User:Dan Polansky/Roget MICRA/Class III. Words Relating to Matter

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Class III. Words Relating to Matter


Section I. Matter in General[edit]

316. Materiality[edit]

N. materiality, materialness; corporeity, corporality; substantiality, substantialness, flesh and blood, plenum; physical condition.

matter, body, substance, brute matter, stuff, element, principle, parenchyma[Biol], material, substratum, hyle, corpus, pabulum; frame.

object, article, thing, something; still life; stocks and stones; materials &c. 635.

[Science of matter] physics; somatology, somatics; natural philosophy, experimental philosophy; physicism; physical science, philosophie positive[Fr], materialism; materialist; physicist; somatism, somatist.

Adj. material, bodily; corporeal, corporal; physical; somatic, somatoscopic; sensible, tangible, ponderable, palpable, substantial.

objective, impersonal, nonsubjective, neuter, unspiritual, materialistic.

317. Immateriality[edit]

N. immateriality, immaterialness; incorporeity, spirituality; inextension; astral plane.

personality; I, myself, me; ego, spirit &c. (soul) 450; astral body; immaterialism; spiritualism, spiritualist.

V. disembody, spiritualize.

Adj. immaterial, immateriate; incorporeal, incorporal; incorporate, unfleshly; supersensible; asomatous, unextended; unembodied, disembodied; extramundane, unearthly; pneumatoscopic; spiritual &c. (psychical) 450.

personal, subjective, nonobjective.

318. World[edit]

N. world, creation, nature, universe; earth, globe, wide world; cosmos; kosmos; terraqueous globe, sphere; macrocosm, megacosm; music of the spheres.

heavens, sky, welkin|, empyrean; starry cope, starry heaven, starry host; firmament; Midgard; supersensible regions; varuna; vault of heaven, canopy of heaven; celestial spaces.

heavenly bodies, stars, asteroids; nebulae; galaxy, milky way, galactic circle, via lactea[Lat], ame no kawa [Jap.].

sun, orb of day, Apollo, Phoebus; photosphere, chromosphere; solar system; planet, planetoid; comet; satellite, moon, orb of night, Diana, silver-footed queen; aerolite, meteor; planetary ring; falling star, shooting star; meteorite, uranolite.

constellation, zodiac, signs of the zodiac, Charles's wain, Big Dipper, Little Dipper, Great Bear, Southern Cross, Orion's belt, Cassiopea's chair, Pleiades.

colures, equator, ecliptic, orbit.

[Science of heavenly bodies] astronomy; uranography, uranology; cosmology, cosmography, cosmogony; eidouranion, orrery; geodesy &c. (measurement) 466; star gazing, star gazer; astronomer; observatory; planetarium.

Adj. cosmic, cosmical; mundane, terrestrial, terrestrious|, terraqueous, terrene, terreous|, telluric, earthly, geotic, under the sun; sublunary, subastral.

solar, heliacal; lunar; celestial, heavenly, sphery; starry, stellar; sidereal, sideral; astral; nebular; uranic.

Adv. in all creation, on the face of the globe, here below, under the sun.

Phr. die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltergesicht[Ger]; "earth is but the frozen echo of the silent voice of God" [Hageman]; "green calm below, blue quietness above" [Whittier]; "hanging in a golden chain this pendant World" [Paradise Lost]; "nothing in nature is unbeautiful" [Tennyson]; "silently as a dream the fabric rose" [Cowper]; "some touch of nature's genial glow" [Scott]; "this majestical roof fretted with golden fire" [Hamlet]; "through knowledge we behold the World's creation" [Spenser].

319. Gravity[edit]

N. gravity, gravitation; weight; heaviness &c. adj.; specific gravity; pondorosity, pressure, load; burden, burthen; ballast, counterpoise; lump of, mass of, weight of.

lead, millstone, mountain, Ossa on Pelion.

weighing, ponderation, trutination|; weights; avoirdupois weight, troy weight, apothecaries' weight; grain, scruple, drachma, ounce, pound, lb, arroba, load, stone, hundredweight, cwt, ton, long ton, metric ton, quintal, carat, pennyweight, tod.

[metric weights] gram, centigram, milligram, microgram, kilogram; nanogram, picogram, femtogram, attogram.

[Weighing Instrument] balance, scale, scales, steelyard, beam, weighbridge; spring balance, piezoelectric balance, analytical balance, two-pan balance, one-pan balance; postal scale, baby scale.

[Science of gravity] statics.

V. be heavy &c. adj.; gravitate, weigh, press, cumber, load.

[Measure the weight of] weigh, poise.

Adj. weighty; weighing &c. v.; heavy as lead; ponderous, ponderable; lumpish, lumpy, cumbersome, burdensome; cumbrous, unwieldy, massive.

incumbent, superincumbent.

320. Levity[edit]

N. levity; lightness &c. adj.; imponderability, buoyancy, volatility.

feather, dust, mote, down, thistle, down, flue, cobweb, gossamer, straw, cork, bubble, balloon; float, buoy; ether, air.

leaven, ferment, barm, yeast.

lighter-than-air balloon, helium balloon, hydrogen balloon, hot air balloon.

convection, thermal draft, thermal.

V. be light &c. adj.; float, rise, swim, be buoyed up.

render light &c. adj.; lighten, leaven.

Adj. light, subtile, airy; imponderous, imponderable; astatic, weightless, ethereal, sublimated; gossamery; suberose, suberous; uncompressed, volatile; buoyant, floating &c. v.; portable.

light as a feather, light as a thistle, light as air; lighter than air; rise like a balloon, float like a balloon

Section II. Inorganic Matter[edit]

1. Solid Matter[edit]

321. Density[edit]

N. density, solidity; solidness &c. adj.; impenetrability, impermeability; incompressibility; imporosity; cohesion &c. 46; constipation, consistence, spissitude|.

specific gravity; hydrometer, areometer.

condensation; caseation; solidation, solidification; consolidation; concretion, coagulation; petrification &c. (hardening) 323; crystallization, precipitation; deposit, precipitate; inspissation; gelation, thickening &c. v.

indivisibility, indiscerptibility, insolubility, indissolvableness.

solid body, mass, block, knot, lump; concretion, concrete, conglomerate; cake, clot, stone, curd, coagulum; bone, gristle, cartilage; casein, crassamentum|; legumin.

superdense matter, condensed states of matter; dwarf star, neutron star.

V. be dense &c. adj.; become solid, render solid &c. adj.; solidify, solidate; concrete, set, take a set, consolidate, congeal, coagulate; curd, curdle; lopper; fix, clot, cake, candy, precipitate, deposit, cohere, crystallize; petrify &c. (harden) 323.

condense, thicken, gel, inspissate, incrassate; compress, squeeze, ram down, constipate.

Adj. dense, solid; solidified &c. v.; caseous; pukka; coherent, cohesive &c. 46; compact, close, serried, thickset; substantial, massive, lumpish; impenetrable, impermeable, nonporous, imporous; incompressible; constipated; concrete &c. (hard) 323; knotted, knotty; gnarled; crystalline, crystallizable; thick, grumous|, stuffy.

undissolved, unmelted, unliquefied, unthawed.

indivisible, indiscerptible, infrangible, indissolvable, indissoluble, insoluble, infusible.

322. Rarity[edit]

N. rarity, tenuity; absence of solidity &c. 321; subtility; subtilty, subtlety; sponginess, compressibility.

rarefaction, expansion, dilatation, inflation, subtilization.

vaporization, evaporation, diffusion, gassification.

ether &c. (gas) 334.

V. rarefy, expand, dilate, subtilize.

Adj. rare, subtile, thin, fine, tenuous, compressible, flimsy, slight; light &c. 320; cavernous, spongy &c. (hollow) 252.

rarefied &c. v.;; unsubstantial; uncompact, incompressed; rarefiable.

323. Hardness[edit]

N. hardness &c. adj.; rigidity; renitence, renitency; inflexibility, temper, callosity, durity .

induration, petrifaction; lapidification, lapidescence; vitrification, ossification; crystallization.

stone, pebble, flint, marble, rock, fossil, crag, crystal, quartz, granite, adamant; bone, cartilage; hardware; heart of oak, block, board, deal board; iron, steel; cast iron, decarbonized iron, wrought iron; nail; brick, concrete; cement.

V. render hard &c. adj.; harden, stiffen, indurate, petrify, temper, ossify, vitrify; accrust.

Adj. hard, rigid, stubborn, stiff, firm; starch, starched; stark, unbending, unlimber, unyielding; inflexible, tense; indurate, indurated; gritty, proof.

adamant, adamantine, adamantean; concrete, stony, granitic, calculous, lithic, vitreous; horny, corneous; bony; osseous, ossific; cartilaginous; hard as a rock &c. n.; stiff as buckram, stiff as a poker; stiff as starch, stiff as as board.

324. Softness[edit]

N. softness, pliableness &c. adj.; flexibility; pliancy, pliability; sequacity, malleability; ductility, tractility; extendibility, extensibility; plasticity; inelasticity, flaccidity, laxity.


clay, wax, butter, dough, pudding; alumina, argil; cushion, pillow, feather bed, down, padding, wadding;foam.

mollification; softening &c.v.

V. render -soft &c. adj.; soften, mollify, mellow, relax, temper; mash, knead, squash.

bend, yield, relent, relax, give.


Adj. soft, tender, supple; pliant, pliable; flexible, flexile; lithe, lithesome; lissom, limber, plastic; ductile; tractile, tractable; malleable, extensile, sequacious, inelastic; aluminous; remollient.

yielding &c. v.; flabby, limp, flimsy.

doughy, spongy, penetrable, foamy, cushiony.'

flaccid, flocculent, downy; edematous, oedematous, medullary[Anat], argillaceous, mellow.

soft as butter, soft as down, soft as silk; yielding as wax, tender as chicken.

325. Elasticity[edit]

N. elasticity, springiness, spring, resilience, renitency, buoyancy.

rubber, India(n) rubber, latex, caoutchouc, whalebone, gum elastic, baleen, natural rubber; neoprene, synthetic rubber, Buna-S, plastic.

flexibility, Young's modulus.

V. stretch, flex, extend, distend, be elastic &c. adj.; bounce, spring back &c. (recoil) 277.

Adj. elastic, flexible, tensile, spring, resilient, renitent, buoyant; ductile, stretchable, extendable.

Phr. the stress is proportional to the strain.

326. Inelasticity[edit]

N. want of elasticity, absence of elasticity &c. 325; inelasticity &c. (softness) 324, Adj. unyielding, inelastic, inflexible &c. (soft) 324; irresilient.

327. Tenacity[edit]

N. {ant. 328} tenacity, toughness, strength; (cohesion) 46; grip, grasp, stickiness, (cohesion) 46; sequacity; stubbornness &c. (obstinacy); glue, cement, glutinousness, sequaciousness, viscidity, (semiliquidity) 352.

leather; white leather, whitleather; gristle, cartilage.

unbreakability, tensile strength.

V. be tenacious &c. adj.; resist fracture.

grip, grasp, stick (cohesion) 46.

Adj. tenacious, tough, strong, resisting, sequacious, stringy, gristly cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous, tough as whitleather; stubborn &c. (obstinate) 606.

unbreakable, indivisible; atomic.

328. Brittleness[edit]

N. {ant. 327} brittleness &c. adj.; fragility, friability, frangibility, fissibility; house of cards, house of glass.

V. be brittle &c. adj.; live in a glass house.

break, crack, snap, split, shiver, splinter, crumble, break short, burst, fly, give way; fall to pieces; crumble to, crumble into dust.

Adj. brittle, brash [U.S.], breakable, weak, frangible, fragile, frail, gimcrack|, shivery, fissile; splitting &c. v.; lacerable, splintery, crisp, crimp, short, brittle as glass.

329. Texture[edit]


N. structure (form) 240, organization, anatomy, frame, mold, fabric, construction; framework, carcass, architecture; stratification, cleavage.

substance, stuff, compages, parenchyma[Biol]; constitution, staple, organism.

[Science of structures] organography, osteology, myology, splanchnology, neurology, angiography, adeology; angiography, adenography.

texture, surface texture; intertexture, contexture; tissue, grain, web, surface; warp and woof, warp and weft; tooth, nap &c. (roughness) 256; flatness (smoothness) 255; fineness of grain; coarseness of grain, dry goods.

silk, satin; muslin, burlap.

[Science of textures] histology.

Adj. structural, organic; anatomic, anatomical.

textural, textile; fine grained, coarse grained; fine, delicate, subtile, gossamery, filmy, silky, satiny; coarse; homespun.

rough, gritty; smooth.

smooth as silk, smooth as satin.

330. Pulverulence[edit]

N. powderiness[State of powder.], pulverulence; sandiness &c. adj.; efflorescence; friability.

powder, dust, sand, shingle; sawdust; grit; meal, bran, flour, farina, rice, paddy, spore, sporule; crumb, seed, grain; particle &c. (smallness) 32; limature|, filings, debris, detritus, tailings, talus slope, scobs, magistery, fine powder; flocculi[Lat].

smoke; cloud of dust, cloud of sand, cloud of smoke; puff of smoke, volume of smoke; sand storm, dust storm.

[Reduction to powder] pulverization, comminution, attenuation, granulation, disintegration, subaction, contusion, trituration[Chem], levigation, abrasion, detrition, multure; limitation; tripsis; filing &c.v..

[Instruments for pulverization] mill, arrastra, gristmill, grater, rasp, file, mortar and pestle, nutmeg grater, teeth, grinder, grindstone, kern, quern, koniology.

V. come to dust; be disintegrated, be reduced to powder &c.

reduce to powder, grind to powder; pulverize, comminute, granulate, triturate, levigate; scrape, file, abrade, rub down, grind, grate, rasp, pound, bray, bruise; contuse, contund; beat, crush, cranch, craunch, crunch, scranch, crumble, disintegrate; attenuate &c. 195.

Adj. powdery, pulverulent, granular, mealy, floury, farinaceous, branny, furfuraceous, flocculent, dusty, sandy, sabulous, psammous; arenose, arenarious, arenaceous; gritty, efflorescent, impalpable; lentiginous, lepidote, sabuline; sporaceous, sporous.

pulverizable; friable, crumbly, shivery; pulverized &c. v.; attrite; in pieces.

331. Friction[edit]

N. friction, attrition; rubbing, abrasion, scraping &c. v.; confrication|, detrition, contrition|, affriction, abrasion, arrosion|, limature|, frication, rub; elbow grease; rosin; massage; roughness &c. 256.

rolling friction, sliding friction, starting friction.

V. rub, scratch, scrape, scrub, slide, fray, rasp, graze, curry, scour, polish, rub out, wear down, gnaw; file, grind &c. (reduce to powder) 330.

set one's teeth on edge; rosin.

Adj. anatriptic; attrite.

332. Lubrication[edit]

[Absence of friction. Prevention of friction.]

N. smoothness &c. 255; unctuousness &c. 355.

lubrication, lubrification; anointment; oiling &c. v.

synovia[Anat]; glycerine, oil, lubricating oil, grease &c. 356; saliva; lather.


V. lubricate, lubricitate|; oil, grease, lather, soap; wax.

Adj. lubricated &c. v.; lubricous.

2. Fluid Matter[edit]

3. Fluids In General[edit]

333. Fluidity[edit]

N. fluidity, liquidity; liquidness &c. adj.; gaseity &c. 334.

fluid, inelastic fluid; liquid, liquor; lymph, humor, juice, sap, serum, blood, serosity, gravy, rheum, ichor, sanies; chyle[Med].

solubility, solubleness.

[Science of liquids at rest] hydrology, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics.

V. be fluid &c. adj.; flow &c. (water in motion) 348; liquefy, melt, condense &c. 335.

Adj. liquid, fluid, serous, juicy, succulent, sappy; ichorous; fluent &c. (flowing) 348.

liquefied &c. 335; uncongealed; soluble.

334. Gaseity[edit]

N. gaseity; vaporousness &c. adj.; flatulence, flatulency; volatility; aeration, aerification.

elastic fluid, gas, air, vapor, ether, steam, essence, fume, reek, effluvium, flatus; cloud &c. 353; ammonia, ammoniacal gas; volatile alkali; vacuum, partial vacuum.

[Science of elastic fluids] pneumatics, pneumatostatics; aerostatics, aerodynamics.

gasmeter, gasometer; air bladder, swimming bladder, sound (of a fish).

V. vaporize, evaporate, evanesce, gasify, emit vapor &c. 336; diffuse.

Adj. gaseous, aeriform, ethereal, aerial, airy, vaporous, volatile, evaporable, flatulent.

335. Liquefaction[edit]

N. liquefaction; liquescence, liquescency; melting &c. (heat) 384; colliquation|, colliquefaction|; thaw; liquation|, deliquation|, deliquescence; lixiviation, dissolution.

solution, apozem, lixivium, infusion, flux.

solvent, menstruum, alkahest.

V. render liquid &c. 333; liquefy, run; deliquesce; melt &c. (heat) 384; solve; dissolve, resolve; liquate|; hold in solution; condense, precipitate, rain.

Adj. liquefied &c. v., liquescent, liquefiable; deliquescent, soluble, colliquative.

336. Vaporization[edit]

N. vaporization, volatilization; gasification, evaporation, vaporation; distillation, cupellation[Chem], cohobation, sublimination, exhalation; volatility.

vaporizer, still, retort; fumigation, steaming; bay salt, chloride of sodium|!.

mister, spray.

bubble, effervescence.'

V. render -gaseous &c. 334; vaporize, volatilize; distill, sublime; evaporate, exhale, smoke, transpire, emit vapor, fume, reek, steam, fumigate; cohobate; finestill.

bubble, sparge, effervesce, boil.

Adj. volatilized &c. v.; reeking &c. v.; volatile; evaporable, vaporizable.

bubbly, effervescent, boiling.

4. Specific Fluids[edit]

337. Water[edit]

N. water; serum, serosity; lymph; rheum; diluent; agua[Sp], aqua, pani.

dilution, maceration, lotion; washing &c. v.; immersion|, humectation, infiltration, spargefaction|, affusion, irrigation, douche, balneation, bath.

deluge &c. (water in motion) 348; high water, flood tide.

V. be watery &c. adj.; reek.

add water, water, wet; moisten &c. 339; dilute, dip, immerse; merge; immerge, submerge; plunge, souse, duck, drown; soak, steep, macerate, pickle, wash, sprinkle, lave, bathe, affuse, splash, swash, douse, drench; dabble, slop, slobber, irrigate, inundate, deluge; syringe, inject, gargle.

Adj. watery, aqueous, aquatic, hydrous, lymphatic; balneal, diluent; drenching &c. v.; diluted &c. v.; weak; wet &c. (moist) 339.

Phr. the waters are out.

338. Air[edit]

N. air &c. (gas) 334; common air, atmospheric air; atmosphere; aerosphere.

open air; sky, welkin; blue sky; cloud &c. 353.

weather, climate, rise and fall of the barometer, isobar.

[Science of air] aerology, aerometry, aeroscopy, aeroscopy, aerography; meteorology, climatology; pneumatics; eudioscope, baroscope, aeroscope, eudiometer, barometer, aerometer; aneroid, baroscope; weather gauge, weather glass, weather cock.

exposure to the air, exposure to the weather; ventilation; aerostation, aeronautics, aeronaut.

V. air, ventilate, fan &c. (wind) 349.

Adj. containing air, flatulent, effervescent; windy &c. 349.

atmospheric, airy; aerial, aeriform; meteorological; weatherwise.

Adv. in the open air, a la belle etoile[Fr], al fresco; sub jove dio[Lat].

339. Moisture[edit]

N. moisture; moistness &c. adj.; humidity, humectation; madefaction|, dew; serein; marsh &c. 345; hygrometry, hygrometer.

V. moisten, wet; humect, humectate; sponge, damp, bedew; imbue, imbrue, infiltrate, saturate; soak, drench &c. (water) 337.

be moist &c. adj.; not have a dry thread; perspire &c. (exude) 295.

Adj. moist, damp; watery &c. 337; madid, roric; undried, humid, sultry, wet, dank, luggy, dewy; roral|, rorid|; roscid; juicy.

wringing wet, soaking wet; wet through to the skin; saturated &c. v.

swashy, soggy, dabbled; reeking, dripping, soaking,soft, sodden, sloppy, muddy; swampy &c. (marshy) 345; irriguous.

340. Dryness[edit]

N. dryness &c. adj.; siccity, aridity, drought, ebb tide, low water.

exsiccation|, desiccation; arefaction|, dephlegmation|, drainage; drier.

[CHEMSUB which renders dry] desiccative, dessicator.

[device to render dry] dessicator; hair drier, clothes drier, gas drier, electric drier; vacuum oven, drying oven, kiln; lyophilizer.


V. be dry &c. adj..

[transitive] render dry &c. adj.; dry; dry up, soak up; sponge, swab, wipe; drain.

desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate; parch.

kiln dry; vacuum dry, blow dry, oven dry; hang out to dry.


be fine, hold up.

Adj. dry, anhydrous, arid; adust, arescent|; dried &c. v.; undamped; juiceless, sapless; sear; husky; rainless, without rain, fine; dry as a bone, dry as dust, dry as a stick, dry as a mummy, dry as a biscuit.

water proof, water tight.

dehydrated, dessicated.

341. Ocean[edit]

N. sea, ocean, main, deep, brine, salt water, waves, billows, high seas, offing, great waters, watery waste, "vasty deep"; wave, tide, &c. (water in motion) 348.

hydrography, hydrographer; Neptune, Poseidon, Thetis, Triton, Naiad, Nereid; sea nymph, Siren; trident, dolphin.

Adj. oceanic; marine, maritime; pelagic, pelagian; seagoing; hydrographic; bathybic, cotidal.

Adv. at sea, on sea; afloat.

342. Land[edit]

N. land, earth, ground, dry land, terra firma.

continent, mainland, peninsula, chersonese[Fr], delta; tongue of land, neck of land; isthmus, oasis; promontory &c. (projection) 250; highland &c. (height) 206.

coast, shore, scar, strand, beach; playa; bank, lea; seaboard, seaside, seabank, seacoast, seabeach; ironbound coast; loom of the land; derelict; innings; alluvium , alluvion; ancon.

riverbank, river bank, levee.

soil, glebe, clay, loam, marl, cledge, chalk, gravel, mold, subsoil, clod, clot; rock, crag.

acres; real estate &c. (property) 780; landsman.

V. land, come to land, set foot on the soil, set foot on dry land; come ashore, go ashore, debark.

Adj. earthy, continental, midland, coastal, littoral, riparian,; alluvial; terrene &c. (world) 318; landed, predial, territorial; geophilous; ripicolous.

Adv. ashore; on shore, on land.

343. Gulf[edit]


N. land covered with water, gulf, gulph, bay, inlet, bight, estuary, arm of the sea, bayou [U.S.], fiord, armlet; frith, firth, ostiary|, mouth; lagune, lagoon; indraught; cove, creek; natural harbor; roads; strait; narrows; Euripus; sound, belt, gut, kyles; continental slope, continental shelf.

lake, loch, lough, mere, tarn, plash, broad, pond, pool, lin, puddle, slab, well, artesian well; standing water, dead water, sheet of water; fish pond, mill pond; ditch, dike, dyke, dam; reservoir &c. (store) 636; alberca, barachois, hog wallow [U.S.].

Adj. lacustrine.

344. Plain[edit]

N. plain, table-land, face of the country; open country, champaign country; basin, downs, waste, weary waste, desert, wild, steppe, pampas, savanna, prairie, heath, common, wold, veldt; moor, moorland; bush; plateau &c. (level) 213; campagna; alkali flat, llano; mesa, mesilla [U.S.], playa; shaking prairie, trembling prairie; vega[Sp].

meadow, mead, haugh, pasturage, park, field, lawn, green, plat, plot, grassplat, greensward, sward, turf, sod, heather; lea, ley, lay; grounds; maidan, agostadero.

Adj. champaign, alluvial; campestral, campestrial, campestrian, campestrine.

345. Marsh[edit]

N. marsh, swamp, morass, marish, moss, fen, bog, quagmire, slough, sump, wash; mud, squash, slush; baygall [U.S.], cienaga, jhil, vlei. Adj. marsh, marshy; swampy, boggy, plashy, poachy, quaggy, soft; muddy, sloppy, squashy; paludal; moorish, moory; fenny.

346. Island[edit]

N. island, isle, islet, eyot, ait, holf, reef, atoll, breaker; archipelago; islander. Adj. insular, seagirt; archipelagic.

5. Fluids in Motion[edit]

347. Stream[edit]

[Fluid in motion.]

N. stream &c. (of water) 348, (of air) 349.


V. flow &c. 348; blow &c. 349.

348. River[edit]

[Water in motion.]

N. running water.

jet, spirt, spurt, squirt, spout, spray, splash, rush, gush, jet d'eau[Fr]; sluice.

water spout, water fall; cascade, force, foss; lin, linn; ghyll, Niagara; cataract, rapids, white water, catadupe|, cataclysm; debacle, inundation, deluge; chute, washout.

rain, rainfall; serein; shower, scud; downpour; driving rain, drenching rain, cloudburst; hyetology, hyetography; predominance of Aquarius, reign of St. Swithin; mizzle, drizzle, stillicidum, plash; dropping &c. v.; falling weather; northeaster, hurricane, typhoon.

stream, course, flux, flow, profluence; effluence &c. (egress) 295; defluxion; flowing &c. v.; current, tide, race, coulee.

spring, artesian well, fount, fountain; rill, rivulet, gill, gullet, rillet; streamlet, brooklet; branch [U.S.]; runnel, sike, burn, beck, creek, brook, bayou, stream, river; reach, tributary.

geyser, spout, waterspout.

body of water, torrent, rapids, flush, flood, swash; spring tide, high tide, full tide; bore, tidal bore, eagre, hygre; fresh, freshet; indraught, reflux, undercurrent, eddy, vortex, gurge, whirlpool, Maelstrom, regurgitation, overflow; confluence, corrivation|.

wave, billow, surge, swell, ripple; <gr anerythmon="" gelasma="" gr="">[Grk]; beach comber, riffle [U.S.], rollers, ground swell, surf, breakers, white horses, whitecaps; rough sea, heavy sea, high seas, cross sea, long sea, short sea, chopping sea.

[Science of fluids in motion] hydrodynamics; hydraulics, hydraulicostatics; rain gauge, flowmeter; pegology.

irrigation &c. (water) 337; pump; watering pot, watering cart; hydrant, syringe; garden hose, lawn spray; bhisti, mussuk.

V. flow, run; meander; gush, pour, spout, roll, jet, well, issue; drop, drip, dribble, plash, spirtle, trill, trickle, distill, percolate; stream, overflow, inundate, deluge, flow over, splash, swash; guggle, murmur, babble, bubble, purl, gurgle, sputter, spurt, spray, regurgitate; ooze, flow out &c. (egress) 295.

rain hard, rain in torrents, rain cats and dogs, rain pitchforks; pour with rain, drizzle, spit, set in; mizzle.

flow into, fall into, open into, drain into; discharge itself, disembogue.

[Cause a flow] pour; pour out &c. (discharge) 297; shower down, irrigate, drench &c. (wet) 337; spill, splash.

[Stop a flow] stanch; dam, up &c. (close) 261; obstruct &c. 706.

Adj. fluent; diffluent, profluent, affluent; tidal; flowing &c. v.; meandering, meandry, meandrous; fluvial, fluviatile; streamy, showery,rainy, pluvial, stillicidous|; stillatitious.

Phr. "for men may come and men may go but I go on forever" [Tennyson]; "that old man river, he just keeps rolling along" [Showboat]. </gr>

349. Wind[edit]

[Air in motion]

N.. wind, draught, flatus, afflatus, efflation, eluvium; air; breath, breath of air; puff, whiff, zephyr; blow, breeze, drift; aura; stream, current, jet stream; undercurrent.

gust, blast, squall, gale, half a gale, storm, tempest, hurricane, whirlwind, tornado, samiel, cyclone, anticyclone, typhoon; simoon, simoom; harmattan, monsoon, trade wind, sirocco, mistral, bise, tramontane, levanter; capful of wind; fresh breeze, stiff breeze; keen blast; blizzard, barber [Can.], candelia, chinook, foehn, khamsin, norther, vendaval, wuther.

windiness &c.adj.; ventosity|; rough weather, dirty weather, ugly weather, stress of weather; dirty sky, mare's tail; thick squall, black squall, white squall.

anemography, aerodynamics; wind gauge, weathercock, vane, weather-vane, wind sock; anemometer, anemoscope.

sufflation, insufflation, perflation, inflation, afflation; blowing, fanning &c. v.; ventilation.

sneezing &c.v.: errhine; sternutative, sternutatory; sternutation; hiccup, hiccough; catching of the breath.

Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus.

air pump, air blower, lungs, bellows, blowpipe, fan, ventilator, punkah; branchiae, gills, flabellum, vertilabrum.

whiffle ball.

V. blow, waft; blow hard, blow great guns, blow a hurricane &c. n.; wuther; stream, issue.

respire, breathe, puff; whiff, whiffle; gasp, wheeze; snuff, snuffle; sniff, sniffle; sneeze, cough.

fan, ventilate; inflate, perflate|; blow up.

Adj. blowing &c. v.; windy, flatulent; breezy, gusty, squally; stormy, tempestuous, blustering; boisterous &c. (violent) 173.

pulmonic[Med], pulmonary.

Phr. "lull'd by soft zephyrs" [Pope]; "the storm is up and all is on the hazard" [Julius Caesar]; "the winds were wither'd in the stagnant air" [Byron]; "while mocking winds are piping loud" [Milton]; "winged with red lightning and tempestuous rage" [Paradise Lost].

350. Conduit[edit]

 [Channel for the passage of water.]

N. conduit, channel, duct, watercourse, race; head race, tail race; abito, aboideau, aboiteau[Fr], bito; acequia, acequiador, acequiamadre; arroyo; adit, aqueduct, canal, trough, gutter, pantile; flume, ingate, runner; lock-weir, tedge; vena; dike, main, gully, moat, ditch, drain, sewer, culvert, cloaca, sough, kennel, siphon; piscina; pipe &c. (tube) 260; funnel; tunnel &c. (passage) 627; water pipe, waste pipe; emunctory, gully hole, artery, aorta, pore, spout, scupper; adjutage, ajutage; hose; gargoyle; gurgoyle; penstock, weir; flood gate, water gate; sluice, lock, valve; rose; waterworks.


Adj. vascular &c. (with holes) 260.

351. Airpipe[edit]

[Channel for the passage of air.]

N. air pipe, air tube; airhole, blowhole, breathinghole, venthole; shaft, flue, chimney, funnel, vent, nostril, nozzle, throat, weasand, trachea; bronchus, bronchia[Med]; larynx, tonsils, windpipe, spiracle; ventiduct, ventilator; louvre, jalousie, Venetian blinds; blowpipe &c. (wind) 349; pipe &c. (tube) 260; jhilmil; smokestack.

screen, window screen.'

artificial lung, iron lung, heart and lung machine.

6. Imperfect Fluids[edit]

352. Semiliquidity[edit]

N. semiliquidity; stickiness &c. adj.; viscidity, viscosity; gummosity, glutinosity, mucosity; spissitude, crassitude; lentor; adhesiveness &c. (cohesion) 46.

inspissation, incrassation; thickening.

jelly, mucilage, gelatin, gluten; carlock, fish glue; ichthyocol, ichthycolla; isinglass; mucus, phlegm, goo; pituite, lava; glair, starch, gluten, albumen, milk, cream, protein|!; treacle; gum, size, glue (tenacity) 327; wax, beeswax.

emulsion, soup; squash, mud, slush, slime, ooze; moisture &c. 339; marsh &c. 345.

V. inspissate, incrassate; thicken, mash, squash, churn, beat up.


Adj. semifluid, semiliquid; tremellose; half melted, half frozen; milky, muddy &c. n.; lacteal, lactean, lacteous, lactescent, lactiferous; emulsive, curdled, thick, succulent, uliginous.

gelatinous, albuminous, mucilaginous, glutinous; glutenous, gelatin, mastic, amylaceous, ropy, clammy, clotted; viscid, viscous; sticky, tacky, gooey; slab, slabby; lentous|, pituitous; mucid, muculent, mucous; gummy.

353. Bubble[edit]

[Mixture of air and water.] Bubble. [Cloud.] 

N. bubble, foam, froth, head, spume, lather, suds, spray, surf, yeast, barm, spindrift.

cloud, vapor, fog, mist, haze, steam, geyser; scud, messenger, rack, nimbus; cumulus, woolpack, cirrus, stratus; cirrostratus, cumulostratus; cirrocumulus; mackerel sky, mare's tale, dirty sky; curl cloud; frost smoke; thunderhead.

[Science of clouds] nephelognosy; nephograph, nephology.

effervescence, fermentation; bubbling &c. v.

nebula; cloudliness &c. (opacity) 426; nebulosity &c. (dimness) 422.

V. bubble, boil, foam, froth, mantle, sparkle, guggle, gurgle; effervesce, ferment, fizzle.

Adj. bubbling &c. v.; frothy, nappy, effervescent, sparkling, mousseux[French: frothy], up.

cloudy &c. n.; thunderheaded; vaporous, nebulous, overcast.

Phr. "the lowring element scowls o'er the darkened landscip" [Paradise Lost].

354. Pulpiness[edit]

N. pulpiness &c. adj.; pulp, taste, dough, curd, pap, rob, jam, pudding, poultice, grume.

mush, oatmeal, baby food.

Adj. pulpy &c. n.; pultaceous, grumous; baccate.

355. Unctuousness[edit]

N. unctuousness &c. adj.; unctuosity, lubricity; ointment &c. (oil) 356; anointment; lubrication &c. 332.

V. oil &c. (lubricate) 332.

Adj. unctuous, oily, oleaginous, adipose, sebaceous; unguinous; fat, fatty, greasy; waxy, butyraceous, soapy, saponaceous, pinguid, lardaceous; slippery.

356. Oil[edit]

N. oil, fat, butter, cream, grease, tallow, suet, lard, dripping exunge|, blubber; glycerin, stearin, elaine[Chem], oleagine; soap; soft soap, wax, cerement; paraffin, spermaceti, adipocere; petroleum, mineral, mineral rock, mineral crystal, mineral oil; vegetable oil, colza oil, olive oil, salad oil, linseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, nut oil; animal oil, neat's foot oil, train oil; ointment, unguent, liniment; aceite, amole, Barbados tar; fusel oil, grain oil, rape oil, seneca oil; hydrate of amyl, ghee; heating oil, "#2 oil", No. 2 oil, distillate, residual oils, kerosene, jet fuel, gasoline, naphtha; stearin.

356a. Resin[edit]

N. resin, rosin; gum; lac, sealing wax; amber, ambergris; bitumen, pitch, tar; asphalt, asphaltum; camphor; varnish, copal, mastic, magilp, lacquer, japan.

artificial resin, polymer; ion-exchange resin, cation-exchange resin, anion exchange resin, water softener, Amberlite, Dowex[Chem], Diaion.

V. varnish &c. (overlay) 223.

Adj. resiny, resinous; bituminous, pitchy, tarry; asphaltic, asphaltite.

Section III. Organic Matter[edit]


Vitality in General[edit]

357. Organization[edit]

N. organized world, organized nature; living nature, animated nature; living beings; organic remains, fossils.

protoplasm, cytoplasm, protein; albumen; structure &c. 329; organization, organism.

[Science of living beings] biology; natural history, organic chemistry, anatomy, physiology; zoology &c. 368; botany; microbiology, virology, bacteriology, mycology &c. 369; naturalist.

archegenesis &c. (production) 161; antherozoid, bioplasm, biotaxy, chromosome, dysmeromorph; ecology, oecology; erythroblast[Physiol], gametangium, gamete, germinal matter, invagination[Biol]; isogamy, oogamy; karyaster; macrogamete, microgamete; metabolism, anabolism, catabolism; metaplasm, ontogeny, ovary, ovum, oxidation, phylogeny, polymorphism, protozoa, spermary, spermatozoon, trophoplasm, vacuole, vertebration, zoogloea, zygote.

Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism.

morphology, taxonomy.

Adj. organic, organized; karyoplasmic, unsegmentic, vacuolar, zoogloeic, zoogloeoid.

358. Inorganization[edit]

N. mineral world,mineral kingdom; unorganized matter, inorganic matter, brute matter, inanimate matter.

[Science of the mineral kingdom] mineralogy, geology, geognosy, geoscopy; metallurgy, metallography; lithology; oryctology|, oryctography|.

V. turn to dust; mineralize, fossilize.

Adj. inorganic, inanimate, inorganized; lithoidal; azoic; mineral.

359. Life[edit]

N. life, vitality, viability; animation; vital spark, vital flame, soul, spirit.

respiration, wind; breath of life, breath of one's nostrils; oxygen, air.

[devices to sustain respiration] respirator, artificial respirator, heart and lung machine, iron lung; medical devices &c. 662.

lifeblood; Archeus; existence &c. 1.

vivification; vital force; vitalization; revivification &c. 163; Prometheus; life to come &c. (destiny) 152.

[Science of life] physiology, biology; animal ecology.

nourishment, staff of life &c. (food) 298.

genetics, heredity, inheritance, evolution, natural selection, reproduction (production) 161.

microbe, aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, obligate aerobe, obligate anaerobe, halophile[Microbiol], methanogen[Microbiol], archaebacteria[Microb], microaerophile[Microbiol].

animal &c. 366; vegetable &c. 367.

artificial life, robot, robotics, artificial intelligence.

[vital signs] breathing, breathing rate, heartbeat, pulse, temperature.

preservation of life, healing (medicine) 662.

V. be alive &c. adj.; live, breathe, respire; subsist &c. (exist) 1; walk the earth "strut and fret one's hour upon the stage" [Macbeth]; be spared.

see the light, be born, come into the world, fetch breath, draw breath, fetch the breath of life, draw the breath of life; quicken; revive; come to life.

give birth to &c. (produce) 161; bring to life, put into life, vitalize; vivify, vivificate; reanimate &c. (restore) 660; keep alive, keep body and soul together, keep the wolf from the door; support life.

hive nine lives like a cat.

Adj. living, alive; in life, in the flesh, in the land of the living; on this side of the grave, above ground, breathing, quick, animated; animative; lively &c. (active) 682; all alive and kicking; tenacious of life; full of life, yeasty.

vital, vitalic; vivifying, vivified, &c. v.; viable, zoetic; Promethean.

Adv. vivendi causa[Lat].

Phr. atqui vivere militare est [Lat][Seneca]; non est vivere sed valere vita [Lat][Marial].

360. Death[edit]

N. death; decease, demise; dissolution, departure, obit, release, rest, quietus, fall; loss, bereavement; mortality, morbidity.

end of life &c. 67, cessation of life &c. 142, loss of life, extinction of life, ebb of life &c. 359.

death warrant, death watch, death rattle, death bed; stroke of death, agonies of death, shades of death, valley of death, jaws of death, hand of death; last breath, last gasp, last agonies; dying day, dying breath, dying agonies; chant du cygne[Fr]; rigor mortis[Lat]; Stygian shore.

King of terrors, King Death; Death; doom &c. (necessity) 601; "Hell's grim Tyrant" [Pope].

euthanasia; break up of the system; natural death, natural decay; sudden death, violent death; untimely end, watery grave; debt of nature; suffocation, asphyxia; fatal disease &c. (disease) 655; death blow &c. (killing) 361.

necrology, bills of mortality, obituary; death song &c. (lamentation) 839.

V. die, expire, perish; meet one's death, meet one's end; pass away, be taken; yield one's breath, resign one's breath; resign one's being, resign one's life; end one's days, end one's life, end one's earthly career; breathe one's last; cease to live, cease to breathe; depart this life; be no more &c. adj.; go off, drop off, pop off; lose one's life, lay down one's life, relinquish one's life, surrender one's life; drop into the grave, sink into the grave; close one's eyes; fall dead, drop dead, fall down dead, drop down dead; break one's neck; give up the ghost, yield up the ghost; be all over with one.

pay the debt to nature, shuffle off this mortal coil, take one's last sleep; go the way of all flesh; hand in one's checks, pass in one's checks, hand in one's chips, pass in one's chips [U.S.]; join the greater number, join the majority; come to dust, turn to dust; cross the Stygian ferry, cross the bar; go to one's long account, go to one's last home, go to Davy Jones's locker, go to the wall; receive one's death warrant, make one's will, step out, die a natural death, go out like the snuff of a candle; come to an untimely end; catch one's death; go off the hooks, kick the bucket, buy the farm, hop the twig, turn up one's toes; die a violent death &c. (be killed) 361.

Adj. dead, lifeless; deceased, demised, departed, defunct, extinct; late, gone, no more; exanimate, inanimate; out of the world, taken off, released; departed this life &c. v.; dead and gone; dead as a doornail, dead as a doorpost, dead as a mutton, dead as a herring, dead as nits; launched into eternity, gone to one's eternal reward, gone to meet one's maker, pushing up daisies, gathered to one's fathers, numbered with the dead.

dying &c. v.; moribund, morient|; hippocratic; in articulo, in extremis; in the jaws of death, in the agony of death; going off; aux abois[Fr]; one one's last legs, on one's death bed; at the point of death, at death's door,, at the last gasp; near one's end, given over, booked; with one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the grave.

stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c. (killing) 361.

Adv. post obit, post mortem[Lat].

Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one's days are numbered, one's hour is come, one's race is run, one's doom is sealed; Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is out of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Lat][Vergil]; de mortuis nil nisi bonum[Lat]; dulce et decorum est pro patria mori [Lat][Horace]; honesta mors turpi vita potior [Lat][Tacitus]; "in adamantine chains shall death be bound" [Pope]; mors ultima linea rerum est [Lat][Girace];; ominia mors aequat [Lat][Claudianus]; "Spake the grisly Terror" [Paradise Lost]; "the lone couch of this everlasting sleep" [Shelley]; nothing is certain but death and taxes.

361. Killing[edit]

[Destruction of live; violent death.]

N. killing &c. v.; homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation|, iccusion|; effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage, butchery; battue.

massacre; fusillade, noyade; thuggery, Thuggism.

deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c. (capital punishment) 972; judicial murder; martyrdom.

butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat, garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur; guet-a-pens; gallows, executioner &c. (punishment) 975; man-eater, apache, hatchet man [U.S.], highbinder [U.S.].

regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide, foeticide, uxoricide, vaticide.

suicide, felo de se, hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath; immolation, auto da fe, holocaust.

suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c. v.; lapidation.

deadly weapon &c. (arms) 727; Aceldama.

[Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthisozoics; sport, sporting; the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig- sticking; sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod; slaughterhouse, meat packing plant, shambles, abattoir.

fatal accident, violent death, casualty.

V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher, slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of life; make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle, do for.

strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop the breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown.

saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate; stab, run through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the edge of the sword.

shoot dead; blow one's brains out; brain, knock on the head; stone, lapidate; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quietus, give a coupe de grace.

behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c. (execute) 972.

hunt, shoot &c. n.

cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity, send to one's last account, sign one's death warrant, strike the death knell of.

give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck; wade knee deep in blood, imbrue one's hands in blood.

die a violent death, welter in one's blood; dash out one's brains, blow out one's brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all.

Adj. killing &c. v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary, sanguinolent; blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed; bloody, bloody minded; ensanguined, gory; thuggish.

mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous|, lethiferous; unhealthy &c. 657; internecine; suicidal.

sporting; piscatorial, piscatory.

Adv. in at the death.

Phr. "assassination has never changed the history of the world" [Disraeli].

362. Corpse[edit]

N. corpse, corse, carcass, cadaver, bones, skeleton, dry bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae[Lat], remains, mortal remains, dust, ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for fishes; tenement of clay this mortal coil.

shade, ghost, manes.

organic remains, fossils.

Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c. 363; sapromyiophyllous.

363. Interment[edit]

N. interment, burial, sepulture; inhumation|; obsequies, exequies; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile; cremation.

funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell, tolling; dirge &c. (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march, muffled drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral oration, funeral sermon; epitaph.

graveclothes, shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement.

coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque, cinerary urn.

grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum, Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial place, burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God's acre; tope, cromlech, barrow, tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house, dead house; morgue; lich gate; burning ghat; crematorium, crematory; dokhma, mastaba, potter's field, stupa, Tower of Silence.

sexton, gravedigger.

monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone; memento mori[Lat]; hatchment, stone; obelisk, pyramid.

exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem examination[Lat]; zoothapsis.

V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm, mummify; toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn.

exhume, disinter, unearth.

Adj. burried &c. v.; burial, funereal, funebrial; mortuary, sepulchral, cinerary; elegiac; necroscopic.

Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem[Lat]; beneath the sod.

Phr. hic jacet[Lat], ci-git[Fr]; RIP; requiescat in pace[Lat]; "the lone couch of his everlasting sleep" [Shelley]; "without a grave- unknell'd, uncoffin'd, and unknown" [Byron]; "in the dark union of insensate dust" [Byron]; "the deep cold shadow of the tomb" [Moore].

Special Vitality[edit]

364. Animality[edit]

N. animal life; animation, animality, animalization; animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.

flesh, flesh and blood; physique; strength &c. 159.

Adj. fleshly,human, corporeal.

365. Vegetability[edit]

N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability|; vegetality.

V. vegetate, grow roots, put down roots.

Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive.

366. Animal[edit]

N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation.

beast, brute, creature, critter [US dialect], wight, created being; creeping thing, living thing; dumb animal, dumb creature; zoophyte.

[major divisions of animals] mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, crustacean, shellfish, mollusk, worm, insect, arthropod, microbe.

[microscopic animals] microbe, animalcule &c. 193.

[reptiles] alligator, crocodile; saurian; dinosaur [extinct]; snake, serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick.

[amphibians] frog, toad.

[fishes] trout, bass, tuna, muskelunge, sailfish, sardine, mackerel.

[insects] ant, mosquito, bee, honeybee.

[arthropods] tardigrade, spider.

[classificatiopn by number of feet] biped, quadruped.

flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals; game, ferae naturae[Lat]; beasts of the field, fowls of the air, denizens of the sea; black game, black grouse; blackcock, duck, grouse, plover, rail, snipe.

[domesticated mammals] horse &c. (beast of burden) 271; cattle, kine, ox; bull, bullock; cow, milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn; sheep; lamb, lambkin; ewe, ram, tup; pig, swine, boar, hog, sow; steer, stot; tag, teg; bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, dog, cat.

[dogs] dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog, watch dog, sheep dog, shepherd's dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog, toy dog, bull dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag hound, deer hound, fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel, pointer, setter, retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel; pug, poodle; turnspit; terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie Dinmont; collie.

[cats][generally] feline, puss, pussy; grimalkin; gib cat, tom cat.

[wild mammals] fox, Reynard, vixen, stag, deer, hart, buck, doe, roe; caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox, sambar.

bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer, partlet, rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes, feathered songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch; aberdevine, cushat, cygnet, ringdove, siskin, swan, wood pigeon.

[undesirable animals] vermin, varmint[Western US], pest.

Adj. animal, zoological

equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy; piscatory, piscatorial; molluscous, vermicular; gallinaceous, rasorial, solidungulate, soliped.

367. Vegetable[edit]

N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure.

plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass.

annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic.

timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst, frith, holt, weald, park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice, bocage, tope, clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood, brushwood; scrub; boscage, bosk, ceja[Sp], chaparal, motte [U.S.].; arboretum &c. 371.

bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze, gorse, whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary; sedge, rush, weed; fungus, mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva, mold; growth; alfalfa, alfilaria, banyan; blow, blowth; floret, petiole; pin grass, timothy, yam, yew, zinnia.

foliage, branch, bough, ramage, stem, tigella; spray &c. 51; leaf.

flower, blossom, bine; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree; pulse, legume.

Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive, vegitous|; herbaceous, herbal; botanic; sylvan, silvan; arborary, arboreous, arborescent, arborical|; woody, grassy; verdant, verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous, ligneous; wooden, leguminous; vosky, cespitose, turf-like, turfy; endogenous, exogenous.

Phr. "green-robed senators of mighty woods" [Keats]; "this is the forest primeval" [Longfellow].

368. Zoology[edit]

[The science of animals.]

N. zoology, zoonomy, zoography, zootomy; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal physiology, comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy.

anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology, malacology, helminthology[Med], entomology, oryctology, paleontology, mastology, vermeology; ichthy &c. ichthyotomy; taxidermy.

zoologist &c.

Adj. zoological &c. n.

369. Botany[edit]

[The science of plants.]

N. botany; physiological botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography, phytology, phytotomy; vegetable physiology, herborization, dendrology, mycology, fungology, algology; flora, romona; botanic garden &c. (garden) 371; hortus siccus[Lat], herbarium, herbal.

botanist &c.; herbist, herbarist, herbalist, herborist, herbarian.

V. botanize, herborize.

Adj. botanical &c. n.; botanic.

370. Husbandry[edit]

[The economy or management of animals.]

N. husbandry, taming &c. v.; circuration, zoohygiantics; domestication, domesticity; manege[Fr], veterinary art; farriery; breeding, pisciculture.

menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary, alveary, beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond.

phthisozoics &c. (killing) 361[Destruction of animals]; euthanasia, sacrifice, humane destruction.

neatherd, cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper; trainer, breeder; apiarian, apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy, cow puncher [U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero, veterinarian, vet, veterinary surgeon.

cage &c. (prison) 752; hencoop, bird cage, cauf; range, sheepfold, &c. (inclosure) 232.

V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage, bridle, &c. (restrain) 751.

Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

371. Agriculture[edit]

[The economy or management of plants.]

N. agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics; tillage, agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture, arboriculture, floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture.

husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor, agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil, woodcutter, backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron, viticulturist; Triptolemus.

field, meadow, garden; botanic garden, winter garden, ornamental garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden; nursery; green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot; grassplot, grassplat, lawn; park &c. (pleasure ground) 840; parterre, shrubbery, plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery, pinetum, orchard; vineyard, vinery; orangery; farm &c. (abode) 189.

V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut; manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow, harrow, rake, weed, lop and top; backset [U.S.].

Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic.

arable, predial, rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

372. Mankind[edit]

N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human kind, human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation.

[Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny, anthropography, anthroposophy; ethnology, ethnography; humanitarian.

human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow creature, mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul, living soul; earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae[Lat]; quidam[Lat].

people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community, community at large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm; commonweal, commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c. (commonalty) 876; population &c. (inhabitant) 188.

tribe, clan (paternity) 166; family (consanguinity) 11.

cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves.

Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public, social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid.

Phr. "am I not a man and a brother?" [Wedgwood].

373. Man[edit]

N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c. (adolescence) 131; gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight|!, swain, fellow, blade, beau, elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c. (married man) 903; Mr., mister; boy &c. (youth) 129.

[Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck, horse, entire horse, stallion; gibcat, tomcat; he goat, Billy goat; ram, tup; bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot.


homosexual, gay, queen[slang].

V. masculinize

Adj. male, he-, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.

Pron. he, him, his.

Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Lat][Mar.]; homo homini aut deus aut lupus [Lat][Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est [Lat][Syrus].

374. Woman[edit]

N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.

feminality, muliebrity; womanhood &c. (adolescence) 131.

womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.

dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs. lady, donna belle[Sp], matron, dowager, goody, gammer; Frau[Ger], frow, Vrouw[Dutch], rani; good woman, good wife; squaw; wife &c. (marriage) 903; matronage, matronhood.

bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.

nymph, wench, grisette; girl &c. (youth) 129.

[Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean, henhussy, mollycoddle, muff, old woman.

[Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny goat, tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.


estrogen, oestrogen.

consanguinity &c. 166[female relatives], paternity &c. 11.

lesbian, dyke[slang].

V. feminize.

Adj. female, she-; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly, wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic, gynaecic.

Pron. she, her, hers.'

Phr. "a perfect woman nobly planned" [Wordsworth]; "a lovely lady garmented in white" [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan [Ger][Goethe]; "earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected" [Lowell]; es de vidrio la mujer[Sp]; "she moves a goddess and she looks a queen" [Pope]; "the beauty of a lovely woman is like music" [G. Eliot]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat][Vergil]; "woman is the lesser man" [Tennyson].

374a. Sexuality[edit]

Sexuality [human]

N. sex, sexuality, gender; male, masculinity, maleness &c. 373; female, femininity &c. 374.

sexual intercourse, copulation, mating, coitus, sex; lovemaking, marital relations, sexual union; sleeping together, carnal knowledge.

sex instinct, sex drive, libido, lust, concupiscence;.hots, horns [coll]; arousal, heat, rut, estrus, oestrus; tumescence; erection, hard-on, boner.

masturbation, self-gratification, autoeroticism, onanism, self-abuse.

orgasm, climax, ejaculation.

sexiness, attractiveness; sensuality, voluptuousness.

[sexual intercourse outside of marriage] fornication, adultery.

[person who is sexy] sex symbol, sex goddess; stud, hunk.

one-night stand.

pornography, porn, porno; hardcore pornography, softcore pornography; pin-up, cheesecake; beefcake; Playboy[magazines with sexual photos], Esquire, Hustler.

[unorthodox sexual activity] perversion, deviation, sexual abnormality; fetish, fetishism; homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality; sodomy, buggery; pederasty; sadism. masochism, sado-masochism; incest.

V. mate, copulate; make love, have intercourse, fornicate, have sex, do it, sleep together, fuck[vulg.]; sleep around, play the field..

masturbate, jerk off[coll.], jack off[coll.], play with oneself.

have the hots[coll]; become aroused, get hot; have an erection, get it up.

come, climax, ejaculate.

Adj. sexy, erotic, sexual, carnal, sensual.

hot, horny, randy, rutting; passionate, lusty, hot-blooded, libidinous; up, in the mood.

homosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual.


Sensation in General[edit]

375. Physical sensibility[edit]

N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c. adj.; physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity, aesthetics; moral sensibility &c. 822.

sensation, impression; consciousness &c. (knowledge) 490.

external senses.

V. be sensible of &c. adj. ; feel, perceive.

render sensible &c. adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.

cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an impression.

Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient; conscious &c. (aware) 490.

acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.

Adv. to the quick.

Phr. "the touch'd needle trembles to the pole" [Pope].

376. Physical insensibility[edit]

N. insensibility, physical insensibility; obtuseness &c. adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia[Med], anaesthesia; sleep &c. 823; hemiplegia, motor paralysis; vegetable state; coma.

anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous oxide, laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen[ISA:chemsubcfs]; refrigeration.

V. be insensible &c. adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide.

render insensible &c. adj.; anaesthetize, blunt, pall, obtund, benumb, paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c. n.; stupefy, stun.

Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient, callous, thick-skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof, obtuse, dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

377. Physical pleasure[edit]

N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification, hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c. adj.; dissipation, round of pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow &c. (support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of downs, bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c. (intemperance) 954.

treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice[Fr]; dainty &c. 394; bonne bouche[Fr].

source of pleasure &c. 829; happiness &c. (mental enjoyment) 827.

V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy, relish; luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat up, wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips.

live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c. adv.; bask in the sunshine, faire ses choux gras[Fr]..

give pleasure &c. 829.

Adj. enjoying &c. v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable, cosy, snug, in comfort, at ease.

pleasant, agreeable &c. 829.

Adv. in comfort &c. n.; on a bed of roses &c. n.; at one's ease.

Phr. ride si sapis [Lat][Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus [Lat][Juvenal].

378. Physical pain[edit]

N. pain; suffering, sufferance, suffrance; bodily pain, physical pain, bodily suffering, physical suffering, body pain; mental suffering &c. 828; dolour, ache; aching &c. v.; smart; shoot, shooting; twinge, twitch, gripe, headache, stomach ache, heartburn, angina, angina pectoris[Lat]; hurt, cut; sore, soreness; discomfort, malaise; cephalalgia[Med], earache, gout, ischiagra, lumbago, neuralgia, odontalgia, otalgia, podagra, rheumatism, sciatica; tic douloureux[Fr], toothache, tormina, torticollis.

spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes; crick, stitch; thrill, convulsion, throe; throb &c. (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink.

sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting, gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain.

anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation, crucifixion; martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection.

V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c. n.; suffer, ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate; writhe, wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles.

give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite, gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring, convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; cruciate, excruciate|; break on the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c. (punish) 972; grate on the ear &c. (harsh sound) 410.

Adj. in pain &c. n., in a state of pain; pained &c. v.; gouty, podagric, torminous.

painful; aching &c. v.; sore, raw.

Special Sensation[edit]

(1) Touch[edit]

379. Touch[edit]

[Sensation of pressure]

N. touch; tact, taction, tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation; manipulation; massage.

[Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler, antenna; palpus.

V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble; twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over; manipulate, wield; throw out a feeler.

Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

380. Sensations of touch[edit]

N. itching, pruritis &c. v[Med].; titillation, formication, aura; stereognosis.

V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle, titillate.

Adj. itching &c. v.; stereognostic, titillative.

381. Numbness[edit]

[insensibility to touch.]

N. numbness &c. (physical insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.

V. benumb &c. 376.

Adj. numb; benumbed &c. v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.

(2) Heat[edit]

382. Heat[edit]

N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor, calidity; incalescence, incandescence; glow, flush; fever, hectic.

phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze; bonfire; firework, pyrotechnics, pyrotechny; wildfire; sheet of fire, lambent flame; devouring element; adiathermancy; recalescence[Phys].

summer, dog days; canicular days; baking &c. 384 heat, white heat, tropical heat, Afric heat, Bengal heat, summer heat, blood heat; sirocco, simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c. 384.

sun &c. (luminary) 423.

[Science of heat] pyrology; thermology, thermotics, thermodynamics; thermometer &c. 389.

[thermal units] calorie, gram-calorie, small calorie; kilocalorie, kilogram calorie, large calorie; British Thermal Unit, B.T.U.; therm, quad.

[units of temperature] degrees Kelvin, kelvins, degrees centigrade, degrees Celsius; degrees Fahrenheit.

V. be hot &c. adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek, stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, blister, broil, blaze, flame; smolder; parch, fume, pant.

heat &c. (make hot) 384; recalesce; thaw, give.

Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal, thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow.

sunny, torrid, tropical, estival|!, canicular, steamy; close, sultry, stifling, stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c. v.; baking &c. 384.

red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c. v. hot, piping hot; like a furnace, like an oven; burning, hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot enough to roast an ox, hot enough to boil an egg.

fiery; incandescent, incalescent; candent, ebullient, glowing, smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c. v.; in flames, blazing, in a blaze; alight, afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished; smoldering; in a heat, in a glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat; sudorific; sweltering, sweltered; blood hot, blood warm; warm as a toast, warm as wool.

volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal|!, isothermic|!, isotheral|!.

Phr. not a breath of air;," whirlwinds of tempestuous fire " [Paradise Lost].

383. Cold[edit]

N. cold, coldness &c. adj.; frigidity, inclemency, fresco.

winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla; wind-chill factor.

[forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost, hard frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U. S.], lolly [N. Am.]; icicle, thick-ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe berg; glacier; nev�e, serac; pruina.

[cold substances] freezing mixture, dry ice, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium.

[Sensation of cold] chilliness &c. adj.; chill; shivering &c. v.; goose skin, horripilation; rigor; chattering of teeth; numbness, frostbite.

V. be cold &c. adj[intrans.].; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble, shudder, didder, quiver; freeze, freeze to death, perish with cold.

[transitive] chill, freeze &c. (render cold) 385; horripilate, make the skin crawl, give one goose flesh.

Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; icy; gelid, frigid, algid; fresh, keen, bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous, cutting, nipping, piercing, pinching; clay-cold; starved &c. (made cold) 385; , chilled to the bone, shivering &c. v.; aguish, transi de froid[Fr]; frostbitten, frost-bound, frost-nipped.

cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold as a frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool as custard.

icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose, wintry, brumal, hibernal, boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal; hyperborean, hyperboreal; icebound; frozen out.

unwarmed, unthawed; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal, isocheimenal, isocheimic.

frozen, numb, frost-bitten.

Adv. coldly, bitterly &c. adj.; pierre fendre[Fr];

384. Calefaction[edit]

N. increase of temperature; heating &c. v.; calefaction, tepefaction, torrefaction; melting, fusion; liquefaction &c. 335; burning &c. v.; ambustion, combustion; incension|, accension; concremation, cremation; scorification; cautery, cauterization; ustulation, calcination; cracking, refining; incineration, cineration; carbonization; cupellation[Chem].

ignition, inflammation, adustion, flagration| ; deflagration, conflagration; empyrosis, incendiarism; arson; auto dafe[Fr].

boiling &c. v.; coction, ebullition, estuation, elixation|, decoction; ebullioscope; geyser; distillation (vaporization) 336.

furnace &c. 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c. (lining) 224; clothing &c. 225.

still; refinery; fractionating column, fractionating tower, cracking tower.

match &c. (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse[Fr];

[biological effects resembling the effects of heat][substances causing a burning sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer; caustic, lunar caustic, alkali, apozem, moxa; acid, aqua fortis[Lat], aqua regia; catheretic, nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric acid[ISA:CHEMSUB], nitromuriatic acid[ISA:CHEMSUBPREFIX]; radioactivity, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta rays, X-rays, radiation, cosmic radiation, background radiation, radioactive isotopes, tritium, uranium, plutonium, radon, radium.

sunstroke, coup de soleil[Fr]; insolation.

[artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics, crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra cotta[Sp], brick, clinker.

[products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers, soot; slag.

[products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal; wood alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha[ISA:CHEMSUB], fuel oil (fuel) 388; wax, paraffin; residue, tar.

inflammability, combustibility.

[Transmission of heat] diathermancy, transcalency, conduction; convection; radiation, radiant heat; heat conductivity, conductivity.

[effects of heat 2.] thermal expansion; coefficient of expansion.

V. heat, warm, chafe, stive, foment; make hot &c. 382; sun oneself, sunbathe.

go up in flames, burn to the ground (flame) 382.

fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite, strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle, relume; fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the fire, blow the fire; make a bonfire of.

melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c. 335.

burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake, torrefy, scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char, calcine, incinerate; smelt, scorify; reduce to ashes; burn to a cinder; commit to the flames, consign to the flames.

boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to rags.

take fire, catch fire; blaze &c. (flame) 382.

Adj. heated &c. v.; molten, sodden; r�chauff�; heating &c. v.; adust.

inflammable, combustible; diathermal, diathermanous; burnt &c. v.; volcanic, radioactive.

385. Refrigeration[edit]

N. refrigeration, infrigidation, reduction of temperature; cooling &c. v.; congelation, conglaciation| ; ice &c. 383; solidification &c. (density) 321; ice box (refrigerator) 385..

extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth, amianthus; earth-flax, mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade (incombustibility) 388a.

incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj. (insulation) 388a.

air conditioning[residential cooling], central air conditioning; air conditioner; fan, attic fan; dehumidifier.

V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate; benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate, nip, cut, pierce, bite, make one's teeth chatter,

damp, slack quench; put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out (incombustibility) 388a..

Adj. cooled &c. v.; frozen out; cooling &c. v.; frigorific.

386. Furnace[edit]

N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; cracker; hearth, focus, combustion chamber; athanor, hypocaust, reverberatory; volcano; forge, fiery furnace; limekiln; Dutch oven; tuyere, brasier, salamander, heater, warming pan; boiler, caldron, seething caldron, pot; urn, kettle; chafing-dish; retort, crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons; muffle furnace, induction furnace; electric heater, electric furnace, electric resistance heat.

[steel-making furnace] open-hearth furnace.

fireplace, gas fireplace; coal fire, wood fire; fire-dog, fire-irons; grate, range, kitchener; caboose, camboose; poker, tongs, shovel, ashpan, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; ashdrop; frying-pan, stew-pan, backlog.

[area near a fireplace] hearth, inglenook.

[residential heating methods] oil burner, gas burner, Franklin stove, pot-bellied stove; wood-burning stove; central heating, steam heat, hot water heat, gas heat, forced hot air, electric heat, heat pump; solar heat, convective heat.

hothouse, bakehouse, washhouse; laundry; conservatory;

sudatory; Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, steam bath, sauna, warm bath; vaporarium.

387. Refrigerator[edit]

N. refrigerator, refrigeratory; frigidarium; cold storage, cold room, cold laboratory; icehouse, icepail, icebag, icebox; cooler, damper, polyurethane cooler; wine cooler.

freezer, deep freeze, dry ice freezer, liquid nitrogen freezer, refigerator-freezer.

freezing mixture[refrigerating substances], ice, ice cubes, blocks of ice, chipped ice; liquid nitrogen, dry ice, dry ice-acetone, liquid helium.

388. Fuel[edit]

N. fuel, firing, combustible.

[solid fuels] coal, wallsend, anthracite, culm, coke, carbon, charcoal, bituminous coal, tar shale; turf, peat, firewood, bobbing, faggot, log; cinder &c. (products of combustion) 384; ingle, tinder, touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense; port-fire; fire-barrel, fireball, brand; amadou, bavin; blind coal, glance coal; German tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U. S.]; solid fueled rocket.

[fuels for candles and lamps] wax, paraffin wax, paraffin oil; lamp oil, whale oil.

[liquid fuels] oil, petroleum, gasoline, high octane gasoline, nitromethane[ISA:CHEMSUB@fuel], petrol, gas, juice [coll.], gasohol, alcohol, ethanol, methanol, fuel oil, kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil, number 2 oil, number 4 oil, naphtha; rocket fuel, high specific impulse fuel, liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, lox.

[gaseous fuels] natural gas, synthetic gas, synthesis gas, propane, butane, hydrogen.

brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer, congreve, vesuvian, vesta, fusee, locofoco; linstock.

candle &c. (luminary) 423; oil &c. (grease) 356.

Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable; high octane, high specific impulse; heat of combustion,.

388a. Insulation[edit]

N. {ant. of 388} insulation, incombustible material, noncombustible material; fire retardant, flame retardant; fire wall, fire door.

incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj.

extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth, amianthus; earth-flax, mountain-flax; asbestos; fireman, fire fighter, fire eater, fire department, fire brigade, engine company; pumper, fire truck, hook and ladder, aerial ladder, bucket; fire hose, fire hydrant.

[forest fires] backfire, firebreak, trench; aerial water bombardment.

wet blanket; fire extinguisher, soda and acid extinguisher, dry chemical extinguisher, CO-two extinguisher, carbon tetrachloride, foam; sprinklers, automatic sprinkler system; fire bucket, sand bucket.

[warning of fire] fire alarm, evacuation alarm,

[laws to prevent fire] fire code, fire regulations, fire; fire inspector; code violation, citation.

V. go out, die out, burn out; fizzle.

extinguish; damp, slack, quench, smother; put out, stamp out; douse, snuff, snuff out, blow out.

fireproof, flameproof.

Adj. incombustible; nonflammable, uninflammable, unflammable; fireproof.

389. Thermometer[edit]

N. thermometer, thermometrograph, mercury thermometer, alcohol thermometer, clinical thermometer, dry-bulb thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer, Anschutz thermometer[Ger], gas thermometer, telethermometer; color-changing temperature indicator; thermopile, thermoscope; pyrometer, calorimeter, bomb calorimeter; thermistor, thermocouple. [temperature-control devices] thermostat, thermoregulator.

(3) Taste[edit]

390. Taste[edit]

N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish; sapor|, sapidity; twang, smack, smatch| ; aftertaste, tang.

tasting; degustation, gustation.

palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.

V. taste, savor, smatch, smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate &c. (savory) 394; smack the lips.

Adj. sapid, saporific; gustable|, gustatory; gustful; strong, gamy; palatable &c. 394.

391. Insipidity[edit]

N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c. adj.

V. be tasteless &c. adj.

Adj. bland, void of taste &c. 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless|, savorless; ingustible|, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat, vapid, fade, wishy-washy, mild; untasted.

392. Pungency[edit]

N. pungency, piquance, piquancy, poignancy haut- gout, strong taste, twang, race.

sharpness &c. adj.; acrimony; roughness &c. (sour) 392; unsavoriness &c. 395.

mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c. (condiment) 393; niter, saltpeter, brine (saltiness) 392a; carbonate of ammonia; sal ammoniac, sal volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn (acridity) 401a.

dram, cordial, nip.

nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid, smoke; segar; cigar, cigarette; weed; fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid, negro head, old soldier, rappee, stogy.

V. be pungent &c. adj.; bite the tongue.

render -pungent &c. adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle, brine, devil. smoke, chew, take snuff.

Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high- seasoned; gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant; spicy; seasoned &c. v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating, escharotic, meracious|; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c. (sour) 397; unsavory &c. 395

392a. Saltiness[edit]

N. saltiness.

niter, saltpeter, brine.

Adj. salty, salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a herring, salty as Lot's wife.

salty, racy (indecent) 961.

Phr. take it with a grain of salt.

392b. Bitterness[edit]

N. bitterness, acridness, acridity, acrimony; caustic, alkali; acerbity; gall, wormwood; bitters, astringent bitters.

[additive for alcoholic beverages]Angostura aromatic bitters.

sourness &c. 397; pungency &c. 392.

[bitter substances] alkaloids; turmeric.

Adj. bitter, bitterish, acrid, acerb, acerbic.

Phr. bitter as gall; bitter pill to take; sugar coating on a bitter pill.

393. Condiment[edit]

N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish, appetizer.

[exlist] salt; mustard, grey poupon mustard; pepper, black pepper, white pepper, peppercorn, curry, sauce piquante[Fr]; caviare, onion, garlic, pickle; achar, allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper, green pepper; chutney; cubeb, pimento.

[capsicum peppers] capsicum, red pepper, chili peppers, cayenne.

nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, oregano, cloves, fennel.

[herbs] pot herbs, parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme, bay leaves, marjoram.

[fragrant woods and gums] frankincense, balm, myrrh.

[from pods] paprika.

[from flower stigmas] saffron.

[from roots] ginger, turmeric.

V. season, spice, flavor, spice up &c. (render pungent) 392

394. Savoriness[edit]

N. savoriness &c. adj.; good taste, deliciousness, delectability.

relish, zest; appetizer.

tidbit, titbit, dainty, delicacy, tasty morsel; appetizer, hors d'ouvres[Fr.]; ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche[Fr]; game, turtle, venison; delicatessen.

V. be savory &c. adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter the palate.

render palatable &c. adj.

relish, like, smack the lips.

Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one's taste, good, palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful, toothsome; gustful, appetizing, lickerish, delicate, exquisite, rich, luscious, ambrosial, scrumptious, delightful.

Adv. per amusare la bocca

Phr[It]. cela se laisse manger[Fr].

395. Unsavoriness[edit]

N. unsavoriness &c. adj.; amaritude; acrimony, acridity (bitterness) 392b; roughness &c. (sour) 397; acerbity, austerity; gall and wormwood, rue, quassia, aloes; marah; sickener.

V. be unpalatable &c. adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the stomach.

Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweetened, unsweet; ill-flavored; bitter, bitter as gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough.

offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c. v.; nauseous; loathsome, fulsome; unpleasant &c. 830.

396. Sweetness[edit]

N. sweetness, dulcitude.

sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection, confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture, jam, julep; sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop, bonbon, jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson, glucose; maple sirup, maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai, sorghum, taffy.

nectar; hydromel, mead, meade, metheglin, honeysuckle, liqueur, sweet wine, aperitif.

[sources of sugar] sugar cane, sugar beets.

[sweet foods] desert, pastry, pie, cake, candy, ice cream, tart, puff, pudding (food) 298.

dulcification|, dulcoration|.

sweetener, corn syrup, cane sugar, refined sugar, beet sugar, dextrose; artificial sweetener, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, Sweet'N Low.

V. be sweet &c. adj.

render sweet &c. adj.; sweeten; edulcorate; dulcorate|, dulcify|; candy; mull. Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous; dulcet, candied, honied, luscious, lush, nectarious, melliferous; sweetened &c. v.

sweet as a nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.

sickly sweet.

Phr. eau sucr�e[Fr]; " sweets to the sweet " [Hamlet].

397. Sourness[edit]

N. sourness &c. adj.; acid, acidity, low pH; acetous fermentation, lactic fermentation.

vinegar, verjuice, crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.

V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c. adj.; set the teeth on edge.

render sour &c. adj.; acidify, acidulate.

Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous, acetose; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent, subacid[Chem]; styptic, hard, rough.

Phr. sour as a lemon.

(4) Odor[edit]

398. Odor[edit]

N. odor, smell, odorament|, scent, effluvium; emanation, exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor|, redolence.

sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c. v.; olfaction, olfactories.

[pleasant odor] fragrance &c. 400.


[animal with acute sense of smell] bloodhound, hound.

[smell detected by a hound] spoor.

V. have an odor &c. n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give out a smell &c. n.; reek, reek of; scent.

smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.

Adj. odorous, odoriferous; smelling, reeking, foul-smelling, strong- scented; redolent, graveolent, nidorous, pungent; putrid, foul.

[Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

399. Inodorousness[edit]

N. inodorousness; absence of smell, want of smell.

deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.

V. be inodorous &c. adj.; not smell.


Adj. inodorous, onodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting smell &c. 398.

deodorized, deodorizing.

400. Fragrance[edit]

N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet, essence, scent; sweet smell, aromatic perfume.

agalloch, agallochium; aloes wood; bay rum; calambac, calambour; champak, horehound[ISA:plant@mint], lign-aloes, marrubium, mint, muskrat, napha water, olibanum, spirit of myrcia.

essential oil.

incense; musk, frankincense; pastil, pastille; myrrh, perfumes of Arabia; otto, ottar, attar; bergamot, balm, civet, potpourri, pulvil|; nosegay; scentbag; sachet, smelling bottle, vinaigrette; eau de Cologne[Fr], toilet water, lotion, after-shave lotion; thurification.


[fragrant wood oils] eucalyptus oil, pinene.

V. be fragrant &c. adj.; have a perfume &c. n.; smell sweet.

scent[render fragrant], perfume, embalm.

Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, savory, balmy, scented, sweet-smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory; thuriferous; fragrant as a rose, muscadine, ambrosial.

401. Fetor[edit]

N. fetor; bad &c. adj. smell, bad odor; stench, stink; foul odor, malodor; empyreuma; mustiness &c. adj.; rancidity; foulness &c. (uncleanness) 653.

stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida; fungus, garlic; stinkpot; fitchet, fitchew, fourmart, peccary.

acridity &c. 401a.

V. have a bad smell &c. n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink like a polecat; smell strong &c. adj., smell offensively.

Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive, noisome, rank, rancid, reasty, tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy; olid, olidous|; nidorous; smelling, stinking; putrid &c. 653; suffocating, mephitic; empyreumatic.

401a. Acridity[edit]

N. acridity, astringency, bite.

[acrid substances] tear gas; smoke, acrid fumes.

Adj. acrid, biting, astringent, sharp, harsh; bitter &c. 392b.

(5) Sound[edit]

(I) Sound in General[edit]
402. Sound[edit]

N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation, tone; cadence; sonorousness &c. adj.; audibility; resonance &c. 408; voice &c. 580; aspirate; ideophone; rough breathing.

[Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology, phonography; diacoustics, diaphonics; phonetism.

V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound; resound &c. 408.

Adj. sounding; soniferous; sonorous, sonorific; resonant, audible, distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic.

Phr. "a thousand trills and quivering sounds " [Addison]; forensis strepitus[Lat].

403. Silence[edit]

N. silence; stillness &c. (quiet) 265; peace, hush, lull; muteness &c. 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence, deathlike silence.

V. be silent &c. adj.; hold one's tongue &c. (not speak) 585.

render silent &c. adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop; muzzle, put to silence &c. (render mute) 581.

Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c. v.; mute &c. 581.

soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c. (faint) 405.

Adv. silently &c. adj.; sub silentio[Lat].

Int. hush! silence! soft! whist! tush! chut! tut! pax[Lat]! be quiet! be silent! be still! shut up![rude]; chup! chup rao! tace[It]!

Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop, so quiet you could hear a pin drop; grosse Seelen dulden still [German]; le silence est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont pas sages [French]; le silence est le parti le plus sar de celui se d�fie de soi-meme[French]; "silence more musical than any song " [C. G. Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant[Latin]; better to be silent and thought a fool than to speak up and remove all doubt.

404. Loudness[edit]

N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang, clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation, roar, uproar, racket, hubbub, bobbery, fracas, charivari, trumpet blast, flourish of trumpets, fanfare, tintamarre, peal, swell, blast, larum, boom; bang (explosion) 406; resonance &c. 408.

vociferation, hullabaloo, &c. 411; lungs; Stentor. artillery, cannon; thunder.

V. be loud &c. adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, blare, fulminate, roar; resound &c. 408. speak up, shout &c. (vociferate) 411; bellow &c. (cry as an animal) 412.

rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring in the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend the ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre[Fr]; make one's windows shake, rattle the windows; awaken the echoes, startle the echoes; wake the dead.

Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full, powerful, noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous; thundering, deafening &c. v; trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear- deafening; piercing; obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the dead, enough to wake seven sleepers.

shrill &c. 410 clamorous &c. (vociferous) 411 stentorian, stentorophonic|.

Adv. loudly &c. adj. aloud; at the top of one's voice, at the top of one's lungs, lustily, in full cry.

Phr. the air rings with; "the deep dread-bolted thunder" [Lear].

405. Faintness[edit]

N. faintness &c. adj.; faint sound, whisper, breath; undertone, underbreath; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle; " still small voice."

hoarseness &c. adj.; raucity.

V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow; tinkle; mutter &c. (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate.

steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air.

Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled, muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing &c. v.; whispered &c. v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c. (melodious) 413; susurrant, susurrous.

Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce[Lat], between the teeth, aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine; out of earshot inaudibly &c. adj.

(II) Specific Sounds[edit]
406. Snap[edit]

[Sudden and violent sounds.]

N. snap &c. v.; rapping &c. v.; decrepitation, crepitation; report, thud; burst, explosion, blast, boom, discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.

squib, cracker, firecracker, cherry bomb, M80, gun, cap, cap gun, popgun.


bomb burst, atomic explosion, nuclear explosion (arms) 727.

[explosive substances] gunpowder, dynamite, gun cotton, nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, plastic explosive, plastique, TNT, cordite, trinitrotoluene, picric acid, picrates, mercury fulminate (arms) 727.

whack, wham, pow.

V. rap, snap, tap, knock, ping; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash; pop; slam, bang, blast, boom, clap, clang, clack, whack, wham; brustle; burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.

blow up, blow; detonate.

Adj. rapping &c. v.

Int. kaboom! whamo! Heewhack! pow!

407. Roll[edit]

N. roll &c. v.; drumming &c. v.; berloque, bombination, rumbling; tattoo, drumroll; dingdong; tantara; rataplan; whirr; ratatat, ratatat- tat; rubadub; pitapat; quaver, clutter, charivari, racket; cuckoo; repetition &c. 104; peal of bells, devil's tattoo; reverberation &c. 408.

[sound of railroad train rolling on rails] clickety-clack.

hum, purr.

[animals that hum] hummingbird.

[animals that purr] cat, kitten (animal sounds) 412.

V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack; bombinate.

hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.

drum in the ear, din in the ear.

Adj. rolling &c. v.; monotonous &c. (repeated) 104; like a bee in a bottle.

408. Resonance[edit]

N. resonance; ring &c. v.; ringing, tintinabulation &c. v.; reflexion[Brit], reflection, reverberation; echo, reecho; zap, zot[coll.]; buzz (hiss) 409.

low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note; bass; basso, basso profondo[It]; baritone, barytone; contralto.

[device to cause resonance] echo chamber, resonator.

[ringing in the ears] tinnitus[Med].

[devices which make a resonating sound] bell, doorbell, buzzer; gong, cymbals (musical instruments) 417.

[physical resonance] sympathetic vibrations; natural frequency, coupled vibration frequency; overtone; resonating cavity; sounding board, tuning fork.

[electrical resonance] tuning, squelch, frequency selection; resonator, resonator circuit; radio &c. @

[chemical resonance] resonant structure, aromaticity, alternating double bonds, non-bonded resonance; pi clouds, unsaturation, double bond (valence) @

V. resound, reverberate, reecho, resonate; ring, jingle, gingle, chink, clink; tink, tinkle; chime; gurgle &c. 405 plash, goggle, echo, ring in the ear.

Adj. resounding &c. v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient|, tintinnabulary; sonorous, booming, deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed, vibrant; hollow, sepulchral; gruff &c. (harsh) 410.

Phr. " sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh " [Hamlet]; echoing down the mountain and through the dell.

408a. Nonresonance[edit]

N. thud, thump, dead sound; nonresonance; muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.

V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound, deaden the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.

Adj. nonresonant, dead; dampened, muffled.

409. Sibilation[edit]

[Hissing sounds.]

N. sibilance, sibilation; zip; hiss &c. v.; sternutation; high note &c. 410.

[animals that hiss] goose, serpent, snake (animal sounds) 412.

[animals that buzz] insect, bug; bee, mosquito, wasp, fly.

[inanimate things that hiss] tea kettle, pressure cooker; air valve, pressure release valve, safety valve, tires, air escaping from tires, punctured tire; escaping steam, steam, steam radiator, steam release valve.

V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle; squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.

Adj. sibilant; hissing &c. v.; wheezy; sternutative.

410. Stridor[edit]

[Harsh sounds.]

N. creak &c. v.; creaking &c. v.; discord, &c. 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c. adj.; cacophony; cacoepy.

acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto, penny trumpet, voce di testa[It].

V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream &c. (cry) 411; yelp &c. (animal sound) 412; buzz &c. (hiss) 409.

set the teeth on edge, �corcher les oreilles[Fr]; pierce the ears, split the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the ear, jar upon the ear.

Adj. creaking &c. v.; stridulous, harsh, coarse, hoarse, horrisonous|, rough, gruff, grum, sepulchral, hollow.

sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing, high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c. 414; cacophonous.

411. Cry[edit]

N. cry &c. v.; voice &c. (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c. (animal) 412.

vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry, plaint; lungs; stentor.

V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell, bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak, shriek, shrill, squeak, squeal, squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup.

cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan. snore, snort; grunt &c. (animal sounds) 412.

vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing out, cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one's voice, shout at the top of one's voice, shout at the pitch of one's breath, thunder at the pitch of one's breath; s'�gosiller; strain the throat, strain the voice, strain the lungs; give a cry &c.

Adj. crying &c. v.; clamant, clamorous; vociferous; stentorian &c. (loud) 404; open-mouthed.

412. Ululation[edit]

N. cry &c. v.; crying &c. v.; bowwow, ululation, latration, belling; reboation; wood-note; insect cry, fritiniancy|, drone; screech owl; cuckoo.

wailing (lamentation) 839.

V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow; growl, snarl.

[specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; bow-wow, yelp [dog]; bay, bay at the moon [dog, wolf]; yap, yip, yipe, growl, yarr|, yawl, snarl, howl [dog, wolf]; grunt, gruntle; snort [pig, hog, swine, horse]; , squeak [swine, mouse]; neigh, whinny [horse]; bray [donkey, mule, hinny, ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat]; purr [cat]; caterwaul, pule [cats]; baa, bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle]; troat, croak, peep [frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack [duck]; honk, gaggle, guggle [goose]; crow, caw, squawk, screech, [crow]; cackle, cluck, clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle; hoot, hoo [owl]; chirp, cheep, chirrup, twitter, cuckoo, warble, trill, tweet, pipe, whistle [small birds]; hum [insects, hummingbird]; buzz [flying insects, bugs]; hiss [snakes, geese]; blatter; ratatat [woodpecker].

Adj. crying &c. v.; blatant, latrant, remugient, mugient; deep-mouthed, full-mouthed; rebellowing, reboant.

Adv. in full cry.

(III) Musical Sounds[edit]
413. Melody[edit]

N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme &c.(poetry) 597.

pitch, timbre, intonation, tone.

scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale, enharmonic scale; key, clef, chords.

modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation, suspension, resolution.

staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato, appoggiatura; acciaccatura.

note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high note &c.(shrillness) 410; low note &c. 408; interval; semitone; second, third, fourth &c.; diatessaron.

breve, semibreve[Mus], minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver, demisemiquaver, hemidemisemiquaver; sustained note, drone, burden.

tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic, mediant, dominant; submediant, subdominant; octave, tetrachord; major key, minor key, major scale, minor scale, major mode, minor mode; passage, phrase.

concord, harmony; emmeleia; unison, unisonance; chime, homophony; euphony, euphonism; tonality; consonance; consent; part.

[Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass, fundamental- bass; counterpoint; faburden.

piece of music &c. 415[Fr]; composer, harmonist, contrapuntist (musician) 416.

V. be harmonious &c. adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize, transpose; put in tune, tune, accord, string.

Adj. harmonious, harmonical; in concord &c. n., in tune, in concert; unisonant, concentual, symphonizing, isotonic, homophonous, assonant; ariose, consonant.

measured, rhythmical, diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic.

melodious, musical; melic; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet, canorous; mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery; euphonious, euphonic, euphonical; symphonious; enchanting &c. (pleasure-giving) 829; fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned.

Adv. harmoniously, in harmony; as one &c. adj.

Phr. " the hidden soul of harmony " [Milton].

414. Discord[edit]

N. discord , discordance; dissonance, cacophony, want of harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c. 410. Babel[Confused sounds]; Dutch concert, cat's concert; marrowbones and cleavers.

V. be discordant &c. adj. .; jar &c. (sound harshly) 410.

Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant; out of tune, tuneless; unmusical, untunable; unmelodious, immelodious; unharmonious, inharmonious; singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c. 410; jarring.

415. Music[edit]

N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c. 413; aria, arietta; piece of music[Fr], work, number, opus; sonata; rondo, rondeau[Fr]; pastorale, cavatina, roulade, fantasia, concerto, overture, symphony, variations, cadenza; cadence; fugue, canon, quodlibet, serenade, notturno [Italian], dithyramb; opera, operetta; oratorio; composition, movement; stave; passamezzo [Italian], toccata, Vorspiel [German].

instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and tweedledee, band, orchestra; concerted piece[Fr], potpourri, capriccio.

vocal music, vocalism; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn; song &c. (poem) 597; canticle, canzonet, cantata, bravura, lay, ballad, ditty, carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo, solfeggio.

Lydian measures; slow music, slow movement; adagio &c. adv.; minuet; siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c. (lament) 839; pibroch; martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c. (dance) 840.

solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett; septett; part song, descant, glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale; antiphon, antiphony; accompaniment, second, bass; score; bourdon, drone, morceau, terzetto.

composer &c. 413; musician &c. 416.

V. compose, perform &c. 416; attune.

Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious &c. 413; Wagnerian.

Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino; alla capella[It]; maestoso, moderato; allegro, allegretto; spiritoso, vivace, veloce; presto, prestissimo; con brio; capriccioso; scherzo, scherzando; legato, staccato, crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando, affettuoso; obbligato; pizzicato; desto.

Phr. " in notes by distance made more sweet " [Collins]; " like the faint exquisite music of a dream " [Moore]; " music arose with its voluptuous swell " [Byron]; " music is the universal language of mankind " [Longfellow]; " music's golden tongue " [Keats]; " the speech of angels " [Carlyle]; " will sing the savageness out of a bear " [Othello]; music hath charms to soothe the savage beast.

416. Musician[edit]

[Performance of Music.] 

N. musician, artiste, performer, player, minstrel; bard &c. (poet) 597;

[specific types of musicians] accompanist, accordionist, instrumentalist, organist, pianist, violinist, flautist; harper, fiddler, fifer, trumpeter, piper, drummer; catgut scraper.

band, orchestral waits.

vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter, chauntress, songstress; cantatrice.

choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel[Ger].

nightingale, philomel, thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides; sacred nine; Orpheus, Apollo, the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore; tuneful nine, tuneful quire.

composer &c. 413.

performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization.

V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike the lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn; doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c. (instruments) 417; thrum, strum, beat time.

execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second; compose, set to music, arrange.

sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt, purl, quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa; intone.

have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.

Adj. playing &c. v.; musical.

Adv. adagio, andante &c. (music) 415.

417. Musical instrument[edit]

N. musical instruments; band; string- band, brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina.

monochord[Stringed instruments], polychord; harp, lyre, lute, archlute; mandola, mandolin, mandoline; guitar; zither; cither, cithern; gittern, rebeck, bandurria, bandura, banjo; bina, vina; xanorphica.

viol, violin; fiddle, kit; viola, viola d'amore[Fr], viola di gamba[It]; tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol; theorbo, double base, contrabasso, violone, *psaltery; bow, fiddlestick.

piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord, manichord; clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy, vielle, pianino, Eolian harp. .

organ[Wind instruments]; harmonium, harmoniphon; American organ, barrel organ, hand organ; accordion, seraphina, concertina; humming top.

flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet; basset horn, corno di bassetto, oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais[Fr], corno Inglese, bassoon, double bassoon, contrafagotto, serpent, bass clarinet; bagpipes, union pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed instrument; sirene, pipe, pitch-pipe; sourdet; whistle, catcall; doodlesack, harmoniphone.

horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean|, clarion, trumpet, trombone, ophicleide; French horn, saxophone, sax [informal], buglehorn, saxhorn, flugelhorn, althorn, helicanhorn, posthorn; sackbut, euphonium, bombardon tuba.

[Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour|!, tambourine, tamborine; drum, tom-tom; tabor, tabret, tabourine, taborin; side drum, kettle drum; timpani, tympani; tymbal, timbrel, castanet, bones; musical glasses, musical stones; harmonica, sounding-board, rattle; tam-tam, zambomba.

[Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew's harp, musical box, harmonicon, xylophone.

sordine, sordet; sourdine, sourdet; mute.

(IV) Perception Of Sound[edit]
418. Hearing[edit]

[Sense of sound.]

N. hearing &c. v.; audition, auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.

acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct ear, musical ear; ear for music.

ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum, tympanum, tympanic membrane.

[devices to aid human hearing by amplifying sound] ear trumpet, speaking trumpet, hearing aid, stethoscope.

[distance within which direct hearing is possible] earshot, hearing distance, hearing, hearing range, sound, carrying distance.

[devices for talking beyond hearing distance] telephone[exlist], phone, telephone booth, intercom, house phone, radiotelephone, radiophone, wireless, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, car radio, police radio, two-way radio, walkie-talkie[military], handie-talkie, citizen's band, CB, amateur radio, ham radio, short-wave radio, police band, ship-to-shore radio, airplane radio, control tower communication; (communication) 525, 527, 529, 531, 532; electronic devices (POINFO @.

[devices for recording and reproducing recorded sound] phonograph, gramophone, megaphone, phonorganon.

[device to convert sound to electrical signals] microphone,directional microphone, mike, hand mike, lapel microphone.

[devices to convert recorded sound to electronic signals] phonograph needle, stylus, diamond stylus, pickup; reading head (electronic devices).

hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper, listener-in.

auditory, audience.

[science of hearing] otology, otorhinolaryngology.

[physicians specializing in hearing] otologist, otorhinolaryngologist.

V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen, pay attention, take heed; give an ear, lend an ear, bend an ear; catch, catch a sound, prick up one's ears; give ear, give a hearing, give audience to.

hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.

become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear, reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c. (resound) 4O8.

Adj. hearing &c. v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.

Adv. arrectis auribus[Lat].

Int. hark, hark ye! hear! list, listen! O yes! Oyez!

listen up [coll.]; listen here! hear ye! attention! achtung [German].

419. Deafness[edit]

N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity|; inaudibility, inaudibleness.

V. be deaf &c. adj.; have no ear; shut one's ears, stop one's ears, close one's ears; turn a deaf ear to.

render deaf, stun, deafen.

Adj. deaf, earless, surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing; deaf-mute, stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an adder, deaf as a beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker.

inaudible, out of hearing.

Phr. hear no evil.

(6) Light[edit]

(I) Light in General[edit]
420. Light[edit]

N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil; sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora.

day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; moonlight, starlight, sun &c. (luminary) 432 light; daylight, broad daylight, noontide light; noontide, noonday, noonday sun.

glow &c. v.; glimmering &c. v.; glint; play of light, flood of light; phosphorescence, lambent flame.

flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola.

spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c. v.; emication|, scintillation, flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration; flame &c. (fire) 382; lightning, levin, ignis fatuus[Lat], &c. (luminary) 423.

luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion[Brit], reflection; gloss, tinsel, spangle, brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence, refulgence; fulgor, fulgidity; dazzlement, resplendence, transplendency; luminousness &c. adj.; luminosity; lucidity; renitency|, nitency; radiance,, radiation; irradiation, illumination.

actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography, heliography; photometer &c. 445.

[Science of light] optics; photology, photometry; dioptrics, catoptrics.

[Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur, clear obscure, breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality.

reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity.

V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare, flare up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate, coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c. adj.; reflect light, daze, dazzle, bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate.

clear up, brighten.

lighten, enlighten; levin; light, light up; irradiate, shine upon; give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in, throw light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon; illume, illumine, illuminate; relume, strike a light; kindle &c. (set fire to) 384.

Adj. shining &c. v.; luminous, luminiferous; lucid, lucent, luculent, lucific, luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid, splendent, nitid, lustrous, shiny, beamy, scintillant, radiant, lambent; sheen, sheeny; glossy, burnished, glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday, tide; cloudless, clear; unclouded, unobscured.

gairish, garish; resplendent, transplendent; refulgent, effulgent; fulgid, fulgent; relucent, splendid, blazing, in a blaze, ablaze, rutilant, meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow. bright as silver; light as day, bright as day, light as noonday, bright as noonday, bright as the sun at noonday. actinic; photogenic[obs2], graphic; heliographic; heliophagous.

Phr. " a day for gods to stoop and men to soar " [Tennyson]; "dark with excessive bright" [Milton].

421. Darkness[edit]

N. darkness &c. adj., absence of light; blackness &c. (dark color) 431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c. (dimness) 422.

Cimmerian darkness, Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night; midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of night; blind man's holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be felt; palpable obscure; Erebus[Lat]; "the jaws of darkness " [Midsummer Night's Dream]; "sablevested night " [Milton].

shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy.

obscuration; occultation, adumbration, obumbration; obtenebration, offuscation|, caligation|; extinction; eclipse, total eclipse; gathering of the clouds.

shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c. (light) 420.


[perfectly black objects] black body; hohlraum[Phys]; black hole; dark star; dark matter, cold dark matter.

V. be dark &c. adj.

darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower; overcast, overshadow; eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate|; obumbrate, adumbrate; cast into the shade becloud, bedim, bedarken; cast a shade, throw a shade, spread a shade, cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a shadow, spread a shadow, cast gloom, throw gloom, spread gloom.

extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt.

turn out the lights, douse the lights, dim the lights, turn off the lights, switch off the lights.

Adj. dark, darksome, darkling; obscure, tenebrious, sombrous, pitch dark, pitchy, pitch black; caliginous; black &c. (in color) 431.

sunless, lightless &c. (see sun, light, &c. 423); somber, dusky; unilluminated &c. (see illuminate &c. 420); nocturnal; dingy, lurid, gloomy; murky, murksome; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c. (dim) 422; cloudy &c. (opaque) 426; darkened; &c. v.

dark as pitch, dark as a pit, dark as Erebus[Lat].

benighted; noctivagant!|, noctivagous!|.

Adv. in the dark, in the shade.

Phr. " brief as the lightning in the collied night " [M. N. D.]; " eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature " [P. L.]; " the blackness of the noonday night " [Longfellow]; " the prayer of Ajax was for light " [Longfellow].

422. Dimness[edit]

N. dimness &c. adj.; darkness &c. 421; paleness &c. (light color) 429.

half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of a shade; glimmer, gliming; nebulosity; cloud &c. 353; eclipse.

aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut time|; break of day, daybreak, dawn.

moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade, moonshine; starlight, owl's light, candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.

V. be dim, grow dim &c. adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower; fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].

render dim &c. adj.; dim, bedim, obscure; darken, tone down.

Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark 421.

faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c. (opaque) 426; blear; muggy|, fuliginous; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated, overcast, crepuscular, muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c. v.

pale &c. (colorless) 429; confused &c. (invisible) 447.

423. Luminary[edit]

N. luminary; light &c. 420; flame &c. (fire) 382. spark, scintilla; phosphorescence, fluorescence.

sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo, Aurora; star, orb; meteor, falling star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula, Aldebaran; constellation, galaxy; zodiacal light; anthelion; day star, morning star; Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; phosphor, phosphorus; sun dog|!; Venus.

aurora, polar lights; northern lights, aurora borealis; southern lights, aurora australis.

lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning, summer lightning; ball lightning, kugelblitz [German];

[chemical substances giving off light without burning] phosphorus, yellow phosphorus; scintillator, phosphor; firefly luminescence.

ignis fatuus[Lat]; Jack o'lantern, Friar's lantern; will-o'-the-wisp, firedrake, Fata Morgana[Lat]; Saint Elmo's fire.

[luminous insects] glowworm, firefly, June bug, lightning bug.

[luminous fish] anglerfish.

[Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, lantern, lanthorn; dark lantern, bull's-eye; candle, bougie[Fr], taper, rushlight; oil &c. (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand, moderator, duplex; torch, flambeau, link, brand; gaselier, chandelier, electrolier, candelabrum, candelabra, girandole, sconce, luster, candlestick.

[non-combustion based light sources] lamp, light; incandescent lamp, tungsten bulb, light bulb; flashlight, torch[Brit]; arc light ;laser; maser [microwave radiation]; neon bulb, neon sign; fluorescent lamp.

[parts of a light bulb] filament; socket; contacts; filler gas.

firework, fizgig; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c. (signal) 550.

V. illuminate &c. (light) 420.

Adj. self-luminous, glowing; phosphoric|!, phosphorescent, fluorescent; incandescent; luminescent, chemiluminescent; radiant &c. (light) 420.

Phr. " blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels " [Longfellow]; " the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky " [Campbell]; " the planets in their station list'ning stood " [Paradise Lost]; " the Scriptures of the skies " [Bailey]; " that orbed continent, the fire that severs day from night " [Twelfth Night].

424. Shade[edit]

N. shade; awning &c. (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade, umbrella; chick; portiere; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze, veil, chador, mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering. of clouds.

umbrage, glade; shadow &c. 421.

beach umbrella, folding umbrella.

V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c. v.; cast a shadow &c. (darken) 421.

Adj. shady, umbrageous.

Phr. " welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail " [Thomson].

425. Transparency[edit]

N. transparence, transparency; clarity; translucence, translucency; diaphaneity; lucidity, pellucidity, limpidity; fluorescence; transillumination, translumination. transparent medium, glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite, water.

V. be transparent &c. adj.; transmit light.

Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent, tralucent|, relucent; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as crystal, vitreous, transpicuous, glassy, hyaline; hyaloid[Med], vitreform.

426. Opacity[edit]

N. opacity; opaqueness &c. adj. film; cloud &c. 353.

V. be opaque &c. adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate, offuscate|.

Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous; dim &c. 422; turbid, thick, muddy, opacous|, obfuscated, fuliginous, cloud, hazy, misty, foggy, vaporous, nubiferous, muggy|| (turbidity) 426a.

smoky, fumid, murky, dirty.

426a. Turbidity[edit]

N. turbidity, cloudiness, fog, haze, muddiness, haziness, obscurity.

nephelometer[instrument to measure turbidity].

Adj. turbid, thick, muddy, obfuscated, fuliginous, hazy, misty, foggy, vaporous, nubiferous; cloudy (cloud) 353.

smoky, fumid, murky, dirty.

427. Semitransparency[edit]

N. semitransparency, translucency, semiopacity; opalescence, milkiness, pearliness; gauze, muslin; film; mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre; mist &c. (cloud) 353.

[opalescent jewel] opal.

turbidity &c. 426a.

Adj. semitransparent, translucent, semipellucid, semidiaphanous, semiopacous, semiopaque; opalescent, opaline; pearly, milky; frosted, nacreous.

V. opalesce.

(II) Specific Light[edit]
428. Color[edit]

N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade, tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.

pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color, secondary color, tertiary color. local color, coloring, keeping, tone, value, aerial perspective.

[Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy; chromatism, chromatography||, chromatology.

[instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph, spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445.

pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain; medium; mordant; oil paint &c. painting 556.

V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct, paint, wash, ingrain, grain, illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c. (fine art) 556.

Adj. colored &c. v.; colorific, tingent, tinctorial; chromatic, prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly- dyed; polychromatic; chromatogenous; tingible.

bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded; rich, gorgeous; gay.

gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy, flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant, inharmonious.

mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender, refined.

429. Achromatism[edit]

N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade, tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.

pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color, secondary color, tertiary color. local color, coloring, keeping, tone, value, aerial perspective.

[Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy; chromatism, chromatography||, chromatology.

[instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph, spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445.

pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain; medium; mordant; oil paint &c. painting 556.

V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct, paint, wash, ingrain, grain, illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c. (fine art) 556.

Adj. colored &c. v.; colorific, tingent, tinctorial; chromatic, prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly- dyed; polychromatic; chromatogenous; tingible.

bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded; rich, gorgeous; gay.

gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy, flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant, inharmonious.

mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender, refined.

430. Whiteness[edit]

N. whiteness &c. adj.; argent. albification, etiolation; lactescence.

snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata, eburin, German silver, white metal, barium sulphate[Chem], titanium oxide, blanc fixe[Fr], ceruse, pearl white; white lead, carbonate of lead.

V. be white &c. adj.

render white &c. adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch, etiolate, whitewash, silver.

Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous, candid, chalky; hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent, cretaceous, lactescent.

whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c. v.; high in tone, light.

white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as silver; like ivory &c. n.

431. Blackness[edit]

N. blackness &c. adj.; darkness &c. (want of light). 421; swartliness, lividity, dark color, tone, color; chiaroscuro &c. 420.

nigrification, infuscation.

jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven, crow.

[derogatory terms for black-skinned people] negro, blackamoor, man of color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck, nigger [U. S.]; coon [U. S.], sambo.

[Pigments] lampblack, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink, printing ink, printer's ink, Indian ink, India ink.

V. be black &c. adj.; render -black &c. adj.

blacken, infuscate, denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch; smirch; darken &c. 421.

black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebony, ebon, atramentous, jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous, pitchy, sooty, swart, dusky, dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the deepest dye.

black as jet &c. n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a tinker's pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight; nocturnal &c. (dark) 421; nigrescent; gray &c. 432; obscure &c. 421.

Adv. in mourning.

432. Gray[edit]

N. gray &c. adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and salt, chiaroscuro, grisaille[Fr].

[Pigments] Payne's gray; black &c. 431.

Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber, sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous; silver, silvery, silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous, cineritious; grizzly, grizzled; slate-colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash- colored; cool.

433. Brown[edit]

N. brown &c. adj. bister[Pigments], ocher, sepia, Vandyke brown.

V. render brown &c. adj.; tan, embrown, bronze.

Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous, chestnut, nut- brown, cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous, chocolate, maroon, foxy, tan, brunette, whitey brown; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver- colored; brown as a berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves; khaki.

sun-burnt; tanned &c. v.

434. Redness[edit]

N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink, lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose[Fr], rose du Barry; magenta, damask, purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high color; warmth; gules[Heraldry].

ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold.

[Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine; ruddle, madder; Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto; annatto, realgar[ISA:mineral], minium, red lead.

redness &c. adj.; rubescence, rubicundity, rubification; erubescence, blush.

V. be red, become red &c.adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden.

render red &c. adj.; redden, rouge; rubify, rubricate; incarnadine.; ruddle.

Adj. red &c. n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine, sanguine; rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed; burnt; rubicund, rubiform; lurid, stammell blood red; russet buff, murrey, carroty, sorrel, lateritious; rubineous, rubricate, rubricose, rufulous.

rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame- colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored, brick-colored, dust-colored.

blushing &c. v.; erubescent; reddened &c. v.

red as fire, red as blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red as a lobster; warm, hot; foxy.

435. Greenness[edit]

N. green &c. adj.; blue and yellow; vert [heraldry].

emerald, verd antique[Fr], verdigris, malachite, beryl, aquamarine; absinthe, cr�me de menthe[Fr].

[Pigments] terre verte[Fr], verditer, verdine, copperas.

greenness, verdure; viridity, viridescence; verditure.

[disease of eyes with green tint] glaucoma, [Jap: rokunaisho].

Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive, olive green; green as grass; verdurous.

emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green, olive green, bottle green, coke bottle green.

greenish; virent, virescent.

green (learner) 541[new, inexperienced, novice], (unskillful) 699.

green [ill, sick].

Phr. green with envy; the green grass of Ireland; the wearing of the green.

436. Yellowness[edit]

N. yellow &c. adj.; or.

[Pigments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow king's-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment, yellow ocher, Claude tint, aureolin; xanthein[Chemsub], xanthin; zaofulvin. crocu s, saffron, topaz; xanthite; yolk.

jaundice; London fog|!; yellowness &c. adj.; icterus; xantho- cyanopia|!, xanthopsia[Med].

Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous|, citrine, fallow; fulvous, fulvid; sallow, luteous, tawny, creamy, sandy; xanthic, xanthous; jaundiced- auricomous.

gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored, lemon yellow, sulphur-colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-colored, creamcolored; xanthocarpous, xanthochroid, xanthopous.

yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow's foot.

warm, advancing.

437. Purple[edit]

N. purple &c. adj.; blue and red, bishop's purple; aniline dyes, gridelin, amethyst; purpure[Heraldry]; heliotrope.

lividness, lividity.

V. empurple.

Adj. purple, violet, ultraviolet; plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce, mauve; livid.

438. Blueness[edit]

N. blue &c. adj.; garter-blue; watchet|.

[Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen[Chemsub]; Prussian blue, syenite blue; bice, indigo; zaffer.

lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite.

blueness, bluishness; bloom.

Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored, sky-dyed; cerulescent; powder blue, bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

439. Orange[edit]

N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame &c. color, adj.

[Pigments] ocher, Mars'orange, cadmium.

cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal lobelia[a flowering plant].

V. gild, warm.

Adj. orange; ochreous; orange-colored, gold-colored, flame-colored, copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot, glowing.

440. Variegation[edit]

N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism; iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness, striae.

spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly, tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre, ocelot, ophite, mother-of-pearl, opal, marble.

check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic, tesserae, strigae; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin; Joseph's coat; tricolor.

V. be variegated &c. adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, checker, chequer; bespeckle, speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate, dot, bespot; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt.

Adj. variegated &c. v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored, party-colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor, tricolor, versicolor; of all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of colors; kaleidoscopic.

iridescent; opaline, opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly, shot, gorge de pigeon, chatoyant; irisated, pavonine.

pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned, dappled, clouded, cymophanous.

mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c. n.

spotted, spotty; punctated, powdered; speckled &c. v.; freckled, flea-bitten, studded; flecked, fleckered; striated, barred, veined; brinded, brindled; tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c. v.; daedal; naevose, stipiform; strigose, striolate.

(III) Perceptions of Light[edit]
441. Vision[edit]

N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight, view, look, espial, glance, ken, coup d'oeil[Fr]; glimpse, glint, peep; gaze, stare, leer; perlustration, contemplation; conspection|, conspectuity|; regard, survey;introspection; reconnaissance, speculation, watch, espionage, espionnage[Fr], autopsy; ocular inspection, ocular demonstration; sight-seeing.

point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower.

field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon; commanding view, bird's eye view; periscope.

visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye; retina, pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle eyes, gooseberry eyes.

short sight &c. 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance, quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear eye, sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye; perspicacity, discernment; catopsis.

eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus.

evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Mythical].

V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken; get a sight of, have a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a glimpse of, catch a glimpse of; command a view of; witness, contemplate, speculate; cast the eyes on, set the eyes on; be a spectator &c. 444 of; look on &c. (be present) 186; see sights &c. (curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c. (intelligence) 498.

look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one's eye; look at, look on, look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan, inspect; run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance round, glance on, glance over turn one's looks upon, bend one's looks upon; direct the eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance.

observe &c. (attend to) 457; watch &c. (care) 459; see with one's own eyes; watch for &c. (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play at bopeep.

look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one's eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over, gloat on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look askance.

Adj. seeing &c. v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic.

clear-eyesighted &c. n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-eyed, Argus-eyed.

visible &c. 446.

Adv. visibly &c. 446; in sight of, with one's eyes open at sight, at first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie[Lat].

Int. look! &c. (attention) 457.

Phr. the scales falling from one's eyes; " an eye like Mars to threaten or command " [Hamlet]; " her eyes are homes of silent prayer " [Tennyson]; " looking before and after " [Hamlet]; "thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes " [Milton].

442. Blindness[edit]

N. blindness, cecity, excecation|, amaurosis, cataract, ablepsy|, ablepsia, prestriction|; dim- sightedness &c. 443; Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena (" drop serene "), noctograph, teichopsia.

V. be blind &c. adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged; grope in the dark.

not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes, avert the eyes; look another way; wink &c. (limited vision) 443; shut the eyes to, be blind to, wink at, blink at.

render blind &c. adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put one's eyes out; throw dust into one's eyes, pull the wool over one's eyes; jeter de la poudre aux yeux[Fr]; screen from sight &c. (hide) 528.

Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand- blind, stark-blind; undiscerning; dimsighted &c. 443.

blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed.

blinded &c. v.

Adv. blindly, blindfold, blindfolded; darkly.

Phr. " O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon" [Milton].

443. Dimsightedness[edit]

[Imperfect vision.] [Fallacies of vision.] 

N. dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight, double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c.; purblindness, lippitude; myopia, presbyopia; confusion of vision; astigmatism; color blindness, chromato-pseudo-blepsis, Daltonism; nyctalopia; strabismus, strabism, squint; blearedness, day blindness, hemeralopia, nystagmus; xanthocyanopia, xanthopsia[Med]; cast in the eye, swivel eye, goggle- eyes; obliquity of vision.

winking &c. v.; nictitation; blinkard, albino.

dizziness, swimming, scotomy; cataract; ophthalmia.

[Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c. (hider) 530.

[Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus[Lat]; refraction, distortion, illusion, false light, anamorphosis, virtual image, spectrum, mirage, looming, phasma|; phantasm, phantasma, phantom; vision; specter, apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus &c. (luminary) 423 specter of the Brocken magic mirror[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; mirror lens &c. (instrument) 445.

V. be dimsighted &c. n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a mist before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant, askant askance; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate.

dazzle, loom.

Adj. dim-sighted &c. n.; myopic, presbyopic; astigmatic moon- eyed, mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind of one eye, monoculous; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed, mole-eyed; dichroic.

blind as a bat &c. (blind) 442; winking &c. v.

444. Spectator[edit]

N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on, onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer; rubberneck , rubbernecker * [U. S.].

spy; sentinel &c. (warning) 668.

V. witness, behold &c. (see) 441; look on &c. (be present) 186; gawk, rubber *, rubberneck *[U.S.].

445. Optical instrument[edit]

N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus, magnifier, sunglass, magnifying glass, hand lens; microscope, megascope, tienoscope.

spectacles, specs [coll.],glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass, pince-nez, monocle, reading glasses, bifocals; contact lenses, soft lenses, hard lenses; sunglasses, shades[coll.].

periscopic lens; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera glass, binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens, concave lens, convexo-concave lens, coated lens, multiple lens, compound lens, lens system, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye lens, zoom lens; optical bench.

astronomical telescope, reflecting telescope, reflector, refracting telescope, refractor, Newtonian telescope, folded-path telescope, finder telescope, chromatoscope; X-ray telescope; radiotelescope, phased-array telescope, Very Large Array radiotelescope; ultraviolet telescope; infrared telescope; star spectroscope; space telescope.

[telescope mounts] altazimuth mount, equatorial mount.

refractometer, circular dichroism spectrometer.


phase-contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, dissecting microscope; electron microscope, transmission electron microscope; scanning electron microscope, SEM; scanning tunneling electron microscope.

[microscope components] objective lens, eyepiece, barrel, platform, focusing knob; slide, slide glass, cover glass, counting chamber; illuminator, light source, polarizer,

[component parts of telescopes] reticle, cross-hairs.

light pipe, fiber optics

mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass, rear-view mirror, hand mirror, one-way mirror, magnifying mirror.

[room with distorting mirrors] fun house.

prism, diffraction grating; beam splitter, half-wave plate, quarter- wave plate.

camera lucida[Lat], camera obscura[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; stereopticon; chromatrope, thaumatrope; stereoscope, pseudoscope, polyscope, kaleidoscope.

photometer, eriometer, actinometer, lucimeter, radiometer; ligth detector, photodiode, photomultiplier, photodiode array, photocell.

X-ray diffractometer, goniometer.

spectrometer, monochrometer, UV spectrometer, visible spectrometer, Infrared spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, recording spectrometer; densitometer, scanning densitometer, two-dimensional densitometer.

abdominoscope, gastroscope[Med], helioscope, polariscope, polemoscope, spectroscope.

abdominoscopy; gastroscopy[Med]; microscopy, microscopist.

446. Visibility[edit]

N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness, distinctness &c. adj.; conspicuity, conspicuousness; appearance &c. 448; bassetting; exposure; manifestation &c. 525; ocular proof, ocular evidence, ocular demonstration; field of view &c. (vision) 441; periscopism.

V. be become visible &c. adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye, catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce itself, discover itself, reveal itself , expose itself, betray itself; stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out, crop out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer, loom; glare; burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight; heave in sight; come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth, come forward; see the light of day; break through the clouds; make its appearance, show its face, appear to one's eyes, come upon the stage, float before the eyes, speak for itself &c. (manifest) 525; attract the attention &c. 457; reappear; live in a glass house.

expose to view &c. 525.

Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in view, in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en �vidence; unclouded, unobscured, in the foreground.

obvious &c. (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical; glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief.

periscopic, panoramic.

before one's eyes, under one's eyes; before one, � vue d'oeil[Fr], in one's eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus[Lat].

Adv. visibly &c. adj.; in sight of; before one's eyes &c. adj.; veluti in speculum[Lat].

447. Invisibility[edit]

N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance, imperceptibility; indistinctness &c. adj.; mystery, delitescence.

concealment &c. 528; latency &c. 526.

V. be invisible &c. adj.; be hidden &c. (hide) 528; lurk &c. (lie hidden) 526; escape notice.

render invisible &c. adj.; conceal &c. 528; put out of sight.

not see &c. (be blind) 442; lose sight of.

Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible, indiscernible; unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; a perte de vue[French]; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless; inconspicuous, unconspicuous; unseen &c. (see see &c. 441); covert &c. (latent) 526; eclipsed, under an eclipse.

dim &c. (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused; indistinct, indistinguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-defined, ill-marked; blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c. (opaque) 426; delitescent.

hidden, obscured, covered, veiled (concealed) 528.

Phr. " full many a flower is born to blush unseen " [Gray].

448. Appearance[edit]

N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle, show, premonstration|, scene, species, view, coup d'oeil[Fr]; lookout, outlook, prospect, vista, perspective, bird's-eye view, scenery, landscape, picture, tableau; display, exposure, mise en sc ne[Fr]; rising of the curtain.

phantasm, phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443.

pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres chinoises[Sp]; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views; biograph, cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama, cosmorama, georama; coup de theatre, jeu de theatre[Fr]; pageantry &c. (ostentation) 882; insignia &c. (indication) 550. aspect, angle, phase, phasis, seeming; shape &c. (form) 240; guise, look, complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage, port, demeanor; presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point of view, light.

lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face, countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz,. cast of countenance, profile, tournure, cut of one s jib, metoposcopy; outside &c. 220.

V. appear; be visible, become visible &c. 446; seem, look, show; present the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of, have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance of, take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the appearance, present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the semblance of, have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the semblance of, take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume the semblance of; look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view; show &c. (make manifest) 525.

Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view.

Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly, seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie [Lat]; at the first blush, at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye.

Phr. editio princeps [Lat].

449. Disappearance[edit]

N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse, occultation.

departure &c. 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.

V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go, avaunt, evaporate, vaporize; be gone &c. adj.; leave no trace, leave " not a rack behind " [Tempest]; go off the stage &c. (depart) 293; suffer an eclipse, undergo an eclipse; retire from sight; be lost to view, pass out of sight.

lose sight of.

efface &c. 552.

Adj. disappearing &c. v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight, lost to view; gone.

Int. vanish! disappear! avaunt! get lost! get out of here &c. (ejection) 29