Longjia kui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
大雁 goose, wild Waxianghua (Guzhang) vu¹³ɳiẽ¹³tsa Wu & Shen (2010)
sky Caijia khen³³ Bo (2004) 77
sky Caijia (Shuicheng) kan Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
sky Longjia (Dafang) khɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
天气 weather Longjia a³³ȵi²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
太阳 sun Longjia (Anshun) wu⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
太阳 sun Caijia en³³soŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 77
太阳 sun Longjia (Dafang) khɛ⁵⁵ʈe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
太阳 sun Caijia (Shuicheng) yingsong Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
太阳穴 temple Caijia en³³ȵi³³ Bo (2004) 78
head Caijia to³³to⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
head Longjia (Anshun) tau⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
head Caijia (Shuicheng) duoduo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
head Longjia a³³tau⁵⁵pu³³ Guizhou (1984)
头发 hair Caijia pei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
female Caijia (Shuicheng) nv Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
female Longjia pi²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
女人 woman, female Longjia (Dafang) a⁵⁵phi²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 29
女儿 daughter Caijia ȵuŋ²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
女婿 son-in-law Longjia a⁵⁵ʑe³³ Guizhou (1984)
奶汁 milk Caijia mi⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
good Caijia khua³¹ Bo (2004) 81
好人 good person Caijia (Shuicheng) kuawocuo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
妹妹 sister, younger Caijia ȵuŋ³³he³³ Bo (2004) 79
妹妹 younger sister Longjia (Dafang) nʈu²¹mie⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
wife Longjia pu²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
妻子 wife Caijia suo⁵⁵puo³³ Bo (2004) 79
妻弟 wife's younger brother; brother-in-law Longjia ɬɛ³³mi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
elder sister Longjia (Dafang) a⁵⁵tɕi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
elder sister Longjia tɕi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
姐姐 elder sister Luren ʑi³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
姐姐 sister, elder Caijia tɕi⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
姑娘 young woman, virgin Longjia nuŋ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
surname Caijia sa³¹ Bo (2004) 79
ginger Caijia tɕin³³ Bo (2004) 78
ginger Longjia tɕhen³³ Guizhou (1984)
嫂嫂 sister-in-law Longjia tshau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
word Caijia khɯ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
word, book Longjia so⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
孙子 grandson Caijia sɿ³³ Bo (2004) 79
孝子 yeast Luren ɕu⁴⁵san³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
learn Caijia ko⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
hatch Caijia bəu³¹ Bo (2004) 79
finish Caijia ha⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
完了 finished Longjia ʈhɯ³³ Guizhou (1984)
害羞 shy Caijia dien³³ Bo (2004) 80
home Caijia hai³³ Bo (2004) 79
home Longjia uɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
wide Caijia khua³³ Bo (2004) 81
wide Longjia kuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
close Caijia guo³³ Bo (2004) 81
寻找 to search Caijia guo³³ Bo (2004) 80
寻找 to search Longjia zaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to shoot (arrow) Longjia pu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
射击 to shoot (arrow) Caijia dza³³ Bo (2004) 80
small Caijia ɕie³¹ Bo (2004) 81
small Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɳiaŋ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
small Waxianghua (Yuanling) ȵia¹³ Yang (1999)
小偷 thief Longjia ta⁵⁵ȵi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
小娃 small doll Caijia (Shuicheng) xian'an Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
小孩 child Caijia ŋa⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
小孩 child Longjia (Anshun) dai⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
小的 small (something that is) Longjia en³³ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
小石头 stone (small) Waxianghua (Guzhang) tshɤ⁵⁵so⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
小石头 stone (small) Waxianghua (Yuanling) ȵia¹³ŋa⁵⁵laɔ⁵³ku²² Yang (1999)
小米 millet Caijia suai³³tsɿ²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
小脚 bound feet Longjia (Anshun) ɕi⁵⁵ii³¹pu⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
小锅 small cooking pot Longjia ma⁵⁵phuŋ⁵⁵ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
小麦 wheat Caijia ɕi²²tsuŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 78
few Caijia so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
few Caijia (Shuicheng) suo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
few Longjia so⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
sharp Caijia ȵan³³ Bo (2004) 81
sharp Longjia tɕuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to taste Longjia (Dafang) saŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 30
to taste Longjia saŋ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
味道 to taste Waxianghua (Guzhang) sɪ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
尿 urine Caijia ȵo³¹ Bo (2004) 79
尿 urine Longjia (Anshun) sa⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
尿 urine Longjia a³³sɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
excrement Caijia i³³ Bo (2004) 79
excrement Longjia (Dafang) sɛ³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
mountain Caijia ti³¹ Bo (2004) 77
mountain Caijia (Shuicheng) dao Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
山羊 goat Caijia tshɿ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
山羊 goat Longjia tshɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
山羊 goat Longjia tshi³³ Guizhou (1984)
山羊 goat Longjia tshɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
age Caijia nen³¹ Bo (2004) 77
left (side) Caijia pa³³ Bo (2004) 77
cloth Caijia pu³¹ Bo (2004) 79
cloth Luren mi²¹mi²¹ Guizhou (1984) 52
cloth Longjia po³³ Guizhou (1984)
mat Longjia ʑa⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
席子 mat Caijia tsho⁵⁵tsa²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
席子 mat Longjia ʑa⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
hat Caijia (Shuicheng) moudou Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
干净 clean Longjia kei³³tɕaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
干枯 dried, shriveled Caijia ɣuŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
flat, even Longjia pu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
year Caijia nen³¹ Bo (2004) 77
year Waxianghua (Guzhang) lai⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
year Waxianghua (Yuanling) lɛ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
year Longjia ȵe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
庄稼 crops (on farm) Longjia (Dafang) tsuaŋ³³tɕa³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
bed Caijia tha⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
bed Longjia ntaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
弟弟 brother, younger Caijia he³³ Bo (2004) 79
Longjia (Anshun) kha⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
强盗 robber Longjia nta⁵⁵ȵi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to record Longjia suŋ⁵⁵kɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
very Longjia tɕe³³ Guizhou (1984)
得到 to get, obtain Caijia tu³³ Bo (2004) 80
heart Caijia san³³ Bo (2004) 78
heart Luren li¹¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
heart Longjia ɕuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
忘了 to have forgotten Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɤ⁴¹mɤŋ³³iɛ⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
fast Caijia tɕuo³³ Bo (2004) 81
怎么 how Waxianghua (Guzhang) mi⁴¹tɕi¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to fear Caijia tshɿ³³ Bo (2004) 80
to fear Waxianghua (Guzhang) tɕhyɛ⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
to fear Longjia ɣei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to think Caijia dɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to think Longjia li⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
slow Caijia li²⁴ Bo (2004) 81
understand Caijia tiu³³ Bo (2004) 80
懂了 to have known Waxianghua (Guzhang) mi⁵⁵tɤ tau³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
lazy Caijia tsuŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 81
成长 to grow Caijia tu³³ Bo (2004) 79
1s., I Caijia ŋuo³³ Bo (2004) 81
1s., I Waxianghua (Guzhang) u²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
1s., I Longjia ŋu²¹ Guizhou (1984)
1s., I Longjia ʑa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
我们 1p., we Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɑ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to wear (a hat) Caijia tɯ³³ Bo (2004) 80
to wear (a hat) Longjia tau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
house Caijia (Shuicheng) wo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
house Longjia au³³ Guizhou (1984)
房子 house Caijia o⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
房子 house Luren sɿ³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
房子 house Longjia au³³ Guizhou (1984)
房间 room Longjia faŋ³³tɕhue³³ Guizhou (1984)
hand Caijia suo⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
hand Caijia (Shuicheng) shu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
老虎朴食 catch (tiger catch food) Caijia do³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to hit Caijia na³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to hit Longjia (Anshun) ŋe³¹ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to hit Longjia (Anshun) ne⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to hit Longjia (Dafang) ŋɛ³³ Guizhou (1982) 30
to hit Waxianghua (Guzhang) khuɑ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to hit Longjia ŋz³³ Guizhou (1984)
to hit Longjia ŋɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
打架 to fight Waxianghua (Guzhang) khuɑ²⁵tsai²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
throw Caijia pie⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to throw Waxianghua (Guzhang) vu²⁵; toŋ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to sweep Longjia sau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to search, find Waxianghua (Guzhang) lu²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to search, find Longjia ɕa³³ Guizhou (1984)
Longjia na³³ Guizhou (1984)
to throw Longjia a³³ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to rob Caijia ti³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to rob Longjia na³³tau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
抬头 look up Caijia ta⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to hug; wrap up Longjia mpau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to take out Longjia tshɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
pull Caijia kien⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
拐棍 walking stick Longjia mpu³³ntau³³ Guizhou (1984)
to pull up Longjia tshɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to drag, pull Caijia le³¹ Bo (2004) 80
拳头 fist Longjia a³³la²¹tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
to tie up Longjia kɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to pick up Longjia nku⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to hold (in hand) Caijia ma³¹, a³³ Bo (2004) 80
to hold (in hand) Waxianghua (Guzhang) to⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to hold (in hand) Longjia a⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
挑选 to choose, select Caijia lɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to dig Caijia li⁵⁵, mei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to dig Longjia ʈu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
挖地 to dig earth Caijia (Shuicheng) 敏束 minshu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
catch Caijia ka⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to exchange Caijia lɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to exchange Longjia (Dafang) tso⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
to exchange Longjia ɬuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
掀起 set off Caijia ba³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to drop, fall Longjia (Dafang) a³³ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
to fall Caijia ɣa³³ Bo (2004) 79
接生 birth Caijia dzan³³ Bo (2004) 80
push Caijia lu³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to push (a cart) Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɕyɛ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to rub, massage Longjia zu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to lift Longjia ta³³ Guizhou (1984)
to lift Longjia ʑi³³ Guizhou (1984)
to move (objects) Caijia ta³³ Bo (2004) 80
搬迁 to move, relocate Longjia (Dafang) pan⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
摔丢 to throw on ground Longjia tsei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to pick, harvest Longjia ha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
摘果子 to pick, harvest (fruit) Caijia li³¹ Bo (2004) 80
撮箕 dustpan Longjia lu⁵⁵kho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to collect Longjia tɯ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
收拾 to collect Caijia dzan³³ Bo (2004) 80
to put, place Longjia paŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
放开 to release Caijia pu³³ Bo (2004) 80
放置 to put Longjia khua⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to teach Caijia ko³³ Bo (2004) 80
to fight Longjia tɯ³³ Guizhou (1984)
axe Longjia pau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
斧子 axe Caijia pəu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
斧子 axe Longjia pau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to break Caijia kui⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
to break Longjia nkui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
线 to break (of string) Longjia (Dafang) nkui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
绳子 to break (of rope) Longjia nkui³³ Guizhou (1984)
new Caijia ɕin³³ Bo (2004) 81
new Longjia ɕi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
旁边 side Caijia ba³³min³¹ Bo (2004) 77
旋转 to swirl, rotate Longjia nkuɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
day Caijia koŋ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 77
old (of object) Caijia ku³³ Bo (2004) 81
early Caijia tɕin³¹ Bo (2004) 81
early Longjia ʑi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
早饭 breakfast Caijia tsha³³ Bo (2004) 79
早饭 breakfast Longjia (Dafang) lu²¹ku⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
旱地 dry soil Caijia le³¹ Bo (2004) 77
明年 next year Longjia sɛ⁵⁵vu²¹ȵe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
星星 star Caijia ɕi⁵⁵su³¹ Bo (2004) 77
星星 star Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɕi⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
星星 star Waxianghua (Yuanling) sẽ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
to be (copula) Caijia so³³ Bo (2004) 79
to dry (in sun) Caijia ka⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
to dry (in sun) Longjia kha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
night Caijia na³¹ Bo (2004) 81
晚饭 dinner Caijia pu³³ Bo (2004) 79
晚饭 dinner Luren po³³ Guizhou (1984) 50
晚饭 dinner Longjia (Dafang) po⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
晚饭 dinner Longjia (Dafang) po⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
晚饭 dinner Waxianghua (Yuanling) kheʔ⁵³mõ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
晚饭 dinner Longjia po⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
clear Caijia da³³ Bo (2004) 81
dark Caijia khɯ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
month Caijia ŋun³³ Bo (2004) 77
month Caijia (Shuicheng) yue Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
month Longjia ŋuɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
月亮 moon Caijia ko⁵⁵pei⁵⁵ja³³ Bo (2004) 77
to have (existential) Caijia ɣan³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to have (existential) Longjia (Anshun) en⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to have (existential) Caijia (Shuicheng) hang Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to have (existential) Longjia ŋuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
有良心的 to have a good heart Caijia (Shuicheng) hangliang rende Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
wood Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɤŋ⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
source, origin Longjia pen⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to kill Caijia ɕi³³ Bo (2004) 80
to kill Longjia su⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
杀人 to kill (person) Caijia ɕi³³ Bo (2004) 80
杉树 cedar tree Caijia dza³³so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
apricot Caijia hen²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
strip (classifier) Longjia tsei³³ Guizhou (1984)
to come Caijia ɣɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to come Longjia (Anshun) zeu³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to come Longjia (Dafang) zɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
to come Luren han⁵⁴ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
to come Longjia zɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
pestle Caijia tʅ³³ Bo (2004) 79
loose Caijia nu³¹ Bo (2004) 81
松树 pine tree Caijia tsoŋ³¹so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
枋子 Longjia faŋ⁵⁵ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
gun Caijia (Shuicheng) qiang Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
柱子 pillar Longjia nʈu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
柳树 willow tree Caijia zu²⁴so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
firewood Caijia so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
firewood Longjia (Anshun) ɬu³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
柴刀 wood-chopping axe Longjia nʈɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
tree Caijia so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
tree Luren təu³³ Guizhou (1984) 51
tree Caijia (Shuicheng) suo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
tree Longjia nʈu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
树杈 branch (tree) Caijia ȵe³¹ Bo (2004) 78
核桃 walnut Longjia ɕi³³mie³³ Guizhou (1984)
root Caijia tsu³³ Bo (2004) 78
stick (classifier) Longjia ntau³³ Guizhou (1984)
栽种 to harvest seeds Longjia phei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
桃子 peach Longjia a³³la⁵⁵pu³³ Guizhou (1984)
桌子 table Caijia tu³¹ Bo (2004) 79
bridge Caijia go³¹ Bo (2004) 79
桥· bridge Longjia kɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
pear Caijia hɯ³³tsɿ³³ Bo (2004) 78
shuttle, loom Longjia piau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
梯子 stairs Longjia (Dafang) nta⁵⁵ʑu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
梯子 stairs Longjia nta⁵⁵ʑu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
palm tree Longjia se³³ Guizhou (1984)
classifier for fruits Longjia ʈau³³ Guizhou (1984)
棺材 coffin Waxianghua (Guzhang) lau²⁵tɕi⁴¹; ɤŋ⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
椑子 and gather them Caijia ten⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
floor, level Caijia vu³³ Bo (2004) 79
house (multiple stories) Longjia (Dafang) mpiaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
house (multiple stories) Longjia mpiaŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
horizontal Waxianghua (Guzhang) du¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to rest Longjia (Dafang) sɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
song Caijia ko³³ Bo (2004) 79
song Longjia (Dafang) khau³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
bent, crooked Longjia kuɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
to die Caijia sɿ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to die Longjia (Anshun) ɕi⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
mother Caijia (Shuicheng) yi Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
母亲 mother Caijia ji³³ Bo (2004) 79
母亲 mother Longjia (Dafang) a⁵⁵ma³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
母亲 mother Longjia a³³ma³³ Guizhou (1984)
comparative particle ('-er') Longjia pi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
fur, feather, body hair Longjia ma⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
毡子 felt Caijia dza³³ Bo (2004) 79
air, gas Longjia mpiŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
water Caijia sɿ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 77
water Luren ʑi²⁴ Guizhou (1984) 51
water Luren mei²¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
water Longjia ɕi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
water Longjia ɕaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
水壶 kettle Caijia an²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
水牛 water buffalo Caijia nai³¹ Bo (2004) 78
水牛 water buffalo Longjia (Dafang) sau⁵⁵ŋau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
水田 paddy, wet field Caijia len³¹ Bo (2004) 77
汉族 Han Chinese Caijia lai³¹lai²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
sweat Longjia ɣan⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
池塘 pond Caijia da³¹ Bo (2004) 77
soup, stew Longjia tsu³³ Guizhou (1984)
有盐 soup, stew Longjia tsu³³ Guizhou (1984)
沙子 sand Caijia sa³³ Bo (2004) 77
没有 do not have Caijia (Shuicheng) buhang Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
river Waxianghua (Guzhang) vu¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
river Waxianghua (Yuanling) uæ¹³ Yang (1999)
沸腾 boiling Caijia biau³³ Bo (2004) 79
oil Caijia tsɿ³³ Bo (2004) 79
oil Longjia (Dafang) tsɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
oil Longjia tsɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
泥土 mud Waxianghua (Guzhang) bi¹³ɳiaŋ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
泥土 mud Waxianghua (Yuanling) bi¹³ȵi⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
泥土 mud Longjia tho³³ Guizhou (1984)
洋芋 yam, potato Longjia (Dafang) ʑaŋ²¹ʑy⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
洋芋 yam, potato Longjia ʑaŋ²¹y⁵⁵pu³³ Guizhou (1984)
to wash Caijia ja³³ Bo (2004) 80
to wash Longjia sɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to wash (face) Longjia (Dafang) sɛ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 30
cave Longjia khei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
alive Longjia ŋuŋ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to flow Longjia (Dafang) a³³lei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
shallow Caijia tɕhin⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
to irrigate, water Longjia zau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to irrigate, water Caijia lan³³ Bo (2004) 80
saliva Longjia a³³tha³³ Guizhou (1984)
mucus Longjia mpɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
astringent Caijia san⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
deep Caijia san³³ Bo (2004) 81
溃烂 to fester (of ulcer) Longjia (Dafang) tsha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
creek Longjia ke³³ Guizhou (1984)
slippery Caijia gui³³ Bo (2004) 81
slippery Longjia ɬa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to roll Caijia lien³³ Bo (2004) 79
full Longjia ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
漂流 to drift Longjia phiau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
leak Caijia wuo³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to leak Waxianghua (Guzhang) za³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
fire Caijia fai⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 77
fire Caijia (Shuicheng) fei Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
fire Waxianghua (Guzhang) fɑ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
fire Waxianghua (Yuanling) fo⁵³ Yang (1999)
fire Longjia he²¹ Guizhou (1984)
fire Longjia hei²¹ Guizhou (1984)
火塘 fireplace Caijia fai⁵⁵kha³³ Bo (2004) 79
hearth, fireplace Luren tso²¹ Guizhou (1984) 51
hearth, fireplace Longjia tsau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
stir-fry Longjia (Dafang) ŋau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 27
stir-fry Longjia ŋau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to fry Caijia ŋo³³ Bo (2004) 80
charcoal Caijia thu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 77
to light (fire) Longjia ȵi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to light (lamp) Caijia ŋɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
点亮 to light (a fire) Luren ɐn⁵⁵tsau⁴⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
炼铁 refining (iron) Caijia bei³³ Bo (2004) 80
rotten Longjia tsha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
烂熟 rotten, ripe Longjia nau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
smoke Caijia in²⁴ Bo (2004) 77
smoke Longjia ʑen³³ Guizhou (1984)
烟雾 smoke Waxianghua (Guzhang) ləɯ⁴¹ta³³mai¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to burn, roast Longjia tsa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
烤火 to burn (of fire) Waxianghua (Guzhang) tso⁴¹fɑ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to burn, roast Longjia (Anshun) maii³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to burn, roast Longjia mpɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
烧火 to burn (of fire) Longjia tshei⁵⁵hei²¹ Guizhou (1984)
hot (of surface) Caijia thu³³ Bo (2004) 80
hot (of surface) Waxianghua (Guzhang) po⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
hot Caijia pei³¹ Bo (2004) 81
hot Longjia (Dafang) pɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
burnt, scorched Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɳi⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
coal Longjia (Anshun) tho⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to cook, boil Caijia tsu³³ Bo (2004) 80
to cook, boil Longjia to⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
put out (light) Caijia mi³³ Bo (2004) 80
bear Caijia bi³³ Bo (2004) 78
bear Luren ʑo¹¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
bear Waxianghua (Guzhang) vɤ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
ripe Caijia dzuo³³ Bo (2004) 81
ripe Longjia nʈo³³ Guizhou (1984)
to boil (medicine) Longjia pɯ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
燕子 swallow (bird) Longjia sen³³en³³ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
爪子 claw Caijia tsau³¹ Bo (2004) 78
to climb Longjia (Anshun) en³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to climb Longjia a³³nʈuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to climb (tree) Longjia nʈuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to love Caijia do³¹ Bo (2004) 80
father Caijia (Shuicheng) ba Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
father Longjia a⁵⁵pa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
父亲 father Caijia pa⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
父亲 father Luren pa³³ Guizhou (1984) 50
父亲 father Longjia (Anshun) ka³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
父亲 father Longjia pa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
piece (flat) Longjia ɕe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
tooth Longjia tshɿ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
牙齿 tooth Caijia tshei⁵⁵pei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
cattle Caijia (Shuicheng) gong Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
cattle Luren ʔɐn³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
cattle Waxianghua (Guzhang) ŋəɯ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
cattle Waxianghua (Yuanling) ŋəɯ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
cattle Longjia ŋau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
牲口圈 corral Caijia ɣo³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to plow Caijia ɣuŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to plow Caijia di³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to plow Caijia (Shuicheng) li Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to plow Longjia ɣuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
犁头 plow Longjia ɣuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
犁牛 to plow (using cattle) Longjia (Anshun) ta⁴²sɿ⁴²nau³¹ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
犁田 to plow (field) Longjia (Dafang) lɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
dog Caijia khui⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
dog Luren khɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984) 51
dog Caijia (Shuicheng) gui Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
dog Longjia (Dafang) khuɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
dog Waxianghua (Guzhang) khuai²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
dog Waxianghua (Yuanling) khuæ⁵³ Yang (1999)
dog Longjia khuɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
wolf Caijia (Shuicheng) yangbo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
pig Caijia li³¹ Bo (2004) 78
pig Luren li²¹ Guizhou (1984) 50
pig Caijia (Shuicheng) li Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
pig Longjia (Dafang) lɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
pig Luren li⁴⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
pig Waxianghua (Guzhang) tiəɯ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
pig Waxianghua (Yuanling) tiəɯ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
pig Longjia lɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
cat Caijia mi²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
猴子 monkey Caijia ku²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
猴子 monkey Waxianghua (Guzhang) vu¹³suai³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
玉米 corn Caijia khen²⁴pa³³mi³³ Bo (2004) 78
玩耍 to play, fool around Longjia tsa⁵⁵lau²¹kau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
现在 now, currently Longjia tsɿ³³tsa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
melon Caijia luo³¹ Bo (2004) 78
melon Longjia (Dafang) kuɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
melon Longjia kuɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
ladle, dipper Longjia pia⁵⁵ka³³ Guizhou (1984)
tile Caijia ŋa³³ Bo (2004) 79
瓶子 bottle Caijia tɕin³¹ Bo (2004) 79
甑子 large pot, cauldron Longjia ŋuɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
sweet Caijia tɕan³¹ Bo (2004) 81
甜味 sweet flavor Longjia na²⁴tuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
生气 angry Caijia noŋ³³ Bo (2004) 80
生疮 to grow a boil Longjia suŋ⁵⁵than³³ Guizhou (1984)
生的 raw Caijia xa³³ Bo (2004) 81
to use Caijia di³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to use Longjia (Dafang) tɕi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
field Luren li⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 50
field Waxianghua (Guzhang) lai¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
field Waxianghua (Yuanling) lɛ¹³ Yang (1999)
field Longjia li⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
male Caijia (Shuicheng) nan Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to remain Waxianghua (Guzhang) tɕiəɯ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
crazy, insane Longjia vu³³ Guizhou (1984)
pain Caijia suŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
疼病 pain, illness Waxianghua (Guzhang) sau³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
disease Caijia suŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
sick, ill Longjia (Dafang) suŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
sick, ill Longjia suŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
itch Caijia zu³³ Bo (2004) 81
pain Caijia soŋ³³ Bo (2004) 81
thin Caijia tsɿ³³ Bo (2004) 81
thin (of person) Waxianghua (Guzhang) ua⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
white Caijia bia³³ Bo (2004) 80
white Caijia (Shuicheng) bai Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
white Longjia mpe³³ Guizhou (1984)
白布 white cloth Longjia (Dafang) mpe³³po³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
白菜 Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis) Caijia bia³³ka⁵⁵tshəu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
hundred Caijia pia⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
possessive marker Caijia huŋ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
possessive marker Longjia huŋ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
possessive marker Longjia ku²¹ Guizhou (1984)
skin Longjia pu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
皮肤 skin Caijia pəu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
盆子 bowl Caijia tsɿ²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
salt Caijia san³³ Bo (2004) 79
salt Longjia (Dafang) suŋ⁵⁵kɛ³³ Guizhou (1982) 25
salt Luren san⁵⁴ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
salt Waxianghua (Yuanling) zɛ¹³ Yang (1999)
盐一块 one block of salt Luren san⁵⁴ʑi⁵⁵taŋ⁵⁴ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
盐巴 salt block Longjia (Anshun) ji³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
lid, covering Longjia pɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
eyebrow Longjia ɣei²¹mau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to look Caijia tsan³³ Bo (2004) 80
to look Longjia (Anshun) na⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to look Longjia na²¹ Guizhou (1984)
看守 to guard, watch Longjia ɬen³³ Guizhou (1984)
看守 to guard, watch Longjia sau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
看见 to see Caijia kien³³ Bo (2004) 80
true, correct Caijia dzai³³ Bo (2004) 81
眼睛 eye Caijia ȵi³³dzɿ³³ Bo (2004) 78
眼睛 eye Luren ŋɑ²¹zɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 51
眼睛 eye Waxianghua (Yuanling) ŋæ⁵³tsəɯ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
眼睛 eye Longjia ȵy²¹khu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to sleep Caijia dzɿ³³ Bo (2004) 80
to sleep Longjia (Anshun) nts⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to sleep Waxianghua (Guzhang) khuai³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to sleep Longjia zei⁵⁵pu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
睡着 to sleep Longjia zei⁵⁵pu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
blind Caijia tha³³ Bo (2004) 81
知道 to know Longjia ti²¹ Guizhou (1984)
short Caijia tshuo³³ Bo (2004) 81
short Caijia bi³³ Bo (2004) 81
short (length) Waxianghua (Guzhang) tɕhia⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
stone Caijia (Shuicheng) zadu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
石头 stone Caijia dza³¹ Bo (2004) 77
石头 stone Waxianghua (Guzhang) ŋa⁵⁵; ŋa⁵⁵lau²⁵ku³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
石头 stone Waxianghua (Yuanling) ŋa⁵⁵laɔ⁵³ku²² Yang (1999)
石头 stone Longjia a³³tau²¹kɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
石山洞 stone cave Caijia ŋan³¹ Bo (2004) 77
to cut, hack Caijia tau³³ Bo (2004) 80
to cut, hack (a tree) Longjia (Dafang) ntau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
to cut, hack (a tree) Longjia (Dafang) ntau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
to cut, hack (a tree) Longjia ntau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to cut, hack (a tree) Longjia ʈhuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
broken Longjia (Anshun) mpia³¹ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
broken Longjia (Anshun) mpia⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
broken, ripped (cloth) Longjia tɕhi⁵⁵kɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
hard Caijia ŋa³³ Bo (2004) 81
Longjia ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
硾子 iodide child Caijia tie³¹ Bo (2004) 79
bowl Caijia u³³ Bo (2004) 79
bowl Luren mɑ³³lɑ³³ Guizhou (1984) 51
bowl Longjia (Anshun) jia ɬa⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
bowl Longjia au⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
mortar Caijia ɣuŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to grind (mortar) Longjia phɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
磨子 mortar Longjia (Dafang) la⁵⁵za³³tau²¹ Guizhou (1982) 28
磨子 mortar Longjia za⁵⁵tau³³ Guizhou (1984)
祖母 grandmother Caijia ja³³ Bo (2004) 79
祖母 grandmother Longjia (Dafang) a⁵⁵ʑa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 27
祖母 grandmother Longjia a⁵⁵ʑa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
祖父 grandfather Caijia pa³³ Bo (2004) 79
祖父 grandfather Longjia a⁵⁵mpei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
spirit, god Caijia sɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to offer sacrifice Longjia ɬa²¹ Guizhou (1984)
福气 fortunate, lucky Longjia fu²¹tɕhi²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
to weigh, balance Longjia tɕi³³ Guizhou (1984)
to weigh, balance Longjia tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
seedling Longjia zaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
dilute Caijia nan³¹ Bo (2004) 81
稗子 tares Caijia dzɿ³¹ba³³ Bo (2004) 78
viscuous Caijia ka³³ Bo (2004) 81
steady, balanced Longjia a³³pu³³ Guizhou (1984)
稻子 rice (plant) Caijia kuo²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
稻谷 rice (plant) Longjia mɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
穿 to wear Caijia ɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
穿 to wear (shirt) Longjia ei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
穿衣服 to wear (clothes) Waxianghua (Guzhang) tu⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
穿 to wear (shoes) Longjia zɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
穿山甲 pangolin Waxianghua (Guzhang) sai⁵⁵li ɳiəɯ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
穿青人 Chuanqing (an unclassified ethnic group of Guizhou) Caijia ku³¹lai²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
narrow Caijia ta⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
narrow Waxianghua (Guzhang) o³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
to stand Caijia dan³³ Bo (2004) 80
两端 end (at both ends) Caijia min³³ Bo (2004) 77
竹子 bamboo Caijia tso⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
to laugh Caijia so³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to laugh Caijia (Shuicheng) suo Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to laugh Longjia sau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
笑状 Longjia khei⁵⁵hei³³ Guizhou (1984)
stupid Waxianghua (Guzhang) gɑ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
stupid Longjia pen²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
to wait Caijia ȵuo³³ Bo (2004) 80
to wait Longjia tau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to answer Caijia an⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
答应 to answer Longjia ɣo³³ Guizhou (1984)
筷子 chopsticks Caijia du³¹ Bo (2004) 79
筷子 chopsticks Longjia ʈo³³ Guizhou (1984)
箩筐 basket, large Caijia pau³³ Bo (2004) 79
箩筐 basket, large Waxianghua (Guzhang) lu⁵⁵su³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
箩筐 basket, large Longjia phɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
arrow Caijia piau²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
篱笆 fence Caijia pu³³ Bo (2004) 79
簸箕 winnower Caijia tie³¹ Bo (2004) 79
簸箕 winnower Longjia (Dafang) tsɿ⁵⁵pie³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
簸箕 winnower Longjia tsɿ⁵⁵pie³³ Guizhou (1984)
rice (grain) Longjia taŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
米桶 rice basket, container Luren kʰai⁴³kən³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
粑粑 rice cake Longjia so²¹kɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
thick (of diameter) Caijia tshu³³ Bo (2004) 81
thick (of diameter) Longjia tsho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
manure Longjia mpei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
粮食 cereals Longjia mɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
bran, husk Caijia (Shuicheng) tang Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
bran, husk Longjia thaŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
bran, husk Longjia tsha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
bran, husk Caijia tsha³³ Bo (2004) 79
bran, husk Longjia (Dafang) tsha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
bran, husk Longjia (Dafang) tsha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 25
bran, husk Longjia tsha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
tight Caijia tɕin⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
tired Caijia khui³³ Bo (2004) 81
tired Longjia (Dafang) khei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
tired Waxianghua (Guzhang) lau²⁵fɑ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
red Caijia tshɿ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
red Caijia (Shuicheng) chong Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
red Longjia tsha³³ Guizhou (1984)
线 string Longjia (Dafang) sie⁵⁵tau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
线 string Longjia sie⁵⁵tau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
thin (of diameter) Caijia mo³³ Bo (2004) 81
细小 thin (of diameter) Longjia ma⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to go around Longjia van⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to give Caijia a³³ Bo (2004) 80
绳子 rope Caijia su⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
绳子 rope Waxianghua (Guzhang) su⁴¹tsa Wu & Shen (2010)
绳子 rope Longjia kei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
cotton Longjia mian²¹ Guizhou (1984)
绵羊 sheep Caijia zu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
绸子 silk cloth Longjia luŋ³³po³³ Guizhou (1984)
绿 green Caijia lo³³ Bo (2004) 80
绿 green Caijia (Shuicheng) 绿 lv Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to weave Longjia (Dafang) ŋɛ³³ Guizhou (1982) 30
动词 to sew Longjia (Dafang) a³³ȵuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
to lack Caijia pia³³ Bo (2004) 79
缻子 pottery Longjia (Dafang) luŋ³³puŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
sheep, goat Caijia (Shuicheng) ci Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
sheep, goat Luren kəu⁴⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
sheep, goat Waxianghua (Guzhang) zɤŋ¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
beautiful Waxianghua (Guzhang) tɕiaŋ⁵⁵xu¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
Longjia kui²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to turn over Longjia phɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
old (of person) Longjia (Anshun) tsau⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
old (of person) Longjia lau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
stale, overripe (of vegetables) Waxianghua (Guzhang) a¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
老茧 callus Caijia di³³ Bo (2004) 79
老表 Longjia lau⁵⁵piau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
老鼠 rat, mouse Caijia su⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
耐用 durable Caijia mu³³ Bo (2004) 81
rake Caijia (Shuicheng) ba Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
ear Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɳiaŋ²⁵sɪ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
ear Waxianghua (Yuanling) ȵia⁵³tuɛ⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
耳朵 ear Caijia ȵi³³kha³³ Bo (2004) 78
deaf Caijia tan³³ Bo (2004) 81
聋子 deaf (person) Waxianghua (Guzhang) tsau⁵⁵ti Wu & Shen (2010)
meat, flesh Caijia tsa³¹ Bo (2004) 79
meat, flesh Luren ȵi²¹ Guizhou (1984) 50
meat, flesh Longjia (Anshun) ntɕi⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
meat, flesh Longjia (Dafang) ȵi²¹ Guizhou (1982) 28
meat, flesh Longjia ȵi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
肋骨 ribs Caijia kha³³ Bo (2004) 79
elbow Caijia kui⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
肚子 belly Caijia məu³¹luo³¹ Bo (2004) 78
肚子 belly Longjia (Dafang) pu³³pu³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
肚脐 navel Caijia zɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 78
liver Caijia san³³ka³³ Bo (2004) 78
肠子 intestine Caijia vu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
肠子 intestines Waxianghua (Guzhang) lin¹³tsa³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
肠子 intestines Waxianghua (Yuanling) lioŋ¹³tsa Yang (1999)
肠子 intestines Longjia laŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
fat Caijia pu³¹ Bo (2004) 81
肩膀 shoulder Caijia ta³³pu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
lung Caijia phəu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
kidney Caijia lu³¹khue⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
to swell, swollen Caijia uŋ³³ Bo (2004) 80
to swell, swollen Longjia aŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
stomach Caijia du³¹ Bo (2004) 78
gallbladder Caijia ta⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
gallbladder Longjia ta⁵⁵ȵi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
back Longjia mpa²¹ Guizhou (1984)
胡子 beard Caijia pi³¹mau²⁴, khu⁵⁵mau²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
胡椒 pepper Caijia so³³ Bo (2004) 78
胳膊 arm Caijia suo⁵⁵ken³³, fu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
胸脯 chest Caijia san³¹təu²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
to kneel Longjia kei²¹ Guizhou (1984)
脊背 back Caijia səu³³kui⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
脊背 back Longjia (Dafang) a⁵⁵zɿ²¹mpi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
脑髓 brain Caijia no³¹ka⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
脖子 neck Caijia suŋ³³kuŋ³³ Bo (2004) 78
脖子 neck Longjia (Dafang) tɕaŋ²¹ken⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
脖子 neck Waxianghua (Guzhang) tsɪ²⁵kai⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
foot Caijia ku⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
foot Caijia (Shuicheng) gu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
face Caijia min³¹kuŋ³³ Bo (2004) 78
face Longjia (Anshun) mie⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
face Waxianghua (Yuanling) mi²²po⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
face Longjia ɕi³³ Guizhou (1984)
腋下 armpit Caijia ja³¹ji³³tie⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
腐烂 rotten Caijia tshɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
waist Caijia o³³ Bo (2004) 78
腰带 belt Luren tsai⁴⁵sai⁴⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
腰带 belt Longjia po³³au⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
leg Caijia ku⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
自己 self Waxianghua (Guzhang) tɕhin⁵⁵kaŋ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
自称 autonym Longjia suŋ⁵⁵ȵi⁵⁵mpau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
stinky Longjia tshu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
粑粑 to pound (rice cake) Longjia nʈe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
辣子 to pound (chili) Longjia ntie⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
舂媒 Longjia (Anshun) mun³¹tan⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
舅爷 great-uncle Longjia (Anshun) kou⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
舌头 tongue Caijia dzɿ³³ta³¹ Bo (2004) 78
舌头 tongue Longjia zɿ³³tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
舌头 tongue Longjia zɿ⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
lick Caijia bi³¹ Bo (2004) 80
boat Longjia ntaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
艾草 wormwood Caijia ŋan³¹ Bo (2004) 78
芋叶 taro leaf Longjia he²¹ʑe³³ Guizhou (1984)
芝麻 sesame Caijia ȵan³¹pəu³³ Bo (2004) 78
芥菜 mustard Caijia ka⁵⁵tshəu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
flower Longjia (Dafang) ʔuɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
flower Longjia uɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
flowery (adjective) Longjia kua⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
flowery (color) Longjia kua⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
花椒树 prickly ash Caijia so³³so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
花椒树 prickly ash Caijia je³¹ Bo (2004) 78
bud Caijia ȵe³¹ Bo (2004) 78
苋菜 amaranth Caijia ku²⁴tshəu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
苗族 Miao, Hmong Caijia jo²⁴ Bo (2004) 79
bitter Caijia khu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
苦蒿 Longjia tɕhaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
茄子 eggplant Caijia ga²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
stem Caijia ka³³ Bo (2004) 78
tea Caijia gu³³ Bo (2004) 79
tea Waxianghua (Guzhang) khu⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
tea Waxianghua (Yuanling) khu⁵⁵, tshuæ⁵³ Yang (1999)
茶叶 tea leaf Luren ti⁵⁵sai⁵⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
grass Caijia tsho⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
grass Longjia ta⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
草药 herb Longjia zɯ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
草鞋 shoes (of grass) Luren pu²¹ku³³ Guizhou (1984) 51
草鞋 shoes (of grass) Longjia tɕhi³³ȵi³³ Guizhou (1984)
荞麦 buckwheat Caijia kuo³³ Bo (2004) 78
荞麦 buckwheat Longjia (Dafang) nko⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
荞麦 buckwheat Longjia nko⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
medicine Caijia tsu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
菌子 mushroom Caijia san³³ Bo (2004) 78
菌子 mushroom Longjia (Dafang) mau³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
vegetable Longjia hu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
菜园 vegetable garden Caijia ja³¹ Bo (2004) 79
菠萝 carrot, beet Caijia bia²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
萝卜 radish Caijia tshəu³³tuo³¹ Bo (2004) 78
to drop, fall Longjia a³³ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
葫芦 gourd, calabash Caijia pia²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
onion Caijia tɕo³³ Bo (2004) 78
Longjia muŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
garlic Caijia la³¹sa³¹ Bo (2004) 78
garlic Longjia so³³ Guizhou (1984)
to steam Caijia dzuo³³ Bo (2004) 80
to steam Longjia (Dafang) tuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
blue Caijia tshɿ³³ Bo (2004) 80
蔬菜 vegetables Caijia tshəu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
fern Caijia kua³³ Bo (2004) 78
thin Caijia bu³³ Bo (2004) 81
薅锄 weeding hoe Longjia tɕo⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
to hide (tr.) Caijia dzu³¹ Bo (2004) 80
rattan Longjia (Dafang) kei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
藤子 rattan Caijia mei³¹ Bo (2004) 78
tiger Caijia khu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
tiger Caijia (Shuicheng) hu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
insect Longjia muŋ³³luŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
虱子 louse Caijia sei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
rainbow Waxianghua (Guzhang) mo²⁵ɤŋ⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
蚂蚁 ant Waxianghua (Guzhang) lo¹³min¹³tsa⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
蚊子 mosquito Caijia tu³¹pi²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
silkworm Caijia tsan²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
蚯蚓 earthworm Caijia jin²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
蚯蚓 earthworm Waxianghua (Guzhang) zuai²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
maggot Caijia so³³ Bo (2004) 78
snake Caijia fei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
snake Caijia (Shuicheng) fei Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
snake Longjia (Dafang) la⁵⁵muŋ³³luŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
snake Waxianghua (Guzhang) fi²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
egg Luren se²⁴ Guizhou (1984) 51
egg Waxianghua (Guzhang) kɤŋ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
egg Longjia ʈhu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
蛋白 egg white Longjia ʈhu⁵⁵tɕhaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
bee Caijia mi³³ Bo (2004) 78
蜗牛 snail Waxianghua (Guzhang) pi⁵⁵kaŋ⁵⁵liau¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
蜘蛛 spider Caijia ta³³tu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
蜜蜂 bee Longjia men³³ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
蜡烛 candle Caijia ɣa³³ Bo (2004) 79
蜻蜓 dragonfly Waxianghua (Guzhang) tɕiau¹³ɳiaŋ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
蝗虫 locust Waxianghua (Guzhang) tsoŋ²⁵ku³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
蝙蝠 bat Waxianghua (Guzhang) dzɤŋ¹³pi¹³sɪ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
蝴蝶 butterfly Waxianghua (Guzhang) dzau¹³tsa⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
蠕动 squirm Caijia thuŋ³³ Bo (2004) 79
blood Caijia tshɿ³¹tshɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 78
blood Longjia sɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
Longjia ɬau³³ Guizhou (1984)
street Longjia (Dafang) khau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
street Longjia (Dafang) khau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
clothes Caijia (Shuicheng) ou Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
衣服 clothes Caijia ɯ³³ Bo (2004) 79
衣服 clothes Luren ɣɯ³³tɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 51
衣服 clothes Longjia (Anshun) su³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
衣服 clothes Longjia su⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to mend, patch up Longjia mpɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
袋子 bag Longjia (Dafang) naŋ³³ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
袋子 bag Longjia (Dafang) naŋ⁵⁵ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
socks Caijia (Shuicheng) wa Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
袜子 socks Luren vu¹¹tsʰɿ³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
被子 socks Longjia pu²¹ Guizhou (1984)
裂开 split, broken Caijia khɯ³³ Bo (2004) 79
attire, costume Longjia ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
裙子 skirt Longjia (Dafang) nkui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
裙子 skirt Longjia nkui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
裤子 skirt Longjia kuɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
裹脚 to bind feet (Qing dynasty practice) Luren laŋ¹¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
裹腿 to wrap leg (with cloth) Longjia (Dafang) a³³luŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
裹腿布 leg wrappings Longjia a³³luŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to want, desire Longjia (Anshun) ntsau⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 495
to want, desire Longjia nau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to record, remember Longjia (Dafang) ti²¹ Guizhou (1982) 30
记得 remember Caijia nen³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to tell Longjia (Anshun) kau³¹ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
speech Caijia ŋoŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
speech Longjia (Anshun) nkuŋ⁵⁵ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to say Caijia xa³³ Bo (2004) 80
to say Longjia ɬaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to say Longjia ɕi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
说话 to say something Caijia (Shuicheng) haweng Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
to read Caijia ko³³ Bo (2004) 80
读书 to read a book Caijia (Shuicheng) guoshu Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
who Longjia ti⁵⁵ȵi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
谁,哪个 who, which Waxianghua (Guzhang) o¹³kəɯ³³ Wu & Shen (2010)
谷子 millet Longjia (Anshun) mai⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
bean Luren tei³³ Guizhou (1984) 51
bean Longjia ntau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
豆子 bean Caijia do²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
豆腐 tofu, bean curd Longjia ntau⁵⁵thau²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
leopard Caijia (Shuicheng) bao Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
赔偿 reparation Caijia tsu³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to walk Caijia ɣa³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to walk Luren u³³ Guizhou (1984) 50
to walk Caijia (Shuicheng) ha Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
to walk Longjia ka⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to walk Longjia kho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to walk Longjia u³³ Guizhou (1984)
to go to the market Luren ɑ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 50
to go to the market Longjia (Anshun) phau⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
to go to the market Longjia a⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
赶场 to go to the market Longjia (Anshun) pau⁴²kai⁴² Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 496
to rise Longjia khei²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to run Caijia piau³³ Bo (2004) 80
to run Longjia (Dafang) a³³sau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
to run Waxianghua (Yuanling) thua⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
跟随 to follow Longjia a³³ɕɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
road Caijia ho⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
road Longjia (Dafang) hau²¹ Guizhou (1982) 27
road Luren ho¹¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
road Waxianghua (Guzhang) sau²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
road Waxianghua (Yuanling) saɔ⁵³ Yang (1999)
road Longjia zau³³ Guizhou (1984)
road Longjia hau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to jump Caijia dau³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to jump Longjia (Dafang) pɛ³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
to jump Longjia pɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
to tread on Longjia ʈe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to step on Longjia thɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
蹄子 hoof Caijia ku⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
to squat Caijia po³¹ Bo (2004) 80
身体 body Caijia sen³³thuŋ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
身体 body Longjia sei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to hide (intr.) Longjia (Dafang) a³³za⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
to lie down Longjia zei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
躺倒 to lie down Waxianghua (Guzhang) po²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
转回 to turn back Longjia ta⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
soft Caijia ȵu³¹ Bo (2004) 81
soft Waxianghua (Guzhang) bi¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
light (weight) Caijia tshɿ³³ Bo (2004) 81
轿子 sedan Longjia tsɿ⁵⁵ko²¹ Guizhou (1984)
spicy Caijia pei⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
辣椒 chili Caijia pei⁵⁵so³³ Bo (2004) 78
辫子 braid Caijia pei⁵⁵pin²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
side Longjia mu³³ Guizhou (1984)
迎接 to welcome, receive Longjia mpuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to return Caijia dzu³³ Bo (2004) 80
to return Longjia hua²¹ Guizhou (1984)
this Caijia o²⁴ Bo (2004) 81
this Waxianghua (Guzhang) ai⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
这么 like this Waxianghua (Guzhang) bi⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
这里 here Waxianghua (Guzhang) ai⁵⁵lin⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
to enter, come in Caijia li³³ Bo (2004) 80
far Caijia ti⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
far Longjia tɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
to chase Caijia lui⁵⁵, ɣuo³¹ Bo (2004) 80
to send Longjia suŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to choose Waxianghua (Guzhang) lu¹³ Wu & Shen (2010)
that Caijia mo²⁴ Bo (2004) 81
that Waxianghua (Guzhang) oŋ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
that Longjia pu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
那么 like that Waxianghua (Guzhang) oŋ²⁵pi⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
那里 there Waxianghua (Guzhang) oŋ²⁵lin⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
even, all Longjia tu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
wine, liquor Caijia tsuo⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
wine, liquor Caijia (Shuicheng) mi Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
wine, liquor Longjia (Dafang) naŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
wine, liquor Luren tsɿ⁵⁴ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
wine, liquor Longjia naŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
sour Caijia san³³ Bo (2004) 81
drunk, inebriated Caijia tsɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
wake Caijia ko³³ Bo (2004) 80
heavy Caijia doŋ³³ Bo (2004) 81
wild Longjia ʑa²¹ Guizhou (1984)
量米 one measure (e.g., of rice) Caijia ho⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
gold Caijia (Shuicheng) jin Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
gold Caijia (Shuicheng) di Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
金子 gold Longjia tɕuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
needle Caijia tsan³³ Bo (2004) 79
needle Longjia (Dafang) tsuŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
needle Longjia tsuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
钉子 nail Longjia tiŋ³³ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
blunt Waxianghua (Guzhang) ŋu⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
money Caijia tɕin³¹ Bo (2004) 79
money Longjia nta⁵⁵ʑi³³ Guizhou (1984)
iron Caijia (Shuicheng) 西 xi Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
iron Longjia ɬei³³ Guizhou (1984)
bronze Caijia (Shuicheng) tong Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
bronze Longjia tuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
lever-knife Longjia tsɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
铧口 Longjia pie³³ Guizhou (1984)
silver Caijia (Shuicheng) ying Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
silver Longjia ŋui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
银子 silver Longjia ŋui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
hoe Longjia tɕo⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
锄头 hoe Caijia tu³¹ Bo (2004) 79
锄头 hoe Luren tso³³khəu²⁴ Guizhou (1984) 51
锄头 hoe Longjia (Dafang) ʈo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
锄头 hoe Longjia ʈo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
锄头 hoe Longjia tɕo⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
pot (for cooking) Caijia məu³¹ Bo (2004) 79
pot (for cooking) Longjia (Anshun) mau³³ Caiguan Gazetteer (2004) 494
pot (for cooking) Longjia (Dafang) ɬei³³phuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
pot (for cooking) Longjia phuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
锋利 sharp (of knife) Longjia pi³³ Guizhou (1984)
锋利 sharp (of knife) Longjia pi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
锤子 hammer Caijia tʅ³¹ Bo (2004) 79
to saw Longjia tɕy⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
动词 to saw Longjia (Dafang) tɕy⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
镰刀 sickle Longjia lɛ³³ Guizhou (1984)
镰刀 sickle Longjia pie³³lɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
inlay Caijia lɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
long Caijia ko³³ Bo (2004) 81
door Caijia ma³¹kha³³ Bo (2004) 79
door Longjia mɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to ask Caijia pia⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
to ask Longjia (Dafang) mpia⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
to ask Longjia (Dafang) mpia⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
to ask Longjia mpia⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to smell, sniff Caijia khu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
阉割 castrate Caijia ten³¹ Bo (2004) 80
dark Caijia dɯ³³ Bo (2004) 79
steep Caijia tɯ³¹ Bo (2004) 81
steep Longjia ɕuŋ³³ Guizhou (1984)
集市 market Caijia khɯ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
雕刻 to carve Longjia tiau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
rain Caijia zɿ³³ Bo (2004) 77
rain Longjia (Dafang) ɕi³³ Guizhou (1982) 28
rain Waxianghua (Guzhang) va²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
rain Waxianghua (Yuanling) ua⁵³ Yang (1999)
thunder Caijia tʅ³³ Bo (2004) 77
thunder Waxianghua (Guzhang) tyei⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
thunder Waxianghua (Yuanling) ty⁵⁵(kəu⁵⁵) Yang (1999)
雹子 hail Waxianghua (Yuanling) ɕi⁵⁵tsa Yang (1999)
fog Waxianghua (Guzhang) tsau³³tsa Wu & Shen (2010)
青冈树 beech tree Caijia pi³¹so⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
青蛙 frog Caijia mai²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
青蛙 frog Waxianghua (Guzhang) vu¹³mau²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
青蛙 frog Waxianghua (Yuanling) u²²məu⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
shoe Luren ɕi³³ Guizhou (1984) 50
shoe Luren san³³ɕən³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
shoe Longjia ɕi²¹ Guizhou (1984)
鞋子 shoe Caijia ji³¹ Bo (2004) 79
额头 forehead Caijia ŋa³³tuo³¹ Bo (2004) 78
颧骨 cheekbones Caijia khai³³kui⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
wind Caijia pan³³ Bo (2004) 77
wind Longjia mpiaŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
to fly Caijia bu³³ Bo (2004) 79
猪食 food (pig feed) Caijia ma³³ Bo (2004) 79
rice, cooked Caijia zu³³ Bo (2004) 79
rice, cooked Caijia (Shuicheng) you Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 185
rice, cooked Longjia (Dafang) ʑi³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
rice, cooked Longjia (Dafang) ʑi³³ Guizhou (1982) 25
rice, cooked Luren ʑoŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
rice, cooked Longjia ʑi³³ Guizhou (1984)
饭甑 rice cauldron Longjia ŋuɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
full (of stomach) Caijia pəu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
full (of stomach) Waxianghua (Guzhang) iɛ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
full (of stomach) Longjia po²¹ Guizhou (1984)
饱满 full (not hungry) Longjia ɬau²¹ Guizhou (1984)
饿 hungry Caijia kɯ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 81
fragrant Caijia man³³ Bo (2004) 81
fragrant Longjia khan⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
horse Caijia me³³ Bo (2004) 78
horse Caijia (Shuicheng) mai Liupanshui Gazetteer (2003) 184
horse Luren man²¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
horse Longjia mɛ²¹ Guizhou (1984)
马匙 a type of large spoon Luren kan⁵⁴tsa³³ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
马蜂 Longjia man³³ntsɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
马铃薯 potato Caijia tshɿ⁵⁵pəu⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
curse Caijia tɕun³³ Bo (2004) 80
to scold Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɕiɛ²⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
to ride (a horse) Longjia (Dafang) nkau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
to ride (a horse) Longjia nkau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
cheat Caijia hɯ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
骨头 bone Caijia kui⁵⁵tuo³¹ Bo (2004) 79
high, tall Caijia ko³³ Bo (2004) 81
high, tall Longjia ka⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
高兴 happy Longjia hau²¹tau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
高粱 sorghum Waxianghua (Guzhang) tsu³³tsa Wu & Shen (2010)
bun (hair) Caijia dzɿ³³kei³³ Bo (2004) 78
ghost Luren phia⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984) 50
ghost Longjia kei³³ Guizhou (1984)
soul Longjia phia³³ Guizhou (1984)
魂魄 soul Caijia phia⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 79
fish Caijia ɣoŋ²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
fish Longjia (Dafang) ʑy²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 28
fish Waxianghua (Guzhang) ɳiəɯ⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
fish Longjia ʑy²⁴ Guizhou (1984)
鱼鳞 scales (of fish) Caijia ɣoŋ²⁴kho⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 78
bird Caijia tsɿ³¹tsɿ²⁴ Bo (2004) 78
bird Waxianghua (Guzhang) tsu⁴¹tsɪ Wu & Shen (2010)
bird Longjia sen³³ Guizhou (1984)
鸟窝 nest (of bird) Waxianghua (Guzhang) khu⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
chicken Caijia kei³³ Bo (2004) 78
chicken Luren kɛ³³ Guizhou (1984) 50
chicken Luren kɛ⁵⁵pɛ²¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
chicken Waxianghua (Guzhang) ka⁵⁵ Wu & Shen (2010)
chicken Waxianghua (Yuanling) ka⁵⁵ Yang (1999)
chicken Longjia kɛ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
鸡一对 one pair of chickens Luren kɛ⁵⁵ʑi⁵⁵sau¹¹ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
鸭子 duck Longjia ʑu³³ Guizhou (1984)
goose Caijia ŋu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
鹦鹉 parrot Waxianghua (Guzhang) pɑ¹³pɑ⁴¹ Wu & Shen (2010)
wheat Longjia (Dafang) zuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
麦子 wheat Luren zau³³ Guizhou (1984) 50
麦子 wheat Longjia zuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
麦芽 malt Luren tsɿ⁵⁵tsai⁴⁵ Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002) 888
hemp Caijia tshɿ³¹ Bo (2004) 78
hemp Longjia (Dafang) tshi³³ Guizhou (1982) 26
hemp Longjia tshɿ³³ Guizhou (1984)
yellow Caijia ɣuŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 80
yellow Longjia ɣuŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1984)
黄牛 cattle Caijia ŋu³¹ Bo (2004) 78
black Caijia khɯ⁵⁵ Bo (2004) 80
black Longjia (Dafang) khei³³ Guizhou (1982) 27
rat, mouse Longjia so²¹ Guizhou (1984)
鼻子 nose Caijia bi³¹kei³³ Bo (2004) 78
鼻涕 nasal mucus Longjia ɬen³³ Guizhou (1984)
齿头 gear head Caijia biau³³ Bo (2004) 79
dragon Caijia ɣoŋ³¹ Bo (2004) 78
动物 (animals) to climb Caijia dza³¹ Bo (2004) 79
(water) overflows Caijia ma³³ Bo (2004) 79
sister-in-law Longjia (Dafang) la⁵⁵tshau⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑi³³ Guizhou (1982) 8
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕʰi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) wan²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 3
丈夫 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) məu³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sa³³ Guizhou (1982) 5
下雨 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) həu²¹zɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pu³³ Guizhou (1982) 8
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣo²¹ Guizhou (1982) 16
东西 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵa²¹ȵa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pɪ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 30
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵi²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵi³³ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ku⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) man²¹ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) o²¹ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsen³³ Guizhou (1982) 11
事情 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ⁵⁵tɕʰen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tin²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣoŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ⁵⁵kʰa³³ Guizhou (1982) 23
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsu³³ Guizhou (1982) 18
亮亮的 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsu³³lu²¹lu³³lei³³ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) wu³³tsʰu³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
什么 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lau²⁴tsoŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰan³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑe³³ Guizhou (1982) 8
衣服 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti³³ Guizhou (1982) 26
绣花 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti³³ Guizhou (1982) 23
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) nɯ³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕɪ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tau²¹ Guizhou (1982) 13
傻子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) nan³³kan³³ Guizhou (1982) 8
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pei³³ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) fu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kun³³ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) me³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ka²¹ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pen⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
刺蓬 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) səu³³kəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 16
剪刀 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕen⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰo³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
勺子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kan²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 9
动词 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔoŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) po³³ Guizhou (1982) 17
医生 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ko³³su³³pa³³ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsan³³ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕʰan³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta³³ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kuai³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
发辫 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pei⁵⁵pin²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pi³³ Guizhou (1982) 15
叶子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sei⁵⁵ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɕu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑu³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
名字 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) min²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lai³³ Guizhou (1982) 20
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕʰen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) xəu³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 20
瓜子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pi²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
国家 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kue²¹tɕa³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
圈子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) le³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ka²¹ Guizhou (1982) 17
坛子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
坟墓 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kan³³ Guizhou (1982) 30
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pəu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) loŋ³³məu³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta²¹ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kan³³ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) fu³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɪ³³ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lo³³ Guizhou (1982) 21
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) la²¹ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰen³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰen⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
太阳 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔen³³soŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) to²¹to⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
头发 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 12
女人 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ku³³ʑa²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 30
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑa³³ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰua³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰua²¹ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) xe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 10
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 10
姑娘 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵo⁵⁵, ȵo²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 4
娃娃 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 19
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) a⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kua³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɕɪ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
小伙子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɬa³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
小孩 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɕɪ²¹ŋa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 19
小碗 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lo²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
尾巴 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) man³³ Guizhou (1982) 10
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
山羊 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 10
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɯ³³ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
布依族 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ka³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pin²¹ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) nen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
庄家 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑa³³pa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 8
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰɯ³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) xe⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
彝族 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mia²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tu³³ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) san⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 1
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) san³³ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 19
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsɿ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋu³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
房屋 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
房间 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) wu³³tsa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
扁担 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta⁵⁵ka³³ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) su⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 5
手镯 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) loŋ³³koŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 8
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) na²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
扫帚 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) so⁵⁵tsʰu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ma³³ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰa³³ Guizhou (1982) 19
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pau²¹ Guizhou (1982) 23
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta²¹ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰuai³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta²¹ Guizhou (1982) 7
捎带 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʈʅ³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ləu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 29
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣa³³ Guizhou (1982) 30
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰəu³³ Guizhou (1982) 7
搬迁 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti²¹ Guizhou (1982) 30
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsɿ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 25
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kan³³ Guizhou (1982) 19
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pu³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ku²¹ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kan⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 20
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰau²¹ Guizhou (1982) 11
斗笠 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lo²¹ko²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 5
斧头 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
线 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 26
日子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵi²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 15
星宿 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɕi⁵⁵su²¹ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 18
晚饭 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pu³³ Guizhou (1982) 23
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋun³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
月亮 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ko⁵⁵pəu⁵⁵ʑa³³ Guizhou (1982) 8
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) han²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) so⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 10
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pen⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 17
李子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mei²¹tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 18
杠子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kan²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣɯ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 15
枕头 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ko²¹to⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 11
柜子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tu²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 3
柜子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɕiu³³tsɿ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) so⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
竹竿 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) həu⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 17
梯子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) xe³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
棉花 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑɪ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 10
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) vu³³ Guizhou (1982) 30
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) səu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑi³³ Guizhou (1982) 15
母亲 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑi³³ Guizhou (1982) 30
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mau²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 24
水漂 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pia²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
水牛 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) nai²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
洋芋 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰɿ⁵⁵pəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 28
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 29
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰa³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʈʅ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔan⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 20
溃烂 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰɿ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 26
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) len³³ Guizhou (1982) 20
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) fai⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tan³³ Guizhou (1982) 20
灵魂 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰia⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋo²¹ Guizhou (1982) 27
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔen²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pei²¹ Guizhou (1982) 20
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑan²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 11
父亲 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
犁田 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕi³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) li²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mi²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 3
猴子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ku²¹ Guizhou (1982) 5
猴子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ku²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 24
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋa³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕi²¹ Guizhou (1982) 26
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) len²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
画眉鸟 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) hua³³mi²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) vu³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) vu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 19
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) soŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pia³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
白布 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pia³³pu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pia⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣoŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pəu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
皮革 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) san³³ Guizhou (1982) 1
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) san⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 25
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsan³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
眼睛 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵi⁵⁵tsɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 13
知道 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tiu³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰu³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
石头 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsa⁵⁵tu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tau³³ Guizhou (1982) 23
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsuan³³ Guizhou (1982) 7
祖母 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑa³³ Guizhou (1982) 20
祖母 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑa³³ Guizhou (1982) 27
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣɯ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ka⁵⁵ka⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 24
窄狭 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕa²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
窗户 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰuan²⁴kʰa³³ Guizhou (1982) 24
竹子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tso⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 13
竿 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ka²¹ Guizhou (1982) 17
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) so²¹ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pi²¹ Guizhou (1982) 21
笨蛋 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʈʰʅ⁵³³tu³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
筛子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sai²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
簸箕 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɪ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mi³³ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰa³³ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ma³ Guizhou (1982) 10
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰa³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰui²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰoŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 12
纺车 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰai³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
线 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) xu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mo³³ Guizhou (1982) 20
经常 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tu²¹ku⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 16
绒衣 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) zoŋ²¹ʔəu³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
绵羊 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 10
缎子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tuan²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsəu³³ Guizhou (1982) 29
动词 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) la²¹to⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 14
老苍苍 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) la²¹to⁵⁵ŋuai²¹ŋuai²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
老鹰 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑi²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʈan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 1
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tan³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ken³³kun³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
肚子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mu²¹lu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 8
肠子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) vu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰəu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔoŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 21
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 12
背篓 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pau³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
脊背 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sui³³kui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) noŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
脖子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) soŋ³³koŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ku⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 8
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) min²¹kʰoŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔo³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
芦笙 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lo²¹sɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑɪ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
苋菜 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsai²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
苗子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑo²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ha⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
荞麦 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ku³³ Guizhou (1982) 7
菌子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) san⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰəu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
葡萄 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ta⁵⁵pian³³ku⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰoŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 22
薄菲菲 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰu³³ʈʰʅ⁵⁵ʈʰʅ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰo²¹ Guizhou (1982) 26
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mei²¹ Guizhou (1982) 19
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) moŋ²¹ȵoŋ²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
蚂蚁 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pa²¹pəu²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 8
蚂蟥 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ma³³huan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɬo⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) fei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 24
蛋黄 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣoŋ²¹kɯ³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
蛤蟆 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰɿ⁵⁵pie³³me²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
衣服 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔəu³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
袋子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) li³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑiu²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
被子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
被面 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰei⁵⁵mian²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
裙子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kun²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
裤子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ken³³ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ko⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 21
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) zan³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) nen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 29
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) woŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ha³³ Guizhou (1982) 19
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lau²⁴ȵi³³ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 12
豹子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pəu²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ha²¹ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) piau³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ho⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕau³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
蹄子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) xe³³ Guizhou (1982) 30
身体 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sen³³tʰoŋ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 30
轿 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕʰo³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kua³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔau²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) soŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) mo²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sa³³ Guizhou (1982) 9
酸酸的 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sa³³ti³³ti²⁴lei³³ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) toŋ³³ Guizhou (1982) 20
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑa³³ Guizhou (1982) 9
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kan³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsan³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
钻子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsʰai³³tsuan²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɕi⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
铁丝 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tʰie²¹sɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) toŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ȵen²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) məu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
锤子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʈʅ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
锤子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʈʅ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 6
动词 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sei⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 29
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ma²¹kʰa³³ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pia⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 23
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 18
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) nan²¹ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) zɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʈʅ³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
青蛙 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) me²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɕi²¹ Guizhou (1982) 18
鞍子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋue³³ Guizhou (1982) 6
韭菜 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 11
额头 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ŋa³³tu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 25
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pan³³ Guizhou (1982) 3
飘带 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pʰiau³³tai²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 12
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) sɿ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 10
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ti²¹ Guizhou (1982) 16
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑu³³ Guizhou (1982) 22
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pəu⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 15
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) me³³ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kəu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 23
骨头 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kui⁵⁵tu²¹ Guizhou (1982) 24
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ko³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
高高兴兴的 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tɕʰi⁵⁵kʰa⁵⁵tɕʰi⁵⁵ma²⁴lei³³ Guizhou (1982) 14
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kui⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 25
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣoŋ²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kɪ³³ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʔa⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 4
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ko²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 11
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ʑi²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 5
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) tsoŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 3
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) la²¹tsʰɿ³³ Guizhou (1982) 26
麻疯 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) lai²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 6
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣoŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 4
黄蜡 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣa³³ Guizhou (1982) 4
黄鳝 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) huan²¹san²⁴ Guizhou (1982) 7
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) kʰɯ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 24
鼻子 Caijia (Yangjiazhai) pi²¹kɪ⁵⁵ Guizhou (1982) 13
Caijia (Yangjiazhai) ɣoŋ²¹ Guizhou (1982) 20

References[edit]

  • Bo Wenze [薄文泽]. 2004. "A sketch of Caijia [蔡家话概况]". In Minzu Yuwen.
  • Caiguan Town Gazetteer [蔡官镇志] (2004). Guiyang: Guizhou People's Press [贵州人民出版社].
  • Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission, linguistic division [贵州省民族识别工作队语言组]. 1982. The language of the Caijia [Caijia de yuyan 蔡家的语言]. m.s. [Unpublished government draft manuscript]
  • Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission [贵州省民族识别工作队]. 1984. Report on ethnic classification issues of the Nanlong people (Nanjing-Longjia) [南龙人(南京-龙家)族别问题调查报告]. m.s. [Unpublished government draft manuscript]
  • Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  • Liupanshui City Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [六盘水市志: 民族志] (2003). Guiyang: Guizhou People's Press [贵州人民出版社].
  • Wu Yunji, Shen Ruiqing [伍云姬、沈瑞清]. 2010. An Investigative Report of Waxianghua of Guzhang County, Xiangxi Prefecture [湘西古丈瓦乡话调查报告]. Shanghai Educational Press [上海教育出版社].
  • Yang Wei [杨蔚]. 1999. A study of Yuanling Waxianghua [沅陵乡话研究]. Changsha: Hunan Educational Press [湖南敎育出版社].
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: Standard ArabicEgyptian ArabicPalestinian ArabicTunisian ArabicCypriot Arabic – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Bukitan – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: CantoneseGanMandarinMin Nan (Amoy)Min DongSichuaneseOld Chinese – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian – English: OldMiddle – Esperanto – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – FrenchOld French – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: Modern GreekAncient Greek – Guaraní – Gujarati – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong (White) – Hungarian – Hunsrik – Icelandic – Ido – Ilocano – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish – Italian – Japanese – Kashubian – Khmer – Konkani – Korean – Kurdish – LatinVulgar Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lingwa de Planeta – Lithuanian – Lojban – Luwian – Macedonian – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Neapolitan – Nepali – Ojibwe – Ossetian – Pali – Papiamento – Polish – PortugueseOld Portuguese – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sicilian – Sinhalese – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – Zazaki – Zulu

Reconstructed languages

Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Slavic

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Hokan – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – South American – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan