User:Dan Polansky/Roget MICRA/Class IV. Words Relating to the Intellectual Faculties

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Class IV. Words Relating to the Intellectual Faculties


Division I. Formation of Ideas[edit]

Section I. Operations of Intellect in General[edit]

450. Intellect[edit]

N. intellect, mind, understanding, reason, thinking principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties, discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties; faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience, intelligence, intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct, conception, judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius; brains, cognitive powers, intellectual powers; wit &c. 498; ability &c. (skill) 698; wisdom &c. 498; Vernunft[Ger], Verstand[Ger].

soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia mentis[Lat], divina particula aurae[Lat], heart's core; the Absolute, psyche, subliminal consciousness, supreme principle.

brain, organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium, sensory; head, headpiece; pate, noddle, noggin, skull, scull, pericranium[Med], cerebrum, cranium, brainpan, sconce, upper story.

[in computers] central processing unit, CPU; arithmetic and logical unit, ALU.

[Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology; mental philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind; pneumatology, phrenology; craniology[Med], cranioscopy[Med].

ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality &c. 317; universal concept, universal conception.

metaphysician, psychologist &c.

V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of, be aware of, be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c. (think) 451; fancy &c. (imagine) 515.

Adj. intellectual[Relating to intellect], mental, rational, subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic, spiritual; ghostly; psychical, psychological; cerebral; animastic; brainy; hyperphysical, superphysical; subconscious, subliminal.

immaterial &c. 317; endowed with reason.

Adv. in petto.

Phr. ens rationis [Lat]; frons est animi janua [Lat][Cicero]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp]; mens sola loco non exulat [Lat][Ovid]; " my mind is my kingdom " [Campbell]; " stern men with empires in their brains " [Lowell]; " the mind, the music breathing from her face " [Byron]; " thou living ray of intellectual Fire " [Falconer].

450a. Absence of intellect[edit]

N. absence of intellect, want of intellect &c. 450; imbecility &c. 499.: brutality, brute force.

instinct, brute instinct, stimulus-response loop, conditioned response, instinctive reaction, Pavlovian response.

mimicry, aping (imitation) 19.

moron, imbecile, idiot; fool &c. 501; dumb animal; vegetable, brain- dead.

Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason; thoughtless; vegetative; moronic, idiotic, brainless [all pejorative].

Adv. instinctively, like Pavlov's dog; vegetatively.

V. mimic, ape (imitate) 19; respond instinctively.

451. Thought[edit]

N. thought; exercitation of the intellect, exercise of the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation, consideration, meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation, pondering; head work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close study, application &c. (attention) 457.

abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study &c. (inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of the mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self- consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy, philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the Porch.

association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought, train of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession of ideas, flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas.

after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts; retrospection &c. (memory) 505; excogitation; examination &c. (inquiry) 461 invention &c. (imagination) 515.

thoughtfulness &c. adj.

V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate, consider, deliberate; bestow thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate, meditate, ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over; animadvert, study; bend -, apply mind &c. (attend) 457; digest, discuss, hammer at, weigh, perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy &c. (imagine) 515; trow.

take into consideration; take counsel &c. (be advised) 695; commune with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one's thoughts; revolve in the mind, turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon, sleep upon; take counsel of one's pillow, advise with one's pillow.

rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, crack one's brains, beat one's brains, cudgel one's brains; set one's brain to work, set one's wits to work.

harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an idea &c. 453; take into one's head; bear in mind; reconsider.

occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one's head, get into one's head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run in one s head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash on the mind, flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on the mind, be uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one's mind.

make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind; engross the thoughts.

Adj. thinking &c. v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective, museful, wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious, sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical.

lost in thought &c. (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c. (intent) 457.

in the mind, under consideration.

Adv. all things considered.

Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head turning upon, the mind running upon; " divinely, bent to meditation " [Richard III]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin[Fr]; " fresh- pluckt from bowers of never-failing thought " [O. Meredith]; " go speed the stars of Thought "[Emerson]; " in maiden meditation fancy-free " [M. N. D.]; " so sweet is zealous contemplation " [Richard III]; " the power of thought is the magic of the Mind " [Byron]; " those that think must govern those that toil " [Goldsmith]; " thought is parent of the deed " [Carlyle]; " thoughts in attitudes imperious " [Longfellow]; " thoughts that breathe and words that burn " [Gray]; vivere est cogitare [Lat][Cicero]; Volk der Dichter und Denker [Ger].

452. Incogitancy[edit]

 [Absence or want of thought.]

N. incogitancy, vacancy, inunderstanding; fatuity &c. 499; thoughtlessness &c. (inattention) 458; vacuity.

couch potato, vegetable.

V. not think &c. 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss from the thoughts &c. 451.

indulge in reverie &c. (be inattentive) 458.

put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the mind, veg out.

Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal, unoccupied, unthinking, inconsiderate, thoughtless, mindless, no-brain, vacuous; absent &c. (inattentive) 458; diverted; irrational &c. 499; narrow-minded &c. 481.

unthought of, undreamt 'of, unconsidered; off one's mind; incogitable, not to be thought of.

Phr. absence d'esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani[Lat].

453. Idea[edit]

[Object of thought.]

N. idea, notion, conception, thought, apprehension, impression, perception, image, <gr eidolon="" gr="">[Grk], sentiment, reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea; archetype, formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception; image in the mind, regulative principle.

view &c. (opinion) 484; theory &c. 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c. (imagination) 515.point of view &c. (aspect) 448; field of view.

454. Topic[edit]

 [Subject of thought, noemata]

N. subject of thought, material for thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.

subject, subject matter; matter, theme, <gr noemata="" gr="">[Grk], topic, what it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument; motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem; field of inquiry; moot point, problem &c. (question) 461.

V. float in the mind , pass in the mind &c. 451.

Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.

Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the carpet, on the docket, on the tapis; relative to &c. 9. </gr>

Section II. Precursory Conditions and Operations[edit]

455. Curiosity[edit]

[The desire of knowledge.]

N. interest, thirst for knowledge, thirst for truth; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind; inquisitiveness.

omnivorous intellect, devouring mind.

[person who desires knowledge] inquirer; sightseer; quidnunc[Lat], newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c. (news) 532; rubberneck; intellectual; seeker[inquirer after religious knowledge], seeker after truth.

V. be curious &c. adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck*[U . S.].

Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious; inquiring &c. 461; prying, snoopy, nosy, peering; prurient; inquisitorial, inquisitory; curious as a cat; agape &c. (expectant) 507.

Phr. what's the matter? what next? consumed with curiosity; curiosity killed the cat, satisfaction brought it back. "curiouser and curiouser" [Alice in Wonderland].

456. Incuriosity[edit]

[Absence of curiosity.]

N. incuriosity, incuriousness &c. adj.; insouciance &c. 866; indifference, lack of interest, disinterest.

boredom, ennui (weariness) 841; satiety &c. 639; foreknowledge (foresight) 510;.

V. be incurious &c. adj.; have no curiosity &c. 455; take no interest in &c. 823; mind one's own business.

Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c. 823; uninterested, detached, aloof.

457. Attention[edit]

N. attention; mindfulness, presence of mind &c. adj.; intentness, intentiveness; alertness; thought &c. 451; advertence, advertency; observance, observation; consideration, reflection, perpension|; heed; heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard &c. v.; circumspection, diligence &c. (care) 459; study, scrutiny inspection, introspection; revision, revisal.

active application, diligent application, exclusive application, minute application, close application, intense application, deep application, profound application, abstract application, labored application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent attention, exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention, intense attention, deep attention, profound attention, abstract attention, labored attention, deliberate attention, active thought, diligent thought, exclusive thought, minute thought, close thought, intense thought, deep thought, profound thought, abstract thought, labored thought, deliberate thought, active study, diligent study, exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense study, deep study, profound study, abstract study, labored study, deliberate study.

minuteness, attention to detail.

absorption of mind &c. (abstraction) 458.

indication, calling attention to &c. v.

V. be attentive &c. adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view, remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay attention to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear to; trouble one's head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy oneself with; contemplate &c. (think of) 451; look at, look to, look after, look into, look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind to, apply the mind to, direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the eye to, bend the eye to, apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the eye to, turn the attention to, bend the attention to, apply the attention to, direct the attention to, give the attention to; have an eye to, have in one's eye; bear in mind; take into account, take into consideration; keep in sight, keep in view; have regard to, heed, mind, take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make note of, take note of; note.

examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the eyes over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip into, perstringe|; skim &c. (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of.

examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize, consider; give one's mind to, bend one's mind to; overhaul, revise, pore over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the eye on, rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix the mind on, devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one's business.

revert to; watch &c. (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to, listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open; come to the point.

meet with attention; fall under one's notice, fall under one's observation; be under consideration &c. (topic) 454.

catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the attention, awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the attention, solicit the attention, attract the attention, claim the attention excite the attention, engage the attention, occupy the attention, strike the attention, arrest the attention, fix the attention, engross the attention, absorb the attention, rivet the attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the mind, invite the mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind excite the mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest the mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind, catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the thoughts excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts, strike the thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the thoughts, absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the mind, be uppermost in the mind.

bring under one's notice; point out, point to, point at, point the finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate|, indicate; direct attention to, call attention to; show; put a mark &c. (sign) 550 upon; call soldiers to " attention "; bring forward &c. (make manifest) 525.

Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to; observing &c. v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt, transfixed, riveted, mesmerized, hypnotized; glued to (the TV); breathless; preoccupied &c. (inattentive) 458; watchful &c. (careful) 459;. breathless, undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c. (expectant) 507.


[compelling attention] interesting, engrossing, mesmerizing, riveting.

Int. see! look, look here, look you, look to it! mark! lo! behold! soho! hark, hark ye! mind! halloo! observe! lo and behold! attention! nota bene [Latin], "N.B.", note well; I'd have you to know; notice! O yes! Oyez! dekko! ecco! yoho!

Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti sat est [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; finem respice[Lat].

Attention! Now hear this! Oyez!; Achtung[German]; vnimanie[Russ][Russian]; chui[Japanese].

458. Inattention[edit]

N. inattention, inconsideration; inconsiderateness &c. adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency, nonobservance, disregard.

supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; etourderie[French], want of thought; heedlessness &c. (neglect) 460; insouciance &c. (indifference) 866.

abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation, distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction.

V. be inattentive &c. adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c. (neglect) 460 not observe &c. 457; think little of.

close one's eyes to, shut one's eyes to; pay no attention to; dismiss from one's thoughts, discard from one's thoughts, discharge from one's thoughts, dismiss from one's mind, discard from one's mind, discharge from one's mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set aside, turn aside, put aside; turn away from, turn one's attention from, turn a deaf ear to, turn one's back upon.

abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie.

escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at the other; forget &c. (have no remembrance) 506.

call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one's head; disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder, moider, fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus.

Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, heedless, unthinking, unheeding, undiscerning; inadvertent; mindless, regardless, respectless, listless &c. (indifferent) 866; blind, deaf; bird- witted; hand over head; cursory, percursory; giddy-brained, scatter- brained, hare-brained; unreflective, unreflecting, ecervele [French]; offhand; dizzy, muzzy, brainsick; giddy, giddy as a goose; wild, harum-scarum, rantipole, highflying; heedless , careless &c. (neglectful) 460.

inconsiderate, thoughtless.

absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought, wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other things, musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c. (attentive) 457; daydreaming, in a reverie &c. n.; off one's guard &c. (inexpectant) 508; napping; dreamy; caught napping.

disconcerted, distracted, put out &c. v.

Adv. inattentively, inadvertently, absent-mindedly &c. adj.; per incuriam[Lat], sub silentio[Lat].

Int. stand at ease, stand easy!

Phr. the attention wanders; one's wits gone a woolgathering, one's wits gone a bird's nesting; it never entered into one's head; the mind running on other things; one's thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a bear it would have bitten you. 129

459. Care[edit]


N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness &c. adj.; scruple &c. (conscientiousness) 939.

watchfulness &c. adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus, watch, vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre[Fr].

alertness &c. (activity) 682; attention &c. 457; prudence &c., circumspection &c. (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c. 510; precaution &c. (preparation) 673; tidiness &c. (order) 58, (cleanliness) 652; accuracy &c. (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail.

V. be careful &c. adj.; reck; take care &c. (be cautious) 864; pay attention to &c. 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see after; keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize, play gooseberry; keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch, watch; keep in sight, keep in view; mind, mind one's business.

look sharp, look about one; look with one's own eyes; keep a good lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one's wits about one, have all one's eyes about one; watch for &c. (expect) 507; keep one's eyes open, have the eyes open, sleep with one's eye open.

Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c. v.; particular; prudent &c. (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c. (deliberative) 451; provident &c. (prepared) 673; alert &c. (active) 682; sure-footed.

guarded, on one's guard; on the qui vivre[Fr], on the alert, on watch, on the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful, wistful; Argus-eyed; wide awake &c. (intelligent) 498; on the watch for (expectant) 507.

tidy &c. (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c. (exact) 494; scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c. (safe) 664[Lat].

Adv. carefully &c. adj.; with care, gingerly.

Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? [Latin: who will watch the watchers?]; "care will kill a cat" [Wither]; ni bebas agua que no veas [Sp]; "O polished perturbation! Golden care!" [Henry IV]; "the incessant care and labor of his mind" [Henry IV].

460. Neglect[edit]

N. neglect; carelessness &c. adj.; trifling &c. v.; negligence; omission, oversight, laches[Law], default; supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; inattention &c. 458; nonchalance &c. (insensibility) 823; imprudence, recklessness &c. 863; slovenliness &c. (disorder) 59, (dirt) 653; improvidence &c. 674; noncompletion &c. 730; inexactness &c. (error) 495.

paralipsis, paralepsis, paraleipsis [in rhetoric].

trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber.

V. be negligent &c. adj.; take no care of &c. (take care of &c. 459); neglect; let slip,let go; lay aside, set aside, cst aside, put aside; keep out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of.

overlook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at, connive at;gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no account of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller[Fr].

scamp; trifle, fribble; do by halves; cut; slight &c. (despise) 930; play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer [Fr]; take a cursory view of &c. 457.

slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit, miss, skip, jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink; table [parliamentary]; ignore, shut one's eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a deaf ear to; leave out of one's calculation; not attend to &c. 457, not mind; not trouble oneself about, not trouble one's head about, not trouble oneself with; forget &c. 506; be caught napping &c. (not expect) 508; leave a loose thread; let the grass grow under one's feet.

render neglectful &c. adj.; put off one's guard, throw off one's guard; distract, divert.

Adj. neglecting &c. v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless, careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss; feebleness &c. 575.

inconsiderate; uncircumspect, incircumspect; off one's guard; unwary, unwatchful, unguarded; offhand.

supine &c. (inactive) 683; inattentive &c. 458; insouciant &c. (indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless &c. 863; slovenly &c. (disorderly) 59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c. (erroneous) 495; improvident &c. 674.

neglected &c. v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen, unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted, unmarked, unattended to, unthought of, unregarded, unremarked, unmissed; shunted, shelved.

unexamined, unstudied, unsearched, unscanned, unweighed, unsifted, unexplored.

abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel.

Adv. negligently &c. adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded moment &c. (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam[Lat].

Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass.

Phr. out of sight, out of mind.

461. Inquiry[edit]

N. inquiry; request &c. 765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c. 622.

examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation|; perquisition, perscrutation, pervestigation|; inquest, inquisition; exploration; exploitation, ventilation.

sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction; Baconian method.

strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive inquiry; narrow search, strict search; study &c. (consideration) 451.

scire facias[Lat], ad referendum; trial.

questioning &c. v.; interrogation, interrogatory; interpellation; challenge, examination, cross-examination, catechism; feeler, Socratic method, zetetic philosophy; leading question; discussion &c. (reasoning) 476.

reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c. v.; espionage, espionnage[Fr]; domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern of Diogenes.

question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved, porism; subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy; point in dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue; bone of contention &c. (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open question; enigma &c. (secret) 533; knotty point &c. (difficulty) 704; quodlibet; threshold of an inquiry.

[person who questions] inquirer, investigator, inquisitor, inspector, querist, examiner, catechist; scrutator scrutineer scrutinizer; analyst; quidnunc &c. (curiosity) 455[Lat].

V. make inquiry &c. n.; inquire, ask, seek, search.

look for, look about for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter, explore, sound, rummage, ransack, pry, peer, look round; look over, go over, look through, go through; spy, overhaul.

[transitive: object is a topic] ask about, inquire about.

scratch the head, slap the forehead.

look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner, pry into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; search out, hunt down, hunt out, fish out, ferret out; unearth; leave no stone unturned.

seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace; follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c. 662; beat up one's quarters; fish for; feel for &c. (experiment) 463.

investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry, carry out an inquiry, prosecute an inquiry &c. n.; look at, look into; preexamine; discuss, canvass, agitate.

[inquire into a topic] examine, study, consider, calculate; dip into, dive into, delve into, go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound, fathom; probe to the bottom, probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze, anatomize, dissect, parse, resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its phases, try in all its phases; thresh out.

bring in question, bring into question, subject to examination; put to the proof &c. (experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take into consideration &c. (think over) 451; take counsel &c. 695.

[intransitive] question, demand; put the question, pop the question, propose the question, propound the question, moot the question, start the question, raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put forth the question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go into a question.

question[transitive: human object], put to the question, interrogate, pump; subject to interrogation, subject to examination; cross-question, cross-examine; press for an answer; give the third degree; put to the inquisition; dodge|!.


require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the brains of; feel the pulse.

get the lay of the land; see how the wind is blowing; put one's ear to the ground.

[intransitive] be in question &c. adj.; undergo examination.

Adj. inquiry &c. v.; inquisitive &c. (curious) 455; requisitive|, requisitory; catechetical, inquisitorial, analytic; in search of, in quest of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic; all searching.

undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in issue, in course of inquiry; under discussion, under consideration, under investigation &c. n.; sub judice[Lat], moot, proposed; doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475.

Adv. what? why? wherefore? whence? whither? where? quaere? how comes it[Lat], how happens it, how is it? what is the reason? what's the matter, what's in the wind? what on earth? when? who? nicht wahr?[Ger].

462. Answer[edit]

N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte, rejoinder, surrejoinder, rebutter, surrebutter, retort, repartee; rescript, rescription; antiphon, antiphony; acknowledgment; password; echo; counter statement.

discovery &c. 480a; solution &c. (explanation) 522; rationale &c. (cause) 153; clue &c. (indication) 550.

Oedipus; oracle &c. 513; return &c. (record) 551.

V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer, return for answer; acknowledge, echo.

explain &c. (interpret) 522; solve &c. (unriddle) 522; discover &c. 480a; fathom, hunt out &c. (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest, determine.

Adj. answering &c. v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.

Adv. because &c. (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.

Int. eureka!

463. Experiment[edit]

N. experiment; essay &c. (attempt) 675; analysis &c. (investigation) 461; screen; trial, tentative method, t�tonnement.

verification, probation, experimentum crucis[Lat], proof, (demonstration) 478; criterion, diagnostic, test, probe, crucial test, acid test, litmus test.

crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix; assay, ordeal; ring; litmus paper, curcuma paper, turmeric paper; test tube; analytical instruments &c. 633.

empiricism, rule of thumb.

feeler; trial balloon, pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot engine; scout; straw to show the wind.

speculation, random shot, leap in the dark.

analyzer, analyst, assayist; adventurer; experimenter, experimentist, experimentalist; scientist, engineer, technician.

subject, experimentee, guinea pig, experimental animal.

[experimental method] protocol, experimental method, blind experiment, double-blind experiment, controlled experiment.

poll, survey, opinion poll.

epidemiological survey[Med], retrospective analysis, retrospective survey, prospective survey, prospective analysis; statistical analysis.

literature search, library research.

tryout, audition.

[results of experiment] discovery &c 480; measurement &c. 466; evidence &c. 467.

[reasoning about an experiment] deduction, induction, abduction.

V. experiment; essay &c. (endeavor) 675; try, try out, assay; make an experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test, submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch, practice upon, try one's strength; road-test, test drive, take for a spin; test fly.

grope; feel one's way, grope for one's way; fumble, t�tonner, aller � t�tons[Fr], put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a trial balloon, send up a pilot balloon; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land, test the waters, feel out, sound out, take the pulse, see, check, check out[coll.], see how the wind blows; consult the barometer; feel the pulse; fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for; angle, trawl, cast one's net, beat the bushes.

try one's fortune &c. (adventure) 675; explore &c. (inquire) 461.

Adj. experimental, empirical.

probative, probatory, probationary, provisional; analytic, docimastic; tentative;unverified, unproven, speculative, untested.

Adv. on trial, under examination, on probation, under probation, on one's trial, on approval.

Phr. check it out, give it a try, see how it goes; "Run it up the flagpole and see who salutes."

464. Comparison[edit]

N. comparison, collation, contrast; identification; comparative estimate, relative estimate, relativity.

simile, similitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c. (metaphor) 521.

matching, pattern-matching.

[quantitative comparison] ratio, proportion (number) 84.

[results of comparison] discrimination 465; indiscrimination 465a; identification 465b.

V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side, juxtapose &c. (near) 197; set against one another, pit against one another; contrast, balance.

identify, draw a parallel, parallel.

compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis[Lat]..

Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c. 521.

compared with &c. v.; comparable; judged by comparison.

Adv. relatively &c. (relation) 9; as compared with &c. v.

Phr. comparisons are odious; " comparisons are odorous " [Much Ado about Nothing].

464a. Incomparability[edit]

[Lack of comparison] 

N. incomparability; incommensurability; indistinguishablility &c. 465a.

Adj. incommensurable, incommensurate; incomparable; different &c.15.

Phr. like apples and oranges; no basis for comparison; no standard for comparison.

465. Discrimination[edit]

[results of comparison. 1]

N. discrimination, distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism; nice perception; perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c. 466; nicety, refinement; taste &c. 850; critique, judgment; tact; discernment &c. (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances.

dope*, past performances.

V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize; recognize, match, identify; separate; draw the line, sift; separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat; separate the men from the boys; split hairs, draw a fine line, nitpick, quibble.

estimate &c. (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what, know " a hawk from a handsaw" [Hamlet].

take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to, allow due weight to; weigh carefully.

Adj. discriminating &c. v.; dioristic, discriminative, distinctive; nice.

Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti[Lat]; la critique est aisee et l'art est difficile [Fr]; miles apart; a distinction without a difference.

465a. Indiscrimination[edit]

[results of comparison. 2]

N. indiscrimination, indistinguishability; indistinctness, indistinction; uncertainty &c. (doubt) 475; incomparability &c. 464a.

V. not discriminate &c. 465; overlook &c. (neglect) 460 a distinction: confound, confuse.

Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished|!, indistinguishable, undistinguishable; unmeasured; promiscuous, undiscriminating.

Phr. valeat quantum valere potest[Lat.].

465B. Identification[edit]

[results of comparison. 3]

N. identification, recognition, diagnosis, match; apperception, assimilation; dereplication; classification; memory &c. 505; interpretation &c. 522; cognizance (knowledge) 490.

V. identify, recognize, match, match up; classify; recall, remember &c. (memory) 505; find similarity (similarity) 17; put in its proper place, put in its proper niche, place in order (arrangement) 60.

466. Measurement[edit]

N. measurement, admeasurement, mensuration, survey, valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate, estimation; dead reckoning, reckoning &c. (numeration) 85; gauging &c. v.; horse power.

metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic.

measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass, calipers; gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo.

flood mark, high water mark; Plimsoll line; index &c. 550.

scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius; vernier &c. (minuteness) 193.

[instruments for measuring] bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer, interferometer, odometer, ombrometer, pantometer, pluviometer, pneumatometer, pneumometer, radiometer, refractometer, respirometer, rheometer, spirometer, telemeter, udometer, vacuometer, variometer, viameter, thermometer, thermistor (heat &c. 382), barometer (air &c. 338), anemometer (wind 349), dynamometer, goniometer (angle 244) meter; landmark &c. (limit) 233; balance, scale &c. (weight) 319; marigraph, pneumatograph, stethograph; rain gauge, rain gage; voltmeter(volts) , ammeter(amps); spectrophotometer (light absorbance); mass spectrophotometer(molecular mass); geiger counter, scintillation counter(radioactivity); pycnometer (liquid density) ; graduated cylinder, volumetric flask (volume); radar gun (velocity); radar (distance); side-looking radar (shape, topography); sonar (depth in water); light meter (light intensity); clock, watch, stopwatch, chronometer (time); anemometer (wind velocity); densitometer (color intensity).

measurability, computability, determinability.

coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude and longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth.

geometry, stereometry, hypsometry; metage; surveying, land surveying; geodesy, geodetics, geodesia; orthometry, altimetry; cadastre[Fr].

astrolabe, armillary sphere.

land surveyor; geometer.

V. measure, mete; determine, assay; evaluate, value, assess, rate, appraise, estimate, form an estimate, set a value on; appreciate; standardize.

span, pace step; apply the compass &c. n.; gauge, plumb, probe, sound, fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey.


take an average &c. 29; graduate.

Adj. measuring &c. v.; metric , metrical;

measurable, perceptible, noticeable, detectable, appreciable, ponderable, determinable, fathomable;

geodetical, topographic, topographical, cartographic, cartographical.

Section III. Materials for Reasoning[edit]

467. Evidence[edit]

[On one side.] 

N. evidence; facts, premises, data, praecognita[Lat], grounds.

indication &c. 550; criterion &c. (test) 463.

testimony, testification, expert testimony; attestation; deposition &c. (affirmation) 535; examination.

admission &c. (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential, diploma, voucher, certificate, doquet, docket; testamur; record &c. 551; document; pi ce justificative; deed, warranty &c. (security) 771; signature, seal &c. (identification) 550; exhibit, material evidence, objective evidence.

witness, indicator, hostile witness; eyewitness, earwitness, material witness, state's evidence; deponent; sponsor; cojuror.

oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence, circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence[Lat], presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof &c. (demonstration) 478; evidence in chief.

secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support; ratification &c. (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation, wager of law, comprobation|.

citation, reference; legal research, literature search (experiment) 463.

V. be evidence &c. n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c. (denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe.

have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself &c. (manifest) 525.

rest upon, depend upon; repose on.

bear witness &c. n.; give evidence &c. n.; testify, depose, witness, vouch for; sign, seal, undersign, set one's hand and seal, sign and seal, deliver as one's act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c. (assent) 488.

[provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove (demonstrate) 478.

[add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support, ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant.

adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce witnesses, confront witnesses.

place into evidence, mark into evidence.

[obtain evidence] collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake up evidence; experiment &c. 463.

have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate, substantiate, verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home to, bring to book.

Adj. showing &c. v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c. 478; grounded on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory.

Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more, still less; raison de plus[Fr]; in corroboration &c. n. of; valeat quantum[Lat]; under seal, under one's hand and seal.

Phr. dictum de dicto[Lat]; mise en evidence[Fr.].

468. Counter evidence[edit]

[Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.]

N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on the other hand; conflicting evidence, contradictory evidence, opposing evidence; disproof, refutation &c. 479; negation &c. 536.

plea &c. 617; vindication &c. 937 counter protest; "tu quoque" argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of the shield.

V. countervail, oppose; mitigate against; rebut &c. (refute) 479; subvert &c. (destroy) 162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c. (deny) 536; tell the other side of the story, tell another story, turn the scale, alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways; prove a negative.

audire alteram partem[Lat].

Adj. countervailing &c. v.; contradictory.

unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence; supposititious.

Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

469. Qualification[edit]

N. qualification, limitation, modification, coloring.

allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating circumstances; mitigation.

condition, proviso, prerequisite, contingency, stipulation, provision, specification, sine qua non[Lat]; catch, string, strings attached; exemption; exception, escape clause, salvo, saving clause; discount &c. 813; restriction; fine print.

V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new conditions, narrow, temper.

waffle, quibble, hem and haw (be uncertain) 475; equivocate (sophistry) 477.

depend, depend on, be contingent on (effect) 154.

allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into account; modulate.

moderate, temper, season, leaven.

take exception.

Adj. qualifying &c. v.; qualified, conditioned, restricted, hedged; conditional; exceptional &c. (unconformable) 83.

hypothetical &c. (supposed) 514; contingent &c. (uncertain) 475.

Adv. provided, provided that, provided always; if, unless, but, yet; according as; conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition of &c. (theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although, though, for all that, after all, at all events.

approximately &c. 197, 17; in a limited degree (smallness) 32; somewhat, sort of, something like that, to a certain extent, to a degree, in a sense, so to speak.

with grains of allowance, cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of salt]; exceptis excipiendis[Lat]; wind and weather permitting; if possible &c. 470.

subject to, conditioned upon; with this proviso &c. n.

Phr. "if the good lord is willing and the creeks don't rise"; catch- 22.

470. Possibility[edit]

N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what is possible &c. adj.; compatibility &c. (agreement) 23.

practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c. adj. contingency, chance &c. 156.

V. be possible &c. adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.

render possible &c. adj.; put in the way of.

Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c. 23; likely.

practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach, within measurable distance; accessible, superable, surmountable; attainable, obtainable; contingent &c. (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.

barely possible, marginally possible, just possible; possible but improbably, (improbable) 473; theoretically possible.

Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure; maybe, may be, haply, mayhap.

if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo volente[Lat], D. V. ; as luck may have it.

Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent[Lat]; " the glories of the Possible are ours " [B. Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory possible, but in practise unlikely.

471. Impossibility[edit]

. impossibility &c. adj.; what cannot, what can never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c. 859.

V. be impossible &c. adj.; have no chance whatever.

attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor white; skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks without straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build castles in the air, prendre la lune avec les dents[Fr], extract sunbeams from cucumbers, set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a sieve, catch a weasel asleep, rompre l'anguille au genou[Fr], be in two places at once.

Adj. impossible; not possible &c. 470; absurd, contrary to reason; unlikely; unreasonable &c. 477; incredible &c. 485; beyond the bounds of reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of possibility; from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c. (improbable) 473; prodigious &c. (wonderful) 870; unimaginable, inimaginable; unthinkable.

impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable; unsurmountable, insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of reach, out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond control; desperate &c. (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c. 24; inaccessible, uncomeatable, impassable, impervious, innavigable, inextricable; self-contradictory.

out of one's power, beyond one's power, beyond one's depth, beyond one's reach, beyond one's grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam[Lat].

Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus[Lat]; non nostrum tantas componere lites [Lat][Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack, chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin [Fr.]; il a le merboire.

472. Probability[edit]

N. probability, likelihood; credibleness; likeliness &c. adj.;

vraisemblance[Fr], verisimilitude, plausibility; color, semblance, show of; presumption; presumptive evidence, circumstantial evidence; credibility.

reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance, reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect; prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c. 156.

V. be probable &c. adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply &c. (evidence) 467; bid fair &c. (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a good chance, run a good chance.

think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c. 507; count upon &c. (believe) 484.

Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way.

plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato[It], well- founded, reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable, presumptive, apparent.

Adv. probably &c. adj.; belike; in all probability, in all likelihood; very likely, most likely; like enough; odds on, odds in favor, ten &c. to one; apparently, seemingly, according to every reasonable expectation; prim� facie[Lat]; to all appearance &c. (to the eye) 448.

Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think, there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China orange.

473. Improbability[edit]

N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance, poor chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long odds; incredibility &c. 485.

V. be improbable &c. adj.; have a small chance &c. n.

Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation; wild, far out, out of sight, outtasight, heavy [all coll.].

rare &c. (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable, inimaginable; incredible &c. 485; more than doubtful; strange, bizarre (uncomformable) 83.

Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas[Lat]; pedir peras pal olmo[Lat].

474. Certainty[edit]

N. certainty; necessity &c. 601; certitude, surety, assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c. adj.; infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness, unquestionableness.

gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res judicata[Lat], ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist, dogmatizer; doctrinaire, bigot, opinionist, Sir Oracle; ipse dixit[Lat].

fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli[Fr].

V. be certain &c. adj.; stand to reason.

render certain &c. adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure; determine, decide, set at rest, " make assurance double sure " [Macbeth]; know &c. (believe) 484.

dogmatize, lay down the law.

Adj. certain, sure, assured &c. v.; solid, well-founded.

unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear, unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained.

inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless; ineluctable.

unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c. 150; to be depended on, trustworthy, reliable, bound.

unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable, incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c. (proven) 478; conclusive, without power of appeal.

indubious; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or shadow of doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear as day; beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted, uncontested, unquestioned, undisputed; questionless, doubtless.

authoritative, authentic, official.

sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun.

evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as the sun at noonday.

Adv. certainly &c. adj.; for certain, certes[Lat], sure, no doubt, doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto[Lat], sure enough, to be sure, of course, as a matter of course , a coup sur, to a certainty; in truth &c. (truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute que coute[Fr], coute qu'il coute[Fr]; whatever may happen, if the worst come to the worst; come what may, happen what may, come what will; sink or swim; rain or shine.

Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr]; there is -no question, - not a shadow of doubt; the die is cast &c. (necessity) 601; " facts are stubborn things " [Smollett].

475. Uncertainty[edit]

N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness &c. adj.; dubiety, dubitation, dubitancy|, dubitousness.

hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma, bewilderment; timidity &c. (fear) 860; vacillation &c. 605; diaporesis, indetermination.

vagueness &c. adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c. (darkness) 421; ambiguity &c. (double meaning) 520; contingency, dependence, dependency, double contingency, possibility upon a possibility; open question &c. (question) 461; onus probandi[Lat]; blind bargain, pig in a poke, leap in the dark, something or other; needle in a haystack, needle in a bottle of hay; roving commission.

precariousness &c. adj.; fallibility.

V. be uncertain &c. adj.; wonder whether.

lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one's way.

not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519, not know which way to turn, not know whether one stands on one s head or one's heels; float in a sea of doubt,hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose one's head; muddle one's brains.

render uncertain &c. adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex, embarrass; confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits, throw off the scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces[Lat]; keep in suspense.

doubt &c. (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the balance; depend.

Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c. (aimless) 621; changeable &c. 149.

doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined; in suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c. (inquiry) 461.

vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined, undefinable; confused &c. (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed.

perplexing &c. v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal, problematical, hypothetical; experimental &c. 463.

unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.

fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable, disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy.

contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on circumstances; occasional; provisional.

unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained, unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted.

in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the track; ignorant.&c. 491; afraid to say; out of one's reckoning, astray, adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one's wit's end, at a nonplus; puzzled &c. v.; lost, abroad, d�sorient�; distracted, distraught.

Adv. pendente lite[Lat]; sub spe rati[Lat].

Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces[Lat].

Section IV. Reasoning Processes[edit]

476. Reasoning[edit]

N. {ant. 477} reasoning ratiocination rationalism; dialectics, induction, generalization.

discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c. 461.

argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling; contention &c. 720 logomachy; disputation, disceptation; paper war.

art of reasoning, logic.

process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning; deduction, induction, abduction; synthesis, analysis.

argument; case, plaidoyer, opening; lemma, proposition, terms, premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c. (judgment) 480.

prosyllogism, syllogism; enthymeme, sorites, dilemma, perilepsis, a priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns of a dilemma, argumentum ad hominem [Lat.], comprehensive argument; empirema, epagoge.

[person who reasons] reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant; controversialist, controvertist; wrangler, arguer, debater, polemic, casuist, rationalist; scientist; eristic.

logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound reasoning, valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning, forcible reasoning, persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning, consectary reasoning|, conclusive &c. 478 ; subtle reasoning; force of argument, strong point, strong argument, persuasive argument.

arguments, reasons, pros and cons.

V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle, argufy, bandy words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an argument; controvert &c. (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize upon; spiritualize; consider &c. (examine) 461.

open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question, ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a case.

contend, take one's stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c. 480.

follow from &c. (demonstration) 478.

Adj. reasoning &c. v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial, dialectic, polemical; discursory, discursive; disputatious; Aristotelian, eristic, eristical.

debatable, controvertible.

logical; relevant &c. 23.

Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith, then thence so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as, inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso[Lat], considering, in consideration of; therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a fortiori.

in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt[Fr], on the whole, taking one thing with another.

Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio [Lat]; per troppo dibatter la verita si perde [It]; troppo disputare la verita fa errare [It].

477. Intuition[edit]

[The absence of reasoning.] Intuition. [False or vicious reasoning; show of reason.]

Sophistry. -- N. intuition, instinct, association, hunch, gut feeling; presentiment, premonition; rule of thumb; superstition; astrology; faith (supposition) 514.

sophistry, paralogy, perversion, casuistry, jesuitry, equivocation, evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet, quiddity; mystification; special pleading; speciousness &c. adj.; nonsense &c. 497; word sense, tongue sense.

false reasoning, vicious reasoning, circular reasoning; petitio principii[Lat], ignoratio elenchi[Lat]; post hoc ergo propter hoc[Lat]; non sequitur, ignotum per ignotius[Lat].

misjudgment &c. 481; false teaching &c. 538.

sophism, solecism, paralogism; quibble, quirk, elenchus, elench, fallacy, quodlibet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet; inconsistency, antilogy; "a delusion, a mockery, and a snare" [Denman]; claptrap, cant, mere words; "lame and impotent conclusion" [Othello].

meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument; weak point, bad case.

overrefinement; hairsplitting &c. v.

V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition, hazard a guess, talk at random.

reason ill, falsely &c. adj.; misjudge &c. 481; paralogize.

take on faith, take as a given; assume (supposition) 514.

pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over, varnish; misteach &c. 538; mislead &c. (error) 495; cavil, refine, subtilize, split hairs; misrepresent &c. (lie) 544.

beg the question, reason in a circle, reason in circles, assume the conclusion.

cut blocks with a razor, beat about the bush, play fast and loose, play fast and loose with the facts, blow hot and cold, prove that black is white and white black, travel out of the record, parler a tort et a travers[Fr], put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on.

judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions (misjudgment) 481.

Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason, anterior to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected.

unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous|, absonant; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect; fallacious, fallible; groundless, unproved; non sequitur[Latin: it does not follow].

deceptive, sophistical, jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious, hollow, plausible, ad captandum[Lat], evasive; irrelevant &c. 10.

weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague.

irrational; nonsensical &c. (absurd) 497.

foolish &c. (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging, quibbling; finespun, overrefined.

at the end of one's tether, au bout de son latin.

Adv. intuitively &c. adj.; by intuition; illogically &c. adj.

Phr. non constat[Lat]; that goes for nothing.

478. Demonstration[edit]

N. {ant. 479} demonstration, proof, rigorous proof; conclusiveness &c. adj.; apodeixis, apodixis, probation, comprobation|.

logic of facts &c. (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c. (test) 463[Lat]; argument &c. 476; rigorous establishment, absolute establishment.

conviction, cogency, (persuasion) 484.

V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest &c. (be evidence of) 467; confirm, corroborate, substantiate, verify &c. 467 settle the question, reduce to demonstration, set the question at rest.

make out, make out a case; prove one's point, have the best of the argument; draw a conclusion &c. (judge) 480.

follow, follow of course, follow as a matter of course, follow necessarily; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.

convince, persuade (belief) 484.

Adj. demonstrating &c. v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative, unanswerable, conclusive; apodictic, apodeictic, apodeictical; irresistible, irrefutable, irrefragable; necessary.

categorical, decisive, crucial.

demonstrated &c. v.; proven; unconfuted, unanswered, unrefuted; evident &c. 474.

deducible, consequential, consectary, inferential, following.

[demonstrated to one's satisfaction] convincing, cogent, persuasive (believable) 484.

Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course; necessarily, of necessity.

Phr. probatum est[Lat]; there is nothing more to be said; quod est demonstrandum[Lat], Q.E.D.; it must follow; exitus acta probat[Lat].

479. Confutation[edit]

N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer, complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution, invalidation; exposure, exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock down argument, tu quoque argument[Lat]; sockdolager * [U. S.].

correction &c. 527a; dissuasion &c. 616.

V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, controvert, rebut, confound, disconfirm, redargue, expose, show the fallacy of, defeat; demolish, break &c. (destroy) 162; overthrow, overturn scatter to the winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put to silence, reduce to silence; clinch an argument, clinch a question; give one a setdown, stop the mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip.

not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one's feet.

be confuted &c.; fail; expose one's weak point, show one's weak point.

counter evidence &c. 468.

Adj. confuting, confuted, &c. v.; capable of refutation; refutable, confutable, defeasible.

contravene (counter evidence) 468.

condemned on one's own showing,condemned out of one's own mouth.

Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio[Lat], it does not hold water, " suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo" [Terence]; his argument was demolished by new evidence.

Section V. Results Of Reasoning[edit]

480. Judgment[edit]


N. result, conclusion, upshot; deduction, inference, ergotism[Med]; illation; corollary, porism; moral.

estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication; dijudication, adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement, arbitration; assessment, ponderation; valorization.

award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report.

decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence, decree; findings of fact; findings of law; res judicata[Lat].

plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c. (choice) 609; opinion &c. (belief) 484; good judgment &c. (wisdom) 498.

judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; asessor, referee.

censor, reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c. 524; inspector, inspecting officer.

twenty-twenty hindsight[judgment after the fact]; armchair general, monday morning quarterback.

V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one's mind.

deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a deduction, weet|, ween.

form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess, rate, rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c. (believe) 484; review; size up *.

settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce, rule; pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence, doom; find; give judgment, deliver judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award, report; bring in a verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest; confirm &c. (assent) 488.

comment, criticize, kibitz; pass under review &c. (examine) 457; investigate &c. (inquire) 461.

hold the scales, sit in judgment; try judgment, hear a cause.

Adj. judging &c. v.; judicious &c. (wise) 498; determinate, conclusive.

Adv. on the whole, all things considered.

Phr. "a Daniel come to judgment" [Merchant of Venice]; "and stand a critic, hated yet caress'd" [Byron]; "it is much easier to be critical than to be correct" [Disraeli]; la critique est aisee et l'art est difficile[Fr]; "nothing if not critical" [Othello]; "O most lame and impotent conclusion" [Othello].

480a. Discovery[edit]

[Result of search or inquiry.]

N. discovery, detection, disenchantment; ascertainment, disclosure, find, revelation.

trover &c.(recovery) 775[Law].

V. discover, find, determine, evolve, learn &c. 539; fix upon; pick up; find out, trace out, make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret out, root out; fathom; bring out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to light; dig out, grub up, fish up; unearth, disinter.

solve, resolve, elucidate; unriddle, unravel, unlock, crack, crack open; pick up, open the lock; find a clue, find clew a to, find the key to the riddle; interpret &c. 522; disclose &c. 529.

trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one's finger, lay one's hands upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c. 494; put the saddle on the right horse, hit the right nail on the head.

be near the truth, be warm, get warmer, burn; smoke, scent, sniff, catch a whiff of, smell a rat.

open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true colors, see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping.

pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop upon; come across ,come onto; meet with, meet up with, fall in with.

recognize, realize; verify, make certain of, identify.

Int. eureka! aha! I've got it!

481. Misjudgment[edit]

N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment; miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c. (error) 495; hasty conclusion.

[causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication, prejudice; foregone conclusion; prenotion, prevention, preconception, predilection, prepossession, preapprehension, presumption, assumption, presentiment; fixed idea, preconceived idea; idée fixe; mentis gratissimus error[Lat]; fool's paradise.

[causes of misjudgment.2] esprit de corps, party spirit, partisanship, clannishness, prestige.

[causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, bigotry, warp, twist; hobby, fad, quirk, crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye.

[causes of misjudgment. 4] one-sided views, one-track mind, partial views, narrow views, confined views, superficial views, one-sided ideas, partial ideas, narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial ideas, one-sided conceptions, partial conceptions, narrow conceptions, confined conceptions, superficial conceptions, one-sided notions, partial notions, narrow notions, confined notions, superficial notions; narrow mind; bigotry &c. (obstinacy) 606; odium theologicum[Lat]; pedantry; hypercriticism.

doctrinaire &c. (positive) 474.

[causes of misjudgment. 5] overestimation &c. 482; underestimation &c. 483.

[causes of misjudgment. 6] ignorance &c. 491. erroneous assumptions, erroneous data, mistaken assumptions, incorrect assumptions (error) 495.

V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink, misconjecture, misconceive &c. (error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate, misreckon, miscompute.

overestimate &c. 482; underestimate &c. 483.

prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate; dogmatize; have a bias &c. n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba magistri[Lat], run away with the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion, leap to a conclusion, judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions; look only at one side of the shield; view with jaundiced eye, view through distorting spectacles; not see beyond one's nose; dare pondus fumo[Lat]; get the wrong sow by the ear &c. (blunder) 699.

give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice, prepossess.

Adj. misjudging &c. v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c. v.; jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial.

narrow-minded, narrow-souled; mean-spirited; confined, illiberal, intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entete[Fr], positive, dogmatic, conceited; opinative, opiniative; opinioned, opinionate, opinionative, opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an opinion, opini�tre; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy, impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c. 499; credulous &c 486; warped.

misjudged &c. v.

Adv. ex parte[Lat].

Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought; wishful thinking; unshakable conviction; "my mind is made up - don't bother me with the facts".

482. Overestimation[edit]

N. overestimation &c. v.; exaggeration &c. 549; vanity &c. 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist. much cry and little wool, much ado about nothing,; storm in a teacup, tempest in a teacup; fine talking.

V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh, overreckon, overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly, attach too much importance to, make mountains of molehills, catch at straws; strain, magnify; exaggerate &c. 549; set too high a value upon; think much of, make much of, think too much of, make too much of; outreckon; panegyrize.

extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of, make the worst of; make two bites of a cherry.

have too high an opinion of oneself &c. (vanity) 880.

Adj. overestimated &c. v.; oversensitive &c. (sensibility) 822.

Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes[Lat].

483. Underestimation[edit]

N. underestimation; depreciation &c. (detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c. v.; modesty &c. 881.

V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon; depreciate; disparage &c. (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize, disprize; ridicule &c. 856; slight &c. (despise) 930; neglect &c. 460; slur over.

make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account of; belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at naught; shake off as dewdrops from the lion's mane.

Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c. v.; unvalued, unprized.

484. Belief[edit]

N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust, troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c. (hope) 858; dependence on, reliance on.

persuasion, conviction, convincement, plerophory, self- conviction; certainty &c. 474; opinion, mind, view; conception, thinking; impression &c. (idea) 453; surmise &c. 514; conclusion &c. (judgment) 480.

tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c. (assent) 488.

firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-rooted belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief, inveterate belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief, impartial belief, well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion, settled opinion, fixed rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion, unshaken opinion, steadfast opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion, sober opinion, dispassionate opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded opinion &c.; uberrima fides[Lat].

system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda, creed; thirty-nine articles &c. (orthodoxy) 983a; catechism; assent &c. 488; propaganda &c. (teaching) 537.

credibility &c. (probability) 472.

V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see, realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it; consider, esteem, presume.

count upon, depend upon, calculate upon, pin one's faith upon, reckon upon, lean upon, build upon, rely upon, rest upon; lay one's account for; make sure of.

make oneself easy about, on that score; take on trust, take on credit; take for granted, take for gospel; allow some weight to, attach some weight to.

know, know for certain; have know, make no doubt; doubt not; be, rest assured &c. adj.; persuade oneself, assure oneself, satisfy oneself; make up one's mind.

give one credit for; confide in, believe in, put one's trust in; place in, repose in, implicit confidence in; take one's word for, at one's word; place reliance on, rely upon, swear by, regard to.

think, hold; take, take it; opine, be of opinion, conceive, trow, ween, fancy, apprehend; have it, hold a belief, possess, entertain a belief, adopt a belief, imbibe a belief, embrace a belief, get hold of a belief, hazard, foster, nurture a belief, cherish a belief, have an opinion, hold an opinion, possess, entertain an opinion, adopt an opinion, imbibe an opinion, embrace an opinion, get hold of an opinion, hazard an opinion, foster an opinion, nurture an opinion, cherish an opinion &c. n.

view as, consider as, take as, hold as, conceive as, regard as, esteem as, deem as, look upon as, account as, set down as; surmise &c. 514.

get it into one's head, take it into one's head; come round to an opinion; swallow &c. (credulity) 486.

cause to be believed &c. v.; satisfy, persuade, have the ear of, gain the confidence of, assure; convince, convict|!, convert; wean, bring round; bring over, win over; indoctrinate &c. (teach) 537; cram down the throat; produce conviction, carry conviction; bring home to, drive home to.

go down, find credence, pass current; be received &c. v., be current &c. adj.; possess, take hold of, take possession of the mind.

Adj. believing &c. v.; certain, sure, assured, positive, cocksure, satisfied, confident, unhesitating, convinced, secure.

under the impression; impressed with, imbued with, penetrated with.

confiding, suspectless; unsuspecting, unsuspicious; void of suspicion; credulous &c. 486; wedded to.

believed &c. v.; accredited, putative; unsuspected.

worthy of, deserving of, commanding belief; credible, reliable, trustworthy, to be depended on; satisfactory; probably &c. 472; fiducial, fiduciary; persuasive, impressive.

relating to belief, doctrinal.

Adv. in the opinion of, in the eyes of; me judice[Lat]; meseems, methinks; to the best of one's belief; I dare say, I doubt not, I have no doubt, I am sure; sure enough &c. (certainty) 474; depend upon, rely upon it; be assured, rest assured; I'll warrant you &c. (affirmation) 535.

Phr. experto crede [Lat][Vergil]; fata viam invenient [Lat]; Justitiae soror incorrupta Fides[Lat]; "live to explain thy doctrine by thy life" [Prior]; "stands not within the prospect of belief" [Macbeth]; tarde quae credita laedunt credimus [Lat][Ovid]; vide et crede [Lat].

485. Unbelief[edit]

N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit, miscreance; infidelity &c. (irreligion) 989; dissent &c. 489; change of opinion &c. 484; retraction &c. 607.

doubt &c. (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, scepticism, misgiving, demure; distrust, mistrust, cynicism; misdoubt, suspicion, jealousy, scruple, qualm; onus probandi[Lat].

incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity.

[person who doubts] doubter, skeptic, cynic.; unbeliever &c. 487.

V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c. 484; misbelieve; refuse to admit &c. (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c. (incredulity) 487.

doubt; be doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be skeptical as to &c. adj.; diffide|; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke, scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts, suspicions; have one's doubts.

demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider, waver.

hang in suspense, hang in doubt.

throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question; question, challenge, dispute; deny &c. 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise a doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion; ergotize.

startle, stagger; shake one's faith, shake one's belief, stagger one's faith, stagger one's belief.

Adj. unbelieving; skeptical, sceptical.

[transitive] incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as to, shy as to, suspicious of; doubting &c. v.

doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; disputable; unworthy of, undeserving of belief &c. 484; questionable; suspect, suspicious; open to suspicion, open to doubt; staggering, hard to believe, incredible, unbelievable, not to be believed, inconceivable; impossible &c. 471.

fallible &c. (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c. (untrue) 495.

Adv. cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of salt]; with grains of allowance.

Phr. fronti nulla fides[Lat]; nimium ne crede colori [Lat][Vergil]; "timeo Danaos et dona ferentes" [Latin: I fear the Greeks even when bearing gifts][Vergil], beware of Greeks bearing gifts; credat Judaeus Apella [Lat][Horace]; let those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua est suspicio [Lat][Syrus].

486. Credulity[edit]

N. credulity, credulousness &c. adj.; cullibility|, gullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion, self deception; superstition; one's blind side; bigotry &c. (obstinacy) 606; hyperorthodoxy &c. 984; misjudgment &c. 481.

credulous person &c (dupe) 547.

V. be credulous &c. adj.; jurare in verba magistri[Lat]; follow implicitly; swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take for gospel; run away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion; think the moon is made of green cheese; take for granted, grasp the shadow for the substance; catch at straws, grasp at straws.

impose upon &c. (deceive) 545.

Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c. 545; simple, green, soft, childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c. (believing) 484.

Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile [Lat][Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que reluce[Sp]; omne ignotum pro magnifico[Lat].

487. Incredulity[edit]

N. incredulousness, incredulity; skepticism, pyrrhonism|!; want of faith &c. (irreligion) 989.

suspiciousness &c. adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c. (unbelief) 485.

mistrust, cynicism.

unbeliever, skeptic, cynic; misbeliever.1, pyrrhonist; heretic &c. (heterodox) 984.

V. be incredulous &c. adj.; distrust &c. (disbelieve) 485; refuse to believe; shut one's eyes to, shut one's ears to; turn a deaf ear to; hold aloof, ignore, nullis jurare in verba magistri[Lat].

Adj. incredulous, skeptical, unbelieving, inconvincible; hard of belief, shy of belief, disposed to doubt, indisposed to believe; suspicious, scrupulous, distrustful, cynical;. 1The word miscreant, which originally meant simply misbeliever, has now quite another meaning (949). See Trench, On the Study of Words, p. 71.

488. Assent[edit]

N. assent, assentment; acquiescence, admission; nod; accord, concord, concordance; agreement &c. 23; affirmance, affirmation; recognition, acknowledgment, avowal; confession of faith.

unanimity, common consent, consensus, acclamation, chorus, vox populi; popular belief, current belief, current opinion; public opinion; concurrence &c. (of causes) 178; cooperation &c. (voluntary) 709.

ratification, confirmation, corroboration, approval, acceptance, visa; indorsement &c. (record) 551.

consent &c. (compliance) 762.

pressure to conform, herd instinct, peer pressure.

V. assent; give assent, yield assent, nod assent; acquiesce; agree &c. 23; receive, accept, accede, accord, concur, lend oneself to, consent, coincide, reciprocate, go with; be at one with &c. adj.; go along with, chime in with, strike in with, close in with; echo, enter into one's views, agree in opinion; vote, give one's voice for; recognize; subscribe to, conform to, defer to; say yes to, say ditto, amen to, say aye to.

acknowledge, own, admit, allow, avow, confess; concede &c. (yield) 762; come round to; abide by; permit &c. 760.

arrive at an understanding, come to an understanding, come to terms, come to an agreement.

confirm, affirm; ratify, appprove, indorse, countersign; corroborate &c. 467.

go with the stream, swim with the stream, go with the flow, blow with the wind; be in fashion, join in the chorus, join the crowd, be one of the guys, be part of the group, go with the crowd, don't make waves; be in every mouth.

Adj. assenting &c. v; of one accord, of one mind; of the same mind, at one with, agreed, acquiescent, content; willing &c. 602.

uncontradicted, unchallenged, unquestioned, uncontroverted.

carried, agreed, nem[abbr]. con. &c. adv[abbr: nemine contradicente].; unanimous; agreed on all hands, carried by acclamation.

affirmative &c. 535.

Adv. yes, yea, ay, aye, true; good; well; very well, very true; well and good; granted; even so, just so; to be sure, "thou hast said", you said it, you said a mouthful; truly, exactly, precisely, that's just it, indeed, certainly, you bet, certes[Lat], ex concesso[Lat]; of course, unquestionably, assuredly, no doubt, doubtless; naturally, natch.

be it so; so be it, so let it be; amen; willingly &c. 602.

affirmatively, in the affirmative.

OK, all right, might as well, why not?

with one consent, with one voice, with one accord; unanimously, una voce, by common consent, in chorus, to a man; nem[abbr]. con.[abbr: nemine contradicente], nemine dissentiente[Lat]; without a dissentient voice; as one man, one and all, on all hands.

Phr. avec plaisir[Fr]; chi tace accousente[It]; "the public mind is the creation of the Master-Writers" [Disraeli]; you bet your sweet ass it is; what are we waiting for? whenever you're ready; anytime you're ready.

489. Dissent[edit]

N. dissent; discordance &c. (disagreement) 24; difference diversity of opinion.

nonconformity &c. (heterodoxy) 984; protestantism, recusancy, schism; disaffection; secession &c. 624; recantation &c. 607.

dissension &c (discord) 713; discontent &c. 832; cavilling.

protest; contradiction &c (denial) 536; noncompliance &c (rejection) 764.

dissentient, dissenter; non-juror, non-content, nonconformist; sectary, separatist, recusant, schismatic, protestant, heretic.

refusal &c. 764.

V. dissent, demur; call in question &c. (doubt) 485; differ in opinion, disagree; say no &c. 536; refuse assent, refuse to admit; cavil, protest, raise one's voice against, repudiate; contradict &c. (deny) 536.

have no notion of, differ toto caelo[Lat]; revolt at, revolt from the idea.

shake the head, shrug the shoulders; look askance, look askant.

secede; recant &c. 607.

Adj. dissenting &c. v; negative &c. 536; dissident, dissentient; unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; non-content, nonjuring; protestant, recusant; unconvinced, unconverted.

unavowed, unacknowledged; out of the question.

discontented &c. 832; unwilling &c. 603; extorted.

sectarian, denominational, schismatic; heterodox; intolerant.

Adv. no &c. 536; at variance, at issue with; under protest.

Int. God forbid! not for the world; I'll be hanged if; never tell me; your humble servant, pardon me.

Phr. many men many minds; quot homines tot sententiae [Lat][Terence]; tant s'en faut[Fr]; il s'en faut bien[Fr];no way; by no means; count me out.

490. Knowledge[edit]

N. knowledge; cognizance, cognition, cognoscence|; acquaintance, experience, ken, privity, insight, familiarity; comprehension, apprehension; recognition; appreciation &c. (judgment) 480; intuition; conscience, consciousness; perception, precognition; acroamatics|!.

light, enlightenment; glimpse, inkling; glimmer, glimmering; dawn; scent, suspicion; impression &c. (idea) 453; discovery &c. 480a.

system of knowledge, body of knowledge; science, philosophy, pansophy; acroama|!; theory, aetiology, etiology; circle of the sciences; pandect, doctrine, body of doctrine; cyclopedia, encyclopedia; school &c. (system of opinions) 484.

tree of knowledge; republic of letters &c. (language) 560.

erudition, learning, lore, scholarship, reading, letters; literature; book madness; book learning, bookishness; bibliomania, bibliolatry; information, general information; store of knowledge &c.; education &c. (teaching) 537; culture, menticulture, attainments; acquirements, acquisitions; accomplishments; proficiency; practical knowledge &c. (skill) 698; liberal education; dilettantism; rudiments &c (beginning) 66.

deep knowledge, profound knowledge, solid knowledge, accurate knowledge, acroatic knowledge, acroamatic knowledge, vast knowledge, extensive knowledge, encyclopedic knowledge, encyclopedic learning; omniscience, pantology.

march of intellect; progress of science, advance of science, advance of learning; schoolmaster abroad.

[person who knows much] scholar &c. 492.

V. know, ken, scan, wot; wot aware, be aware &c. adj.- of; ween, weet, trow, have, possess.

conceive; apprehend, comprehend; take, realize, understand, savvy* [U.S.], appreciate; fathom, make out; recognize, discern, perceive, see, get a sight-of, experience.

know full well; have some knowledge of, possess some knowledge of; be au courant &c. adj.; have in one's head, have at one' fingers ends; know by heart, know by rote; be master of; connaitre le dessous des cartes[Fr], know what's what &c. 698.

see one's way; discover &c. 480a.

come to one's knowledge &c. (information) 527.

Adj. knowing &c. v.; cognitive; acroamatic.

aware of, cognizant of, conscious of; acquainted with, made acquainted with; privy to, no stranger to; au -fait, au courant; in the secret; up to, alive to; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; let into; apprized of, informed of; undeceived.

proficient with, versed with, read with, forward with, strong with, at home in; conversant with, familiar with.

erudite, instructed, leaned, lettered, educated; well conned, well informed, well read, well grounded, well educated; enlightened, shrewd, savant, blue, bookish, scholastic, solid, profound, deep-read, book- learned; accomplished &c (skillful) 698; omniscient; self-taught.

known &c. v.; ascertained, well-known, recognized, received, notorious, noted; proverbial; familiar, familiar as household words, familiar to every schoolboy; hackneyed, trite, trivial, commonplace.

cognoscible, cognizable.

Adv. to one's knowledge, to the best of one's knowledge.

Phr. one's eyes being opened &c. (disclosure) 529; ompredre tout c'est tout pardonner[French: to know all is to pardon all]; empta dolore docet experientia[Lat];<gr gnothi="" seauton="" gr="">[Grk]; "half our knowledge we must snatch not take" [Pope]; Jahre lehren mehr als Bucher[German: years teach more than books]; "knowledge comes but wisdom lingers"[Tennyson]; "knowledge is power" [Bacon]; les affaires font les hommes [Fr]; nec scire fas est omnia [Lat][Horace]; "the amassed thought and experience of innumerable minds" [Emerson]; was ich nicht weiss macht mich nicht heiss[Ger]. </gr>

491. Ignorance[edit]

N. ignorance, nescience, tabula rasa[Lat], crass ignorance, ignorance crasse[Fr]; unfamiliarity, unacquaintance; unconsciousness &c. adj.; darkness, blindness; incomprehension, inexperience, simplicity.

unknown quantities, x, y, z.

sealed book, terra incognita, virgin soil, unexplored ground; dark ages.

[Imperfect knowledge] smattering, sciolism, glimmering, dilettantism; bewilderment &c. (uncertainty) 475; incapacity.

[Affectation of knowledge] pedantry; charlatanry, charlatism; Philister, Philistine.

V. be ignorant &c. adj.; not know &c. 490; know not, know not what, know nothing of; have no idea, have no notion, have no conception; not have the remotest idea; not know chalk from cheese.

ignore, be blind to; keep in ignorance &c. (conceal) 528.

see through a glass darkly; have a film over the eyes, have a glimmering &c. n.; wonder whether; not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519; not pretend to take upon, not take upon one self to say.

Adj. ignorant; nescient; unknowing, unaware, unacquainted, unapprised, unapprized, unwitting, unweeting|, unconscious; witless, weetless; a stranger to; unconversant.

uninformed, uncultivated, unversed, uninstructed, untaught, uninitiated, untutored, unschooled, misguided, unenlightened; Philistine; behind the age.

shallow, superficial, green, rude, empty, half-learned, illiterate; unread, uninformed, uneducated, unlearned, unlettered, unbookish; empty- headed ,dizzy, wooly-headed; pedantic;

in the dark; benighted, belated; blinded, blindfolded; hoodwinked; misinformed; au bout de son latin, at the end of his tether, at fault; at sea &c. (uncertain) 475; caught tripping.

unknown, unapprehended, unexplained, unascertained, uninvestigated, unexplored, unheard of, not perceived; concealed &c. 528; novel.

Adv. ignorantly &c. adj.; unawares; for anything, for aught one knows; not that one knows.

Int. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, who knows, nobody knows.

Phr. "ignorance never settles a question" [Disraeli]; quantum animis erroris inest[Lat]! [Ovid]; "small Latin and less Greek" [B. Jonson]; "that unlettered small-knowing soul" [Love's Labor's Lost]; "there is no darkness but ignorance" [Twelfth NIght].

492. Scholar[edit]

N. scholar, connoisseur, savant, pundit, schoolman, professor, graduate, wrangler; academician, academist; master of arts, doctor, licentitate, gownsman; philosopher, master of math; scientist, clerk; sophist, sophister; linguist; glossolinguist, philologist; philologer; lexicographer, glossographer; grammarian; litterateur[Fr], literati, dilettanti, illuminati, cogniscenti[It]; fellow, Hebraist, lexicologist, mullah, munshi, Sanskritish; sinologist, sinologue; Mezzofanti, admirable Crichton, Mecaenas.

bookworm, helluo librorum[Lat]; bibliophile, bibliomaniac; bluestocking, bas-bleu[Fr]; bigwig, learned Theban, don; Artium Baccalaureus[Lat], Artium Magister[Lat].

learned man, literary man; homo multarum literarum[Lat]; man of learning, man of letters, man of education, man of genius.

antiquarian, antiquary; archaeologist.

sage &c. (wise man) 500.

pedant, doctrinaire; pedagogue, Dr. Pangloss; pantologist, criminologist.

schoolboy &c. (learner) 541.

Adj. learned &c. 490; brought up at the feet of Gamaliel.

Phr. "he was a scholar and a ripe and good one" [Henry VIII]; "the manifold linguist" [All's Well That Ends Well].

493. Ignoramus[edit]

N. ignoramus, dunce; wooden spoon; no scholar.

[insulting terms for ignorant person: see also imbecility 499, folly 501] moron, imbecile, idiot; fool, jerk, nincompoop, asshole [vulgar].

[person with superficial knowledge] dilettante, sciolist, smatterer, dabbler, half scholar; charlatan; wiseacre.

greenhorn, amateur &c (dupe) 547; novice, tyro &c (learner) 541; numskull.

lubber &c (bungler) 701; fool &c. 501; pedant &c 492. Adj. bookless, shallow; ignorant &c. 491.

Phr. "a wit with dunces and a dunce with wits" [Pope].

494. Truth[edit]

[Object of knowledge.]

N. fact, reality &c. (existence) 1; plain fact, plain matter of fact; nature &c. (principle) 5; truth, verity; gospel, gospel truth, God's honest truth; orthodoxy &c. 983a; authenticity; veracity &c. 543; correctness, correctitude.

accuracy, exactitude; exactness, preciseness &c. adj.; precision, delicacy; rigor, mathematical precision, punctuality; clockwork precision &c. (regularity) 80; conformity to rule; nicety.

orthology; ipsissima verba[Lat]; realism.

plain truth, honest truth, sober truth, naked truth, unalloyed truth, unqualified truth, stern truth, exact truth, intrinsic truth; nuda veritas[Lat]; the very thing; not an -illusion &c 495; real Simon Pure; unvarnished tale, unvarnished truth; the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; just the thing.

V. be true &c. adj., be the case; sand the test; have the true ring; hold good, hold true, hold water.

render true, prove true &c. adj.; substantiate &c. (evidence) 467.

get at the truth &c. (discover) 480a.

Adj. real, actual &c. (existing) 1; veritable, true; right, correct; certain &c. 474; substantially true, categorically true, definitively true &c; true to the letter, true as gospel; unimpeachable; veracious &c. 543; unreconfuted, unconfuted; unideal, unimagined; realistic.

exact, accurate, definite, precise, well-defined, just, just so, so; strict, severe; close &c. (similar) 17; literal; rigid, rigorous; scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; religiously exact, punctual, mathematical, scientific; faithful, constant, unerring; curious, particular, nice, delicate, fine; clean-cut, clear-cut.

verified, empirically true, experimentally verified, substantiated, proven (demonstrated) 478.

rigorously true, unquestionably true.

true by definition.

genuine, authentic, legitimate; orthodox &c. 983a; official, ex officio.

pure, natural, sound, sterling; unsophisticated, unadulterated, unvarnished, unalloyed, uncolored; in its true colors; pukka.

well-grounded, well founded; solid, substantial, tangible, valid; undistorted, undisguised; unaffected, unexaggerated, unromantic, unflattering.

Adv. truly &c. adj.; verily, indeed, really, in reality; with truth &c. (veracity) 543; certainly &c. (certain) 474; actually &c. (existence) 1; in effect &c (intrinsically) 5.

exactly &c. adj.; ad amussim[Lat]; verbatim, verbatim et literatim [Lat]; word for word, literally, literatim[Lat], totidem vervis[Lat], sic, to the letter, chapter and verse, ipsissimis verbis[Lat]; ad unguem[Lat]; to an inch; to a nicety, to a hair, to a tittle, to a turn, to a T; au pied de la lettre [Fr]; neither more nor less; in every respect, in all respects; sous tous les rapports[Fr]; at any rate, at all events; strictly speaking.

Phr. the truth is, the fact is; rem acu tetigisti[Lat]; en suivant la verite [Fr]; ex facto jus oritur [Lat]; la verita e figlia del empo [It]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Spanish: crazy people and children tell the truth]; nihil est veritatis luce dulcius [Lat][Cicero]; veritas nunquam perit [Lat][Seneca]; veritatem dies aperit [Lat][Seneca]; " the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth "; " just the facts, ma'am, just the facts." [Dragnet].

495. Error[edit]

N. error, fallacy; misconception, misapprehension, misstanding, misunderstanding; inexactness &c. adj.; laxity; misconstruction &c. (misinterpretation) 523; miscomputation &c. (misjudgment) 481; non sequitur &c. 477; mis-statement, mis-report; mumpsimus.

mistake; miss, fault, blunder, quiproquo, cross purposes, oversight, misprint, erratum, corrigendum, slip, blot, flaw, loose thread; trip, stumble &c. (failure) 732; botchery &c. (want of skill) 699; slip of the tongue, slip of the lip, Freudian slip; slip of the pen; lapsus linguae[Lat], clerical error; bull &c. (absurdity) 497; haplography.

illusion, delusion; snare; false impression, false idea; bubble; self- decit, self-deception; mists of error.

heresy &c. (heterodoxy) 984; hallucination &c. (insanity) 503; false light &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c. (fancy) 515; fable &c. (untruth) 546; bias &c. (misjudgment) 481; misleading &c. v.

V. be erroneous &c. adj.

cause error; mislead, misguide; lead astray, lead into error; beguile, misinform &c. (misteach) 538; delude; give a false impression, give a false idea; falsify, misstate; deceive &c. 545; lie &c. 544.

err; be -in error &c. adj., be mistaken &c. v.; be deceived &c. (duped) 547; mistake, receive a false impression, deceive oneself; fall into error, lie under error, labor under an error &c. n.; be in the wrong, blunder; misapprehend, misconceive, misunderstand, misreckon, miscount, miscalculate &c. (misjudge) 481.

play at cross purposes , be at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret) 523.

trip, stumble; lose oneself &c. (uncertainty) 475; go astray; fail &c. 732; be in the wrong box; take the wrong sow by the ear &c. (mismanage) 699; put the saddle on the wrong horse; reckon without one's host; take the shadow for the substance &c (credulity) 486; dream &c (imagine) 515.

Adj. erroneous, untrue, false, devoid of truth, fallacious, apocryphal, unreal, ungrounded, groundless; unsubstantial &c. 4; heretical &c. (heterodox) 984; unsound; illogical &c. 477.

inexact, unexact inaccurate, incorrect; indefinite &c. (uncertain) 475.

illusive, illusory; delusive; mock, ideal &c (imaginary) 515; spurious &c. 545; deceitful &c. 544; perverted.

controvertible, unsustainable; unauthenticated, untrustworthy.

exploded, refuted; discarded.

in error, under an error &c. n.; mistaken &c. v.; tripping &c. v.; out, out in one's reckoning; aberrant; beside the mark, wide of the mark, wide of the truth, way off, far off; astray &c (at fault) 475; on a false scent, on the wrong scent; in the wrong box, outside the ballpark; at cross purposes, all in the wrong; all out.

Adv. more or less.

Phr. errare est humanum[Lat]; mentis gratissimus error [Lat][Horace]; "on the dubious waves of error tost" [Cowper]; "to err is human, to forgive divine" [Pope]; "you lie -- under a mistake" [Shelley].

496. Maxim[edit]

N. maxim, aphorism; apothegm, apophthegm; dictum, saying, adage, saw, proverb; sentence, mot[Fr], motto, word, byword, moral, phylactery, protasis.

axiom, theorem, scholium, truism, postulate.

first principles, a priori fact, assumption (supposition) 514.

reflection &c (idea) 453; conclusion &c (judgment) 480; golden rule &c. (precept) 697; principle, principia[Lat]; profession of faith &c. (belief) 484; settled principle, accepted principle, formula.

accepted fact.

received truth, wise maxim, sage maxim, received maxim, admitted maxim, recognized maxim &c; true saying, common saying, hackneyed saying, trite saying, commonplace saying &c.

Adj. aphoristic, proverbial, phylacteric; axiomatic, gnomic.

Adv. as the saying goes, as the saying is, as they say.

497. Absurdity[edit]

N. absurdity, absurdness &c. adj.; imbecility &c. 499; alogy|, nonsense, utter nonsense; paradox, inconsistency; stultiloquy, stultiloquence; nugacity.

blunder, muddle, bull; Irishism|!, Hibernicism|!; slipslop; anticlimax, bathos; sophism &c. 477.

farce, galimathias, amphigouri, rhapsody; farrago &c (disorder) 59; betise[Fr]; extravagance, romance; sciamachy.

sell, pun, verbal quibble, macaronic.

jargon, fustian, twaddle, gibberish &c (no meaning) 517; exaggeration &c 549; moonshine, stuff; mare's nest, quibble, self-delusion.

vagary, tomfoolery, poppycock, mummery, monkey trick, boutade[Fr], escapade.

V. play the fool &c. 499; talk nonsense, parler a tort et a travess[Fr]; battre la campagne[Fr]; <gr hanemolia="" bazein="" gr="">; be - absurd &c. adj.

Adj. absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, egregious, senseless, inconsistent, ridiculous, extravagant, quibbling; self-annulling, self- contradictory; macaronic, punning.

foolish &c. 499; sophistical &c. 477; unmeaning &c. 517; without rhyme or reason; fantastic.

Int. fiddlededee! pish! pho! "in the name of the Prophet--figs!" [Horace Smith].

Phr. credat Judaeus Apella [Lat][Horace]; tell it to the marines. </gr>

498. Intelligence[edit]

Intelligence. Wisdom

N. intelligence, capacity, comprehension, understanding; cuteness, sabe * [U.S.], savvy * [U.S.]; intellect &c. 450; nous[Fr], parts, sagacity, mother wit, wit, esprit, gumption, quick parts, grasp of intellect; acuteness &c adj.; acumen, subtlety, penetration, perspicacy, perspicacity; discernment, due sense of, good judgment; discrimination &c 465; cunning &c. 702; refinement &c (taste) 850.

head, brains, headpiece, upper story, long head; eagle eye, eagle- glance; eye of a lynx, eye of a hawk.

wisdom, sapience, sense; good sense, common sense, horse sense [U.S.], plain sense; rationality, reason; reasonableness &c. adj; judgment; solidity, depth, profundity, caliber; enlarged views; reach of thought, compass of thought; enlargement of mind.

genius, inspiration, geist[Ger], fire of genius, heaven-born genius, soul; talent &c. (aptitude) 698.

[Wisdom in action] prudence &c. 864; vigilance &c. 459; tact &c 698; foresight &c 510; sobriety, self-possession, aplomb, ballast.

a bright thought, not a bad idea.

Solomon-like wisdom.

V. be -intelligent &c. adj.; have all one's wits about one; understand &c. (intelligible) 518; catch an idea, take in an idea; take a joke, take a hint.

see through, see at a glance, see with half an eye, see far into, see through a millstone; penetrate; discern &c (descry) 441; foresee &c 510.

discriminate &c. 465; know what's what &c. 698; listen to reason.

Adj. intelligent[Applied to persons], quick of apprehension, keen, acute, alive, brainy, awake, bright, quick, sharp; quick witted, keen witted, clear witted, sharp- eyed, sharp sighted, sharp witted; wide-awake; canny, shrewd, astute; clear-headed; farsighted &c 510; discerning, perspicacious, penetrating, piercing; argute; quick-witted, nimble- witted, needle-witted; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; alive to &c (cognizant) 490; clever &c. (apt) 698; arch &c (cunning) 702; pas si bete[Fr]; acute &c 682.

wise, sage, sapient, sagacious, reasonable, rational, sound, in one's right mind, sensible, abnormis sapiens[Lat], judicious, strong-minded.

unprejudiced, unbiased, unbigoted, unprepossessed; undazzled, unperplexed; unwarped judgment, impartial, equitable, fair.

cool; cool-headed, long-headed, hardheaded, strong-headed; long- sighted, calculating, thoughtful, reflecting; solid, deep, profound.

oracular; heaven-directed, heaven-born.

prudent &c (cautious) 864; sober, stand, solid; considerate, politic, wise in one's generation; watchful &c. 459; provident &c (prepared) 673; in advance of one' age; wise as a serpent, wise as Solomon, wise as Solon.

[Applied to actions] wise, sensible, reasonable, judicious; well- thought-out, well-planned, well-judged, well-advised; prudent, politic; expedient &c. 646.

Phr. aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet[Lat]; "but with the morning cool reflection came" [Scott]; flosculi sententiarum[Lat]; les affaires font les hommes[Fr]; mas vale saber que haber[Sp]; mas vale ser necio que profiadol nemo solus sapit [Lat][Plautus]; nosce te[Lat]; <gr gnothi="" seauton="" gr="">[Grk]; nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementiae fuit [Lat][Seneca, from Aristotle]; sapere aude [Lat][Horace]; victrix fortunae sapientia [Lat][Juvenal]. </gr>

499. Imbecility[edit]

 Imbecility. Folly 

N. want of -intelligence &c. 498, want of - intellect &c. 450; shadowness, silliness, foolishness &c. adj.; imbecility, incapacity, vacancy of mind, poverty of intellect, weakness of intellect, clouded perception, poor head, apartments to let; stupidity, stolidity; hebetude, dull understanding, meanest capacity, shortsightedness; incompetence &c (unskillfulness) 699.

one's weak side, not one's strong point; bias &c 481; infatuation &c. (insanity) 503.

simplicity, puerility, babyhood; dotage, anility, second childishness, fatuity; idiocy, idiotism; driveling.

folly, frivolity, irrationality, trifling, ineptitude, nugacity, inconsistency, lip wisdom, conceit; sophistry &c. 477; giddiness &c (inattention) 458; eccentricity &c. 503; extravagance &c (absurdity) 497; rashness &c. 863.

act of folly &c. 699.

b. be - imbecile &c adj.; have no -brains, have no sense &c. 498.

trifle, drivel, radoter, dote; ramble &c (madness) 503; play the fool, play the monkey, monkey around, fool around; take leave of one's senses (insanity) 503; not see an inch beyond one's nose; stultify oneself &c. 699; talk nonsense &c. 497.

Adj. unintelligent[Applied to persons], unintellectual, unreasoning; mindless, witless, reasoningless, brainless; halfbaked; having no head &c. 498; not -bright &c. 498; inapprehensible.

weak headed, addle headed, puzzle headed, blunder headed, muddle headed, muddy headed, pig headed, beetle headed, buffle headed, chuckle headed, mutton headed, maggoty headed, grossheaded; beef headed, fat witted, fat-headed.

weak-minded, feeble-minded; dull minded, shallow minded, lack-brained; rattle-brained, rattle headed; half witted, lean witted, short witted, dull witted, blunt-witted, shallow-pated, clod-pated, addle- pated; dim-sighted, short-sighted; thick-skulled; weak in the upper story.

shallow, borne, weak, wanting, soft, sappy, spoony; dull, dull as a beetle; stupid, heavy, insulse, obtuse, blunt, stolid, doltish; asinine; inapt &c. 699; prosaic &c. 843; hebetudinous.

childish, child-like; infantine, infantile, babyish, babish; puerile, anile; simple &c. (credulous) 486; old-womanish.

fatuous, idiotic, imbecile, driveling; blatant, babbling; vacant; sottish; bewildered &c.475.

blockish, unteachable Boeotian, Boeotic; bovine; ungifted, undiscerning, unenlightened, unwise, unphilosophical; apish; simious.

foolish, silly, senseless, irrational, insensate, nonsensical, inept; maudlin.

narrow-minded &c. 481; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; giddy &c. (thoughtless) 458; rash &c. 863; eccentric &c. (crazed) 503.

[Applied to actions] foolish, unwise, injudicious, improper, unreasonable, without reason, ridiculous, absurd, idiotic, silly, stupid, asinine; ill-imagined, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-devised; mal entendu[Fr]; inconsistent, irrational, unphilosophical; extravagant &c (nonsensical) 497; sleeveless, idle; pointless, useless &c. 645; inexpedient &c. 647; frivolous &c. (trivial) 643.

Phr. Davus sum non [Lat][Oedipus]; "a fool's bolt is soon shot" clitellae bovi sunt impositae [Henry V.][Lat][Cicero]; "fools rush in where angels fear to tread" [Pope]; il n' a ni bouche ni eperon [Fr]; "the bookful blockhead, ignorantly read" [Pope]; "to varnish nonsense with the charms of sound" [Churchill].

500. Sage[edit]

N. sage, wise man; genius; master mind, master spirit of the age; longhead, thinker; intellectual, longhair.

authority, oracle, luminary, shining light, esprit fort, magnus Apollo[Lat], Solon, Solomon, Nestor, Magi, "second Daniel."

man of learning &c. 492; expert &c. 700; wizard &c. 994.

[Ironically] wiseacre, bigwig, know-it-all; poor man's Einstein.

Adj. venerable, reverenced, emeritus.

Phr. barba tenus sapientes[Lat].

501. Fool[edit]

N. fool, idiot, tomfool, wiseacre, simpleton, witling, dizzard, donkey, ass; ninny, ninnyhammer; chowderhead, chucklehead; dolt, booby, Tom Noddy, looby, hoddy-doddy, noddy, nonny, noodle, nizy, owl; goose, goosecap; imbecile; gaby; radoteur, nincompoop, badaud, zany; trifler, babbler; pretty fellow; natural, niais.

child, baby, infant, innocent, milksop, sop.

oaf, lout, loon, lown, dullard, doodle, calf, colt, buzzard, block, put, stick, stock, numps, tony.

bull head, dunderhead, addlehead, blockhead, dullhead, loggerhead, jolthead, jolterhead, beetlehead, beetlebrain, grosshead, muttonhead, noodlehead, giddyhead; numbskull, thickskull; lackbrain, shallowbrain; dimwit, halfwit, lackwit; dunderpate; lunkhead

sawney[U.S.], gowk; clod, clod-hopper; clod-poll, clot- poll, clot-pate; bull calf; gawk, Gothamite, lummox, rube [U.S.]; men of Boeotia, wise men of Gotham.

un sot a triple etage[Fr], sot; jobbernowl, changeling, mooncalf, gobemouche.

dotard, driveler; old fogey, old woman, crock; crone, grandmother; cotquean, henhussy.

incompetent (insanity) 503.

greenhorn &c (dupe) 547; dunce &c (ignoramus) 493; lubber &c (bungler) 701; madman &c 504.

one who will not set the Thames on fire; one who did not invent gunpowder, qui n'a pas invente' la poudre [Fr]; no conjuror.

Phr. fortuna favet fatuis[Lat]; les fous font les festinas et les sages les mangent [Fr]; nomina stultorum parietibus harrent [Lat]; stultorum plena sunt omnia [Lat][Cicero].

502. Sanity[edit]

N. sanity; soundness &c. adj.; rationality, sobriety, lucidity, lucid interval; senses, sober senses, right mind, sound mind, mens sana[Lat].

V. be sane &c. adj.; retain one's senses, retain one's reason.

become sane &c. adj.; come to one's senses, sober down.

render sane &c. adj; bring to one's senses, sober.

Adj. sane, rational, reasonable, compos mentis, of sound mind; sound, sound-minded; lucid.

self-possessed; sober, sober-minded.

in one's sober senses, in one's right mind; in possession of one's faculties.

Adv. sanely &c.adj.

503. Insanity[edit]

N. disordered reason, disordered intellect; diseased mind, unsound mind, abnormal mind; derangement, unsoundness; psychosis; neurosis; cognitive disorder; affective disorder.

insanity, lunacy; madness &c. adj.; mania, rabies, furor, mental alienation, aberration; paranoia, schizophrenia; dementation, dementia, demency; phrenitis, phrensy, frenzy, raving, incoherence, wandering, delirium, calenture of the brain; delusion, hallucination; lycanthropy; brain storm|!.

vertigo, dizziness, swimming; sunstroke, coup de soleil[Fr], siriasis.

fanaticism, infatuation, craze; oddity, eccentricity, twist, monomania (caprice) 608; kleptodipsomania; hypochondriasis &c. (low spirits) 837[Med]; melancholia, depression, clinical depression, severe depression; hysteria; amentia.

screw loose, tile loose, slate loose; bee in one's bonnet, rats in the upper story.

dotage &c. (imbecility) 499.

V. be insane &c. adj.

become insane &c. adj; lose one's senses, lose one's reason, lose one's faculties, lose one's wits; go mad, run mad, lose one's marbles [coll.], go crazy, go bonkers [coll.], flip one's wig [coll.], flip one's lid[coll.], flip out[coll.], flip one's bush [coll.].

rave, dote, ramble, wander; drivel &c. (be imbecile) 499; have a screw loose &c. n., have a devil; avoir le diable au corps[Fr]; lose one;s head &c. (be uncertain) 475.

render mad, drive mad &c adj.; madden, dementate, addle the wits, addle the brain, derange the head, infatuate, befool; turn the brain, turn one's head; drive one nuts [coll.].

Adj. insane, mad, lunatic ,loony[coll.]; crazy, crazed, aliene, non compos mentis; not right, cracked, touched; bereft of reason; all possessed, unhinged, unsettled in one's mind; insensate, reasonless, beside oneself, demented, daft; phrenzied, frenzied, frenetic; possessed, possessed with a devil; deranged, maddened, moonstruck; shatterpated; mad-brained, scatter brained, shatter brained, crackbrained; touched, tetched [dialect]; off one's head.

[behavior suggesting insanity] maniacal; delirious, lightheaded, incoherent, rambling, doting, wandering; frantic, raving, stark staring mad, stark raving mad, wild-eyed, berserk; delusional, hallucinatory.

[behavior somewhat resembling insanity] corybantic, dithyrambic; rabid, giddy, vertiginous, wild; haggard, mazed; flighty; distracted, distraught; depressed; agitated, hyped up; bewildered &c. (uncertain) 475.

mad as a March hare, mad as a hatter; of unsound mind &c. n.; touched in one's head, wrong in one's head, not right in one's head, not in one's right mind, not right in one's wits, upper story; out of one's mind, out of one's wits, out of one's skull [coll.], far gone, out of one's senses, out of one's wits; not in one's right mind.

fanatical, infatuated, odd, eccentric; hypped, hyppish; spaced out [coll.].

imbecile, silly, &c. 499.

Adv. like one possessed.

Phr. the mind having lost its balance; the reason under a cloud; tet exaltee[French], tet montee[French]; ira furor brevis est[Latin]; omnes stultos insanire [Latin][Horace].

504. Madman[edit]

N. madman, lunatic, maniac, bedlamite, candidate for Bedlam, raver, madcap, crazy; energumen; automaniac, monomaniac, dipsomaniac, kleptomaniac; hypochondriac &c. (low spirits); crank, Tom o'Bedlam.

dreamer &c. 515; rhapsodist, seer, highflier, enthusiast, fanatic, fanatico[Sp]; exalte[French]; knight errant, Don Quixote.

idiot &c. 501.

Section VI. Extension of Thought[edit]

To the Past[edit]

505. Memory[edit]

N. memory, remembrance; retention, retentiveness; tenacity; veteris vestigia flammae[Lat]; tablets of the memory; readiness.

reminiscence, recognition, recollection, rememoration; recurrence, flashback; retrospect, retrospection.

afterthought, post script, PS.

suggestion &c. (information) 527; prompting &c. v.; hint, reminder; remembrancer, flapper; memorial &c. (record) 551; commemoration &c. (celebration) 883.

[written reminder] note, memo, memorandum;

things to be remembered, token of remembrance, memento, souvenir, keepsake, relic, memorabilia.

art of memory, artificial memory; memoria technica[Lat]; mnemonics, mnemotechnics; phrenotypics; Mnemosyne.

prompt-book; crib sheet, cheat sheet.

retentive memory, tenacious memory, photographic memory, green memory|!, trustworthy memory, capacious memory, faithful memory, correct memory, exact memory, ready memory, prompt memory, accurate recollection; perfect memory, total recall.

celebrity, fame, renown, reputation &c. (repute) 873.

V. remember, mind; retain the memory of, retain the remembrance of; keep in view.

recognize, recollect, bethink oneself, recall, call up, retrace; look back, trace back, trace backwards; think back, look back upon; review; call upon, recall upon, bring to mind, bring to remembrance; carry one's thoughts back; rake up the past.

have in the thoughts, hold in the thoughts, bear in the thoughts, carry in the thoughts, keep in the thoughts, retain in the thoughts, have in the memory, hold in the memory, bear in the memory, carry in the memory, keep in the memory, retain in the memory, have in the mind, hold in the mind, bear in the mind, carry in the mind, keep in the mind, retain in the mind, hold in remembrance; be in one's thoughts, live in one's thoughts, remain in one's thoughts, dwell in one's thoughts, haunt one's thoughts, impress one's thoughts, be in one's mind, live in one's mind, remain in one's mind, dwell in one's mind, haunt one's mind, impress one's mind, dwell in one's memory.

sink in the mind; run in the head; not be able to get out of one's head; be deeply impressed with; rankle &c. (revenge) 919.

recur to the mind; flash on the mind, flash across the memory.

[cause to remember] remind; suggest &c. (inform ) 527; prompt; put in mind, keep in mind, bring to mind; fan the embers; call up, summon up, rip up; renew; infandum renovare dolorem [Lat]; jog the memory, flap the memory, refresh the memory, rub up the memory, awaken the memory; pull by the sleeve; bring back to the memory, put in remembrance, memorialize.

task the memory, tax the memory.

get at one's fingers' ends, have at one's fingers', learn at one's fingers', know one's lesson, say one's lesson, repeat by heart, repeat by rote; say one's lesson; repeat, repeat as a parrot; have at one's fingers' ends.

[transitive] commit to memory, memorize; con over, con; fix in the memory, rivet in the memory, imprint in the memory, impress in the memory, stamp in the memory, grave in the memory, engrave in the memory, store in the memory, treasure up in the memory, bottle up in the memory, embalm in the memory, enshrine in the memory; load the memory with, store the memory with, stuff the memory with, burden the memory with.

redeem from oblivion; keep the memory alive, keep the wound green, pour salt in the wound, reopen old wounds'; tangere ulcus[Lat]; keep up the memory of; commemorate &c. (celebrate) 883.

make a note of, jot a note, pen a memorandum &c. (record) 551.

Adj. remembering, remembered &c. v.; mindful, reminiscential; retained in the memory &c. v.; pent up in one's memory; fresh; green, green in remembrance; unforgotten, present to the mind; within one's memory &c. n.; indelible; uppermost in one's thoughts; memorable &c. (important) 642.

Adv. by heart, by rote; without book, memoriter.

in memory of; in memoriam; memoria in aeterna[Lat]; suggestive.

Phr. manet alta mente repostum [Lat][Vergil]; forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit [Lat][Vergil]; absens haeres non erit [Lat]; beatae memoriae [Lat]; "briefly thyself remember" [Lear]; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; "memory the warder of the brain" [Macbeth]; parsque est meminisse doloris [Lat][Ovid]; "to live in hearts we leave behind is not to die" [Campbell]; vox audita peril littera scripta manet [Lat]; out of sight, out of mind.

506. Oblivion[edit]

N. oblivion, obliviousness, lethe; forgetfulness &c. adj.; amnesia; obliteration &c. 552 of , insensibility &c. 823 to the past.

short memory, treacherous memory, poor memory, loose memory, slippery memory, failing memory; decay of memory, failure of memory, lapse of memory; waters of Lethe, waters of oblivion.

amnesty, general pardon.

[deliberate or unconscious forgetting] repressed memory.

V. forget; be forgetful &c. adj.; fall into oblivion, sink into oblivion; have a short memory &c. n., have no head.

forget one's own name, have on the tip of one's tongue, come in one ear and go out the other.

slip memory, escape memory, fade from memory, die away from the memory; lose, lose sight of.

fail to recall, not be able to recall.

[cause oneself to forget: transitive] unlearn; efface &c. 552 , discharge from the memory; consign to oblivion, consign to the tomb of the Capulets; think no more of &c. (turn the attention from) 458; cast behind one's back, wean one's thoughts from; let bygones be bygones &c.(forgive) 918.

Adj. forgotten &c. v.; unremembered, past recollection, bygone, out of mind; buried in oblivion, sunk in oblivion; clean forgotten; gone out of one's head, gone out of one's recollection.

forgetful, oblivious, mindless, Lethean; insensible &c. 823 to the past; heedless.

Phr. non mi ricordo[It]; the memory failing, the memory deserting one, being at (or in) fault.

To The Future[edit]

507. Expectation[edit]

N. expectation, expectance, expectancy; anticipation, reckoning, calculation; foresight &c. 510.

contemplation, prospection, lookout; prospect, perspective, horizon, vista; destiny &c. 152.

suspense, waiting, abeyance; curiosity &c. 455; anxious expectation, ardent expectation, eager expectation, breathless expectation, sanguine expectation; torment of Tantalus.

hope &c. 858; trust &c. (belief) 484; auspices &c. (prediction) 511; assurance, confidence, presumption, reliance.

V. expect; look for, look out for, look forward to; hope for; anticipate; have in prospect, have in contemplation; keep in view; contemplate, promise oneself; not wonder &c. 870 at, not wonder if.

wait for, tarry for, lie in wait for, watch for, bargain for; keep a good lookout for, keep a sharp lookout for; await; stand at "attention," abide, bide one's time, watch.

foresee &c. 510; prepare for &c. 673; forestall &c. (be early) 132; count upon &c. (believe in) 484; think likely &c. (probability) 472.

lead one to expect &c. (predict) 511; have in store for &c. (destiny) 152.

prick up one's ears, hold one's breath.

Adj. expectant; expecting &c. v.; in expectation &c. n.; on the watch &c. (vigilant) 459; open-eyed, open-mouthed, in wide-eyed anticipation; agape, gaping, all agog; on tenterhooks, on tiptoe, on the tiptoe of expectation; aux aguets; ready; curious &c. 455; looking forward to.

expected &c. v.; long expected, foreseen; in prospect &c. n.; prospective; in one's eye, in one's view, in the horizon, on the horizon, just over the horizon, just around the corner, around the corner; impending &c. (destiny) 152.

Adv. on the watch &c. adj.; with breathless expectation &c. n.; with bated breath, with rapt anticipation; arrectis auribus[Lat].

Phr. we shall see; nous verrons[Fr]; "expectation whirls me round" [Troilus and Cressida]; the light at the end of the tunnel.

508. Inexpectation[edit]

N. inexpectation, non-expectation; false expectation &c. (disappointment) 509; miscalculation &c. 481.

surprise, sudden burst, thunderclap, blow, shock, start; bolt out of the blue; wonder &c. 870; eye opener.

unpleasant surprise, pleasant surprise.

V. not expect &c. 507; be taken by surprise; start; miscalculate &c. 481; not bargain for; come upon, fall upon.

be unexpected &c. adj.; come unawares &c. adv.; turn up, pop, drop from the clouds; come upon one, burst upon one, flash upon one, bounce upon one, steal upon one, creep upon one; come like a thunder clap, burst like a thunderclap, thunder bolt; take by surprise, catch by surprise, catch unawares, catch napping; yach [S. Africa].

pounce upon, spring a mine upon.

surprise, startle, take aback, electrify, stun, stagger, take away one's breath, throw off one's guard; astonish, dumbfound &c. (strike with wonder) 870.

Adj. nonexpectant; surprised &c. v.; unwarned, unaware; off one's guard; inattentive 458.

unexpected, unanticipated, unpredicted, unlooked for, unforeseen, unhoped for; dropped from the clouds; beyond expectation, contrary to expectation, against expectation, against all expectation; out of one's reckoning; unheard of &c. (exceptional) 83; startling, surprising; sudden &c. (instantaneous) 113.

unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.

Adv. abruptly, unexpectedly, surprisingly; plump, pop, a l'improviste[Fr], unawares; without notice, without warning, without a "by your leave"; like a thief in the night, like a thunderbolt; in an unguarded moment; suddenly &c. (instantaneously) 113.

Int. heydey! &c. (wonder) 870.

Phr. little did one think, little did one expect; nobody would ever suppose, nobody would ever think, nobody would ever expect; who would have thought? it beats the Dutch|!.

509. Disappointment[edit]

[Failure of expectation.]

N. disappointment; blighted hope, balk; blow; anticlimax; slip 'twixt cup and lip; nonfulfillment of one's hopes; sad disappointment, bitter disappointment; trick of fortune; afterclap; false expectation, vain expectation; miscalculation &c. 481; fool's paradise; much cry and little wool.

V. be disappointed; look blank, look blue; look aghast, stand aghast &c. (wonder) 870; find to one's cost; laugh on the wrong side of one's mouth; find one a false prophet.

not realize one's hope, not realize one's expectation.

[cause to be disappointed] disappoint; frustrate, discomfit, crush, defeat (failure) 732; crush one's hope, dash one's hope, balk one's hope, disappoint one's hope, blight one's hope, falsify one's hope, defeat one's hope, discourage; balk, jilt, bilk; play one false, play a trick; dash the cup from the lips, tantalize; dumfound, dumbfound, dumbfounder, dumfounder (astonish) 870.

Adj. disappointed &c. v.; disconcerted, aghast; disgruntled; out of one's reckoning.

Phr. the mountain labored and brought forth a mouse; parturiunt montes[Lat]; nascitur ridiculus mus [Lat][Horace]; diis aliter visum[Lat], the bubble burst; one's countenance falling.

510. Foresight[edit]

N. foresight, prospicience, prevision, long- sightedness; anticipation; providence &c. (preparation) 673.

forethought, forecast; predeliberation, presurmise; foregone conclusion &c. (prejudgment) 481; prudence &c. (caution) 864.

foreknowledge; prognosis; precognition, prescience, prenotion, presentiment; second sight; sagacity &c. (intelligence) 498; antepast, prelibation, prophasis.

prospect &c. (expectation) 507; foretaste; prospectus &c. (plan) 626.

V. foresee; look forwards to, look ahead, look beyond; scent from afar; look into the future, pry into the future, peer into the future.

see one's way; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land, see how the wind blows, test the waters, see how the cat jumps.

anticipate; expect &c. 507; be beforehand &c. (early) 132; predict &c. 511; foreknow, forejudge, forecast; presurmise; have an eye to the future, have an eye to the main chance; respicere finem[Lat]; keep a sharp lookout &c. (vigilance) 459; forewarn &c. 668.

Adj. foreseeing &c. v.; prescient; farseeing, farsighted; sagacious &c. (intelligent) 498; weatherwise; provident &c. (prepared) 673; prospective &c. 507.

Adv. against the time when.

Phr. cernit omnia Deus vindex[Lat]; mihi cura futuri[Lat]; run it up the flagpole and see who salutes.

511. Prediction[edit]

N. prediction, announcement; program, programme &c. (plan) 626[Brit]; premonition &c. (warning) 668; prognosis, prophecy, vaticination, mantology, prognostication, premonstration|; augury, auguration|; ariolation|, hariolation|; foreboding, aboding; bodement, abodement; omniation|, omniousness; auspices, forecast; omen &c. 512; horoscope, nativity; sooth, soothsaying; fortune telling, crystal gazing; divination; necromancy &c. 992.

[Divination by the stars] astrology, horoscopy, judicial astrology1.

adytum[Place of prediction].

prefiguration, prefigurement; prototype, type.

[person who predicts] oracle &c. 513.

V. predict, prognosticate, prophesy, vaticinate, divine, foretell, soothsay, augurate, tell fortunes; cast a horoscope, cast a nativity; advise; forewarn &c. 668.

presage, augur, bode; abode, forebode; foretoken, betoken; prefigure, preshow; portend; foreshow, foreshadow; shadow forth, typify, pretypify, ominate, signify, point to.

usher in, herald, premise, announce; lower.

hold out expectation, raise expectation, excite expectation, excite hope; bid fair, promise, lead one to expect; be the precursor &c 64.

[predict by mathematical or statistical means from past experience] extrapolate, project.

Adj. predicting &cv.; predictive, prophetic; fatidic, fatidical; vaticinal, oracular, fatiloquent, haruspical, Sibylline; weatherwise.

ominous, portentous, augurous, augurial, augural; auspicial, auspicious; prescious, monitory, extispicious, premonitory, significant of, pregnant with, bit with the fate of.

Phr. "coming events cast their shadows before" [Campbell]; dicamus bona verba[Lat]; "there buds the promise of celestial worth" [Young].

[1] The following terms, expressive of different forms of divination, have been collected from various sources, and are here given as a curious illustration of bygone superstitions:-

Divination by oracles, Theomancy; by the Bible, Bibliomancy; by ghosts, Psychomancy; by crystal gazing, Crystallomancy; by shadows or manes, Sciomancy; by appearances in the air, Aeromancy, Chaomancy; by the stars at birth, Genethliacs; by meteors, Meteoromancy; by winds, Austromancy; by sacrificial appearances, Aruspicy (or Haruspicy), Hieromancy, Hieroscopy; by the entrails of animals sacrificed, Extispicy, Hieromancy; by the entrails of a human sacrifice, Anthropomancy; by the entrails of fishes, Ichthyomancy; by sacrificial fire, Pyromancy; by red-hot iron, Sideromancy; by smoke from the altar, Capnomancy; by mice, Myomancy; by birds, Orniscopy, Ornithomancy; by a cock picking up grains, Alectryomancy (or Alectromancy); by fishes, Ophiomancy; by herbs, Botanomancy; by water, Hydromancy; by fountains, Pegomancy; by a wand, Rhabdomancy; by dough of cakes, Crithomancy; by meal, Aleuromancy, Alphitomancy; by salt, Halomancy; by dice, Cleromancy; by arrows, Belomancy; by a balanced hatchet, Axinomancy; by a balanced sieve, Coscinomancy; by a suspended ring, Dactyliomancy; by dots made at random on paper, Geomancy; by precious stones, Lithomancy; by pebbles, Pessomancy; by pebbles drawn from a heap, Psephomancy; by mirrors, Catoptromancy; by writings in ashes, Tephramancy; by dreams, Oneiromancy; by the hand, Palmistry, Chiromancy; by nails reflecting the sun's rays, Onychomancy; by finger rings, Dactylomancy; by numbers, Arithmancy; by drawing lots, Sortilege; by passages in books, Stichomancy; by the letters forming the name of the person, Onomancy, Nomancy; by the features, Anthroposcopy; by the mode of laughing, Geloscopy; by ventriloquism, Gastromancy; by walking in a circle, Gyromancy; by dropping melted wax into water, Ceromancy; by currents, Bletonism; by the color and peculiarities of wine, Oenomancy.

512. Omen[edit]

N. omen, portent, presage, prognostic, augury, auspice; sign &c. (indication) 550; harbinger &c. (precursor) 64; yule candle|!.

bird of ill omen; signs of the times; gathering clouds; warning &c. 668.

prefigurement &c. 511.

Adj. ill-boding.

Phr. auspicium melioris aevi[Lat].

513. Oracle[edit]

N. oracle; prophet, prophesier, seer, soothsayer, augur, fortune teller, crystal gazer, witch, geomancer, aruspex; aruspice, haruspice; haruspex; astrologer, star gazer; Sibyl; Python, Pythoness; Pythia; Pythian oracle, Delphian oracle; Monitor, Sphinx, Tiresias, Cassandra, Sibylline leaves; Zadkiel, Old Moore; sorcerer &c. 994; interpreter &c. 524.

[person who predicts by non-mystical (natural) means] predictor, prognosticator, forecaster; weather forecaster, weatherman.

Phr. a prophet is without honor in his own country; "you don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows" [Bob Dylan].

Section VII. Creative Thought[edit]

514. Supposition[edit]

N. supposition, assumption, assumed position, postulation, condition, presupposition, hypothesis, blue sky hypothesis, postulate, postulatum[Lat], theory; thesis, theorem; data; proposition, position; proposal &c. (plan) 626; presumption &c. (belief) 484; divination.

conjecture; guess, guesswork, speculation; rough guess, shot, shot in the dark [coll.]; conjecturality; surmise, suspicion, sneaking suspicion; estimate, approximation (nearness) 197.

inkling, suggestion, hint, intimation, notion, impression; bare supposition, vague supposition, loose supposition, loose suggestion.

association of ideas, (analogy) 514a; metonym[Gram], metonymy[Gram], simile (metaphor) 521.

conceit, idea, thought; original idea, invention (imagination) 515.

V. suppose, conjecture, surmise, suspect, guess, divine; theorize; presume, presurmise, presuppose; assume, fancy, wis, take it; give a guess, speculate, believe, dare say, take it into one's head, take for granted; imagine &c. 515.

put forth; propound, propose; start, put a case, submit, move, make a motion; hazard out, throw out a suggestion, put forward a suggestion, put forward conjecture.

allude to, suggest, hint, put it into one's head.

suggest itself &c. (thought) 451; run in the head &c. (memory) 505; marvel if, wonder if, wonder whether.

Adj. supposing &c. v.; given, mooted, postulatory; assumed &c. v.; supposititious, suppositive, suppositious; gratuitous, speculative, conjectural, hypothetical, theoretical, academic, supposable, presumptive, putative; suppositional.

suggestive, allusive.

Adv. if, if so be; an; on the supposition &c. n.;ex hypothesi[Lat]; in the case, in the event of; quasi, as if, provided; perhaps &c. (by possibility) 470; for aught one knows.

514a. Analogy[edit]

N. analogy, association, association of ideas.

metaphor &c. 521.

analogical thinking; free association; train of thought, .

Adj. analogical.

515. Imagination[edit]

N. imagination; originality; invention; fancy; inspiration; verve.

warm imagination, heated imagination, excited imagination, sanguine imagination, ardent imagination, fiery imagination, boiling imagination, wild imagination, bold imagination, daring imagination, playful imagination, lively imagination, fertile imagination, fancy.

"mind's eye"; "such stuff as dreams are made of" [Tempest].

ideality, idealism; romanticism, utopianism, castle-building.

dreaming; phrensy, frenzy; ecstasy, extasy; calenture &c. (delirium) 503; reverie, trance; day dream, golden dream; somnambulism.

conception, Vorstellung[Ger], excogitation, "a fine frenzy"; cloudland, dreamland; flight of fancy, fumes of fancy; "thick coming fancies" [Macbeth]; creation of the brain, coinage of the brain; imagery.

conceit, maggot, figment, myth, dream, vision, shadow, chimera; phantasm, phantasy; fantasy, fancy; whim, whimsey, whimsy; vagary, rhapsody, romance, gest, geste, extravaganza; air drawn dagger, bugbear, nightmare.

flying Dutchman, great sea serpent, man in the moon, castle in the air, pipe dream, pie-in-the-sky, chateau en Espagne[Fr]; Utopia, Atlantis, happy valley, millennium, fairyland; land of Prester John, kindgom of Micomicon; work of fiction &c. (novel) 594; Arabian nights; le pot au lait[Fr]; dream of Alnashar &c. (hope) 858.

illusion &c. (error) 495; phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; Fata Morgana &c. (ignis fatuus) 423[Lat]; vapor &c. (cloud) 353; stretch of the imagination &c. (exaggeration) 549; mythogenesis.

idealist, romanticist, visionary; mopus; romancer, dreamer; somnambulist; rhapsodist &c. (fanatic) 504; castle-buildier, fanciful projector.

V. imagine, fancy, conceive; idealize, realize; dream, dream of, dream up; "give to airy nothing a local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's Dream].

create, originate, devise, invent, coin, fabricate; improvise, strike out something new.

set one's wits to work; strain one's invention, crack one's invention; rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, cudgel one's brains; excogitate; brainstorm.

give play, give the reins, give a loose to the imagination, give fancy; indulge in reverie.

visualize, envision, conjure up a vision; fancy oneself, represent oneself, picture, picture-oneself, figure to oneself; vorstellen[Ger].

float in the mind; suggest itself &c. (thought) 451.

Adj. imagined &c. v.; ben trovato[It]; air drawn, airbuilt.

imagining &cv. v, imaginative; original, inventive, creative, fertile.

romantic, high flown, flighty, extravagant, fanatic, enthusiastic, unrealistic, Utopian, Quixotic.

ideal, unreal; in the clouds, in nubibus[Lat]; unsubsantial &c. 4; illusory &c. (fallacious) 495.

fabulous, legendary; mythical, mythic, mythological; chimerical; imaginary, visionary; notional; fancy, fanciful, fantastic, fantastical; whimsical; fairy, fairy-like; gestic.

Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron]; aegri somnia vana[Lat]; dolphinum appingit sylvis in fluctibus aprum [Latin][Horace]; "fancy light from fancy caught" [Tennyson]; "imagination rules the world" [Napoleon]; l'imagination gallope[Fr], le jugement ne va que le pas[French]; musaeo contingens cuncta lepore [Latin][Lucretius]; tous songes sont mensonges[French]; Wahrheil und Dichtung[German].

Division II. Communication of Ideas[edit]

Section I. Nature of Ideas Communicated[edit]

516. Meaning[edit]

[Idea to be conveyed.] Meaning. [Thing signified.] 

N. meaning; signification, significance; sense, expression; import, purport; force; drift, tenor, spirit, bearing, coloring; scope.

[important part of the meaning] substance; gist, essence, marrow, spirit &c. 5.

matter; subject, subject matter; argument, text, sum and substance.

general meaning, broad meaning, substantial meaning, colloquial meaning, literal meaning, plain meaning, simple meaning, natural meaning, unstrained meaning, true &c. (exact) 494 meaning, honest &c. 543 meaning, prima facie &c. (manifest) 525 meaning[Lat]; letter of the law.

literally; after acceptation.

synonym; implication, allusion &c. (latency) 526; suggestion &c. (information) 527; figure of speech &c. 521; acceptation &c. (interpretation) 522.

V. mean, signify, express; import, purport; convey, imply, breathe, indicate, bespeak, bear a sense; tell of, speak of; touch on; point to, allude to; drive at; involve &c. (latency) 526; declare &c. (affirm) 535.

understand by &c. (interpret) 522.

Adj. meaning &c. v.; expressive, suggestive, allusive; significant, significative, significatory; pithy; full of meaning, pregnant with meaning.

declaratory &c. 535; intelligible &c. 518; literal; synonymous; tantamount &c. (equivalent) 27; implied &c. (latent) 526; explicit &c. 525.

Adv. to that effect; that is to say &c. (being interpreted) 522.

517. Unmeaningness[edit]

[Absence of meaning.]

N. meaninglessness, unmeaningness &c. adj.; scrabble.

empty sound, dead letter, vox et praeterea nihil[Lat]; "a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing"; "sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal."

nonsense, utter nonsense, gibberish; jargon, jabber, mere words, hocus-pocus, fustian, rant, bombast, balderdash, palaver, flummery, verbiage, babble, baverdage, baragouin, platitude, niaiserie; inanity; flap-doodle; rigmarole, rodomontade; truism; nugae canorae[Lat]; twaddle, twattle, fudge, trash, garbage, humbug; poppy-cock [U.S.]; stuff, stuff and nonsense; bosh, rubbish, moonshine, wish-wash, fiddle-faddle; absurdity &c. 497; vagueness &c. (unintelligibility) 519.

[routine or reflexive statements without substantive thought, esp. legal] boilerplate.

V. mean nothing; be unmeaning &c. adj.; twaddle, quibble, scrabble.

Adj. unmeaning; meaningless, senseless; nonsensical; void of sense &c. 516.

inexpressive, unexpressive; vacant; not significant &c. 516; insignificant.

trashy, washy, trumpery, trivial, fiddle-faddle, twaddling, quibbling.

unmeant, not expressed; tacit &c. (latent) 526.

inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.

518. Intelligibility[edit]

N. intelligibility; clearness, explicitness &c. adj.; lucidity, comprehensibility, perspicuity; legibility, plain speaking &c. (manifestation) 525; precision &c. 494; <gr phonanta="" synetoisy="" gr="">[Grk][Grk]; a word to the wise.

V. be intelligible &c. adj.; speak for itself, speak volumes; tell its own tale, lie on the surface.

render intelligible &c. adj.; popularize, simplify, clear up; elucidate &c. (explain) 522.

understand, comprehend, take, take in; catch, grasp, follow, collect, master, make out; see with half an eye, see daylight, see one's way; enter into the ideas of; come to an understanding.

Adj. intelligible; clear, clear as day, clear as noonday; lucid; perspicuous, transpicuous; luminous, transparent.

easily understood, easy to understand, for the million, intelligible to the meanest capacity, popularized.

plain, distinct, explicit; positive; definite &c. (precise) 494.

graphic; expressive &c. (meaning) 516; illustrative &c. (explanatory) 522.

unambiguous, unequivocal, unmistakable &c. (manifest) 525; unconfused; legible, recognizable; obvious &c. 525.

Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English.

Phr. he that runs may read &c. (manifest) 525. </gr>

519. Unintelligibility[edit]

N. unintelligibility; incomprehensibility, imperspicuity; inconceivableness, vagueness &c. adj.; obscurity; ambiguity &c. 520; doubtful meaning; uncertainty &c. 475; perplexity &c. (confusion) 59; spinosity; obscurum per obscurius[Lat]; mystification &c. (concealment) 528; latency &c. 526; transcendentalism.

paradox, oxymoron; riddle, enigma, puzzle &c. (secret) 533; diagnus vindice nodus[Lat]; sealed book; steganography, freemasonry.

pons asinorum[Lat], asses' bridge; high Dutch, Greek, Hebrew; jargon &c. (unmeaning) 517.

V. be unintelligible &c. adj.; require explanation &c. 522; have a doubtful meaning, pass comprehension.

render unintelligible &c. adj.; conceal &c 528; darken &c. 421; confuse &c. (derange) 61; perplex &c. (bewilder) 475.

not understand &c. 518; lose, lose the clue; miss; not know what to make of, be able to make nothing of, give it up; not be able to account for, not be able to make either head or tail of; be at sea &c. (uncertain) 475; wonder &c. 870; see through a glass darkly &c. (ignorance) 491.

not understand one another; play at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret) 523.

Adj. unintelligible, unaccountable, undecipherable, undiscoverable, unknowable, unfathomable; incognizable, inexplicable, inscrutable; inapprehensible, incomprehensible; insolvable, insoluble; impenetrable.

illegible, as Greek to one, unexplained, paradoxical; enigmatic, enigmatical, puzzling (secret) 533; indecipherable.

obscure, dark, muddy, clear as mud, seen through a mist, dim, nebulous, shrouded in mystery; ; opaque, dense; undiscernible &c. (invisible) 447; misty &c. (opaque) 426; hidden &c 528; latent &c 526.

indefinite, garbled &c (indistinct) 447; perplexed &c. (confused) 59; undetermined, vague, loose, ambiguous; mysterious; mystic, mystical; acroamatic, acroamatical; metempirical; transcendental; occult, recondite, abstruse, crabbed.

inconceivable, inconceptible; searchless; above comprehension, beyond comprehension, past comprehension; beyond one's depth; unconceived.

inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.

unpredictable, unforeseeable.

Phr. it's Greek to me.

520. Equivocalness[edit]

[Having a double sense]

N. equivocalness &c adj.; double meaning &c. 516; ambiguity, double entente, double entendre[Fr], pun, paragram, calembour, quibble, equivoque[Fr], anagram; conundrum &c (riddle) 533; play on words, word play &c. (wit) 842; homonym, homonymy[Gram]; amphiboly, amphibology; ambilogy, ambiloquy|.

Sphinx, Delphic oracle.

equivocation &c. (duplicity) 544; white lie, mental reservation &c. (concealment) 528; paltering.

V. be -equivocal &c. adj.; have two meanings &c. 516; equivocate &c. (alter) 544.

Adj. equivocal, ambiguous, amphibolous, homonymous; double-tongued &c. (lying) 544; enigmatical, indeterminate.

Phr. on the one hand, on the other hand.

521. Metaphor[edit]

N. figure of speech; facon de parler [French], way of speaking, colloquialism.

phrase &c. 566; figure, trope, metaphor, enallage, catachresis; metonymy[Gram], synecdoche[Semant]; autonomasia|!, irony, figurativeness &c. adj.; image, imagery; metalepsis, type, anagoge, simile, personification, prosopopoeia, allegory, apologue, parable, fable; allusion, adumbration; application.

exaggeration , hyperbole &c. 549.

association, association of ideas (analogy) 514a

V. employ -metaphor &c. n.; personify, allegorize, adumbrate, shadow forth, apply, allude to.

Adj. metaphorical, figurative, catachrestical, typical, tralatitious, parabolic, allegorical, allusive, anagogical; ironical; colloquial; tropical.

Adv. so to speak, so to say, so to express oneself; as it were.

Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Lat][Horace].

522. Interpretation[edit]

N. interpretation, definition; explanation, explication; solution, answer; rationale; plain interpretation, simple interpretation, strict interpretation; meaning &c. 516.

translation; rendering, rendition; redition; literal translation, free translation; key; secret; clew &c. (indication) 550; clavis, crib, pony, trot [U.S.].

exegesis; expounding, exposition; hermeneutics; comment, commentary; inference &c. (deduction) 480; illustration, exemplification; gloss, annotation, scholium, note; elucidation, dilucidation|; eclaircissement[Fr], mot d'enigme[Fr].

[methods of interpreting - list] symptomatology[Med], semiology, semeiology, semiotics; metoposcopy, physiognomy; paleography &c. (philology) 560; oneirology

acception, acceptation, acceptance; light, reading, lection, construction, version.

equivalent, equivalent meaning &c. 516; synonym; paraphrase, metaphrase; convertible terms, apposition; dictionary &c. 562; polyglot.

V. interpret, explain, define, construe, translate, render; do into, turn into; transfuse the sense of.

find out &c. 480a the meaning &c. 516 of; read; spell out, make out; decipher, unravel, disentangle; find the key of, enucleate, resolve, solve; read between the lines.

account for; find the cause, tell the cause &c. 153 of; throw light upon, shed light upon, shed new light upon, shed fresh light upon; clear up, clarify, elucidate.

illustrate, exemplify; unfold, expound, comment upon, annotate; popularize &c. (render intelligible) 518.

take in a particular sense, understand in a particular sense, receive in a particular sense, accept in a particular sense; understand by, put a construction on, be given to understand.

Adj. explanatory, expository; explicative, explicatory; exegetical; construable.

polyglot; literal; paraphrastic, metaphrastic; consignificative, synonymous; equivalent &c. 27.

Adv. in explanation &c. n.; that is to say, id est, videlicet, to wit, namely, in other words.

literally, strictly speaking; in plain, in plainer terms, in plainer words, in plainer English; more simply.

523. Misinterpretation[edit]

N. misinterpretation, misapprehension, misunderstanding, misacceptation|, misconstruction, misapplication; catachresis; eisegesis; cross-reading, cross-purposes; mistake &c. 495.

misrepresentation, perversion, exaggeration &c. 549; false coloring, false construction; abuse of terms; parody, travesty; falsification &c. (lying) 544.

V. misinterpret, misapprehend, misunderstand, misconceive, misspell, mistranslate, misconstrue, misapply; mistake &c. 495.

misrepresent, pervert; explain wrongly, misstate; garble &c. (falsify) 544; distort, detort|; travesty, play upon words; stretch the sense, strain the sense, stretch the meaning, strain the meaning, wrest the sense, wrest the meaning; explain away; put a bad construction on, put a false construction on; give a false coloring.

be at cross purposes, play at cross purposes.

Adj. misinterpreted &c. v.; untranslated, untranslatable.

524. Interpreter[edit]

N. interpreter; expositor, expounder, exponent, explainer; demonstrator.

scholiast, commentator, annotator; metaphrast, paraphrast; glossarist, prolocutor.

spokesman, speaker, mouthpiece.

dragoman, courier, valet de place, cicerone, showman; oneirocritic; (Edipus; oracle &c. 513)

Section II. Modes of Communication[edit]

525. Manifestation[edit]

N. {ant. 526} manifestation; plainness &c. adj.; plain speaking; expression; showing &c. v.; exposition, demonstration; exhibition, production; display, show; showing off; premonstration|. exhibit[Thing shown].

indication &c. (calling attention to) 457. publicity &c. 531; disclosure &c. 529; openness &c. (honesty) 543, (artlessness) 703; �panchement.

evidence &c. 467.

V. make manifest, render manifest &c. adj.; bring forth, bring forward, bring to the front, bring into view; give notice; express; represent, set forth, exhibit; show, show up ; expose; produce; hold up to view, expose to view; set before one, place before one, lay before one, one's eyes; tell to one's face; trot out, put through one's paces, bring to light, display, demonstrate, unroll; lay open; draw out, bring out; bring out in strong relief; call into notice, bring into notice; hold up the mirror; wear one's heart upon his sleeve; show one's face, show one's colors; manifest oneself; speak out; make no mystery, make no secret of; unfurl the flag; proclaim &c. (publish) 531.

indicate &c. (direct attention to) 457; disclose &c. 529; elicit &c. 480a.

be manifest &c. adj.; appear &c. (be visible) 446; transpire &c. (be disclosed) 529; speak for itself, stand to reason; stare one in the face, rear its head; give token, give sign, give indication of; tell its own tale &c. (intelligible) 518.

Adj. manifest, apparent; salient, striking, demonstrative, prominent, in the foreground, notable, pronounced.

flagrant; notorious &c. (public) 531; arrant; stark staring; unshaded, glaring.

defined, definite.

distinct, conspicuous &c. (visible) 446; obvious, evident, unmistakable, indubitable, not to be mistaken, palpable, self-evident, autoptical; intelligible &c. 518.

plain, clear, clear as day, clear as daylight, clear as noonday; plain as a pike staff, plain as the sun at noon-day, plain as the nose on one's face, plain as the way to parish church.

explicit, overt, patent, express; ostensible; open, open as day; naked, bare, literal, downright, undisguised, exoteric.

unreserved, frank, plain-spoken &c. (artless) 703; candid (veracious) 543; barefaced.

manifested &c. v.; disclosed &c. 529; capable of being shown, producible; inconcealable, unconcealable; no secret.

Adv. manifestly, openly &c. adj.; before one's eyes, under one's nose, to one's face, face to face, above board, cartes sur table, on the stage, in open court, in the open streets; in market overt; in the face of day, face of heaven; in broad daylight, in open daylight; without reserve; at first blush, prima facie[Lat], on the face of; in set terms.

Phr. cela saute aux yeux[French]; he that runs may read; you can see it with half an eye; it needs no ghost to tell us [Hamlet]; the meaning lies on the surface; cela va sans dire[Fr]; res ipsa loquitur[Lat]; "clothing the palpable and familiar" [Coleridge]; fari quae sentiat[Lat]; volto sciolto i pensieri stretti [It]; "you don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows" [Bob Dylan].

526. Latency[edit]

Latency. Implication

N. {ant. 525} latency, inexpression; hidden meaning, occult meaning; occultness, mystery, cabala, anagoge; silence &c (taciturnity) 585; concealment &c. 528; more than meets the eye, more than meets the ear; Delphic oracle; le dessous des cartes[Fr], undercurrent.

implication, logical implication; logical consequence; entailment.

allusion, insinuation; innuendo &c. 527; adumbration; "something rotten in the state of Denmark" [Hamlet].

snake in the grass &c. (pitfall) 667; secret &c. 533.

darkness, invisibility, imperceptibility.

V. be latent &c. adj.; lurk, smolder, underlie, make no sign; escape observation, escape detection, escape recognition; lie hid &c. 528.

laugh in one's sleeve; keep back &c. (conceal) 528.

involve, imply, understand, allude to, infer, leave an inference; entail; whisper &c. (conceal) 528.

[understand the implication] read between the lines.

Adj. latent; lurking &c.v.; secret &c. 528; occult; implied &c. v.; dormant; abeyant.

unapparent, unknown, unseen &c. 441; in the background; invisible &c. 447; indiscoverable, dark; impenetrable &c. (unintelligible) 519; unspied, unsuspected.

unsaid, unwritten, unpublished, unbreathed, untalked of, untold &c. 527, unsung, unexposed, unproclaimed, undisclosed &c. 529, unexpressed; not expressed, tacit.

undeveloped, solved, unexplained, untraced, undiscovered &c. 480a, untracked, unexplored, uninvented.

indirect, crooked, inferential; by inference, by implication; implicit; constructive; allusive, covert, muffled; steganographic; understood, underhand, underground; delitescent, concealed &c. 528.

Adv. by a side wind; sub silentio[Lat]; in the background; behind the scenes, behind one's back; on the tip of one's tongue; secretly &c. 528; between the lines.

Phr. "thereby hangs a tale" [As You Like It]; tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus [Lat][Vergil]; where there's smoke, there's fire.

527. Information[edit]

N. information, enlightenment, acquaintance, knowledge &c. 490; publicity &c. 531; data &c. 467.

communication, intimation; notice, notification; enunciation, annunciation; announcement; communiqu�; representation, round robin, presentment.

case, estimate, specification, report, advice, monition; news &c. 532; return &c. (record) 551; account &c. (description) 594; statement &c. (affirmation) 535.

mention; acquainting &c. v; instruction &c. (teaching) 537; outpouring; intercommunication, communicativeness.

informant, authority, teller, intelligencer, reporter, exponent, mouthpiece;

informer, eavesdropper, delator, detective; sleuth; mouchard, spy, newsmonger; messenger &c. 534; amicus curiae[Lat].

valet de place, cicerone, pilot, guide; guidebook, handbook; vade mecum[Latin]; manual; map, plan, chart, gazetteer; itinerary &c. (journey) 266.

hint, suggestion, innuendo, inkling, whisper, passing word, word in the ear, subaudition, cue, byplay; gesture &c. (indication) 550; gentle hint, broad hint; verbum sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise]; insinuation &c. (latency) 526.

information theory.

[units of information] bit, byte, word, doubleword[Comp], quad word, paragraph, segment.

[information storage media] magnetic media, paper medium, optical media; random access memory, RAM; read-only memory, ROM; write once read mostly memory, WORM.

V. tell; inform, inform of; acquaint, acquaint with; impart, impart to; make acquaintance with, apprise, advise, enlighten, awaken; transmit.

let fall, mention, express, intimate, represent, communicate, make known; publish &c. 531; notify, signify, specify, convey the knowledge of.

let one know, have one to know; give one to understand; give notice; set before, lay before, put before; point out, put into one's head; put one in possession of; instruct &c. (teach) 537; direct the attention to &c. 457.

announce, annunciate; report, report progress; bringword, send word, leave word, write word; telegraph, telephone; wire; retail, render an account; give an account &c. (describe) 594; state &c (affirm) 535.

[disclose inadvertently or reluctantly] let slip, blurt out, spill the beans, unburden oneself of, let off one's chest; disclose &c. 529.

show cause; explain &c. (interpret) 522.

hint; given an inkling of; give a hint, drop a hint, throw out a hint; insinuate; allude to, make allusion to; glance at; tip the wink &c. (indicate) 550; suggest, prompt, give the cue, breathe; whisper, whisper in the ear.

give a bit of one's mind; tell one plainly, tell once for all; speak volumes.

undeceive, unbeguile; set right, correct, open the eyes of, disabuse, disillusion one of.

be informed of &c.; know &c 490; learn &c. 539; get scent of, get wind of, gather from; awaken to, open one's eyes to; become alive, become awake to; hear, overhear, understand.

come to one's ears, come to one's knowledge; reach one's ears.

Adj. informed &c. v.; communique; reported &c. v.; published &c. 531.

expressive &c. 516; explicit &c. (open) 525, (clear) 518; plain spoken &c, (artless) 703.

nuncupative, nuncupatory|; declaratory, expository; enunciative; communicative, communicatory.

Adv. from information received.

Phr. a little bird told me; I heard it through the grapevine.

527a. Correction[edit]

[Correct an error of information; distinguish from correcting a flaw or misbehavior]

N. correction.

disillusionment &c. 616.

V. correct, set right, set straight, put straight; undeceive; enlighten.

show one one's error; point out an error, point out a fallacy; pick out an error, pick out the fallacy; open one's eyes.

pick apart an argument, confutation &c. 479; reasoning &c. 476.

Adj. corrective.

Phr. I stand corrected.

528. Concealment[edit]

N. concealment; hiding &c. v.; occultation, mystification.

seal of secrecy; screen &c. 530; disguise &c. 530; masquerade; masked battery; hiding place &c. 530; cryptography, steganography; freemasonry.

stealth, stealthiness, sneakiness; obreption|; slyness &c. (cunning) 702.

latitancy, latitation; seclusion &c. 893; privacy, secrecy, secretness; incognita.

reticence; reserve; mental reserve, reservation; arriere pensee[Fr], suppression, evasion, white lie, misprision; silence &c. (taciturnity) 585; suppression of truth &c. 544; underhand dealing; closeness, secretiveness &c. adj.; mystery.

latency &c. 526; snake in the grass; secret &c. 533; stowaway.

V. conceal, hide, secrete, put out of sight; lock up, seal up, bottle up.

encrypt, encode, cipher.

cover, screen, cloak, veil, shroud; cover up one's tracks; screen from sight, screen from observation; drawing the veil; draw the curtain, close the curtain; curtain, shade, eclipse, throw a view over; be cloud, be mask; mask, disguise; ensconce, muffle, smother; befog; whisper.

keep from; keep back, keep to oneself; keep snug, keep close, keep secret, keep dark; bury; sink, suppress; keep from, keep from out of view, keep from out of sight; keep in the shade, throw into the shade, throw into background; stifle, hush up, smother, withhold, reserve; fence with a question; ignore &c. 460.

keep a secret, keep one's own counsel; hold one's tongue &c. (silence) 585; make no sign, not let it go further; not breathe a word, not breathe a syllable about; not let the right hand know what the left is doing; hide one's light under a bushel, bury one's talent in a napkin.

keep in the dark, leave in the dark, keep in the ignorance; blind, blind the eyes; blindfold, hoodwink, mystify; puzzle &c. (render uncertain) 475; bamboozle &c. (deceive) 545.

be concealed &c. v.; suffer an eclipse; retire from sight, couch; hide oneself; lie hid, lie in perdu[Fr], lie in close; lie in ambush (ambush) 530; seclude oneself &c. 893; lurk, sneak, skulk, slink, prowl; steal into, steal out of, steal by, steal along; play at bopeep, play at hide and seek; hide in holes and corners; still hunt.

Adj. concealed &c. v.; hidden; secret, recondite, mystic, cabalistic, occult, dark; cryptic, cryptical; private, privy, in petto, auricular, clandestine, close, inviolate; tortuous.

behind a screen &c. 530; undercover, under an eclipse; in ambush, in hiding, in disguise; in a cloud, in a fog, in a mist, in a haze, in a dark corner; in the shade, in the dark; clouded, wrapped in clouds, wrapt in clouds; invisible &c.447; buried, underground, perdu[Fr]; secluded &c. 893.

undisclosed &c. 529, untold &c. 527; covert &c. (latent) 526; untraceable; mysterious &c. (unintelligible) 519.

irrevealable, inviolable; confidential; esoteric; not to be spoken of; unmentionable.

obreptitious, furtive, stealthy, feline; skulking &c. v.; surreptitious, underhand, hole and corner; sly &c. (cunning). 702; secretive, evasive; reserved, reticent, uncommunicative, buttoned up; close, close as wax; taciturn &c. 585.

Adv. secretly &c. adj.; in secret, in private, in one's sleeve, in holes and corners; in the dark &c. adj.

januis clausis[Lat], with closed doors, a huis clos[Fr]; hugger mugger, a la derobee[Fr]; under the cloak of, under the rose, under the table; sub rosa[Lat], en tapinois[Fr], in the background, aside, on the sly, with bated breath, sotto voce[Lat], in a whisper, without beat of drum, a la sourdine.

behind the veil; beyond mortal ken, beyond the grave, beyond the veil; hid from mortal vision; into the eternal secret, into the realms supersensible, into the supreme mystery.

in confidence, in strict confidence, in strictest confidence; confidentially &c. adj.; between ourselves, between you and me; between you and me and the bedpost; entre nous[Fr], inter nos, under the seal of secrecy; a couvert[Fr].

underhand, by stealth, like a thief in the night; stealthily &c. adj.; behind the scenes, behind the curtain, behind one's back, behind a screen &c. 530; incognito; in camera.

Phr. it must go no further, it will go no further; don't tell a soul;"tell it not in Gath," nobody the wiser; alitur vitium vivitque tegendo[Lat]; "let it be tenable in your silence still"[Hamlet].

[confidential disclosure to news reporters] background information, deep background information, deep background; background session, backgrounder; not for attribution

529. Disclosure[edit]

N. disclosure; retection|; unveiling &c.v.; deterration, revealment, revelation; exposition, exposure; expose; whole truth; telltale &c (news) 532.

acknowledgment, avowal; confession, confessional; shrift.

bursting of a bubble; denouement.

[person who discloses a secret] tattletale, snitch, fink, stool pigeon, canary.

V. disclose, discover, dismask|; draw the veil, draw aside the veil, lift the veil, raise the veil, lift up the veil, remove the veil, tear aside the veil, tear the curtain; unmask, unveil, unfold, uncover, unseal, unkennel; take off the seal, break the seal; lay open, lay bare; expose; open, open up; bare, bring to light.

divulge, reveal, break; squeal, tattle, sing, rat, snitch [all coll.]; let into the secret; reveal the secrets of the prison house; tell &c (inform) 527; breathe, utter, blab, peach; let out, let fall, let drop, let slip, spill the beans, let the cat out of the bag; betray; tell tales, come out of school; come out with; give vent, give utterance to; open the lips, blurt out, vent, whisper about; speak out &c (make manifest) 525; make public &c 531; unriddle &c (find out) 480a; split.

acknowledge, allow, concede, grant, admit, own, own up to, confess, avow, throw off all disguise, turn inside out, make a clean breast; show one's hand, show one's cards; unburden one's mind, disburden one's mind, disburden one's conscience, disburden one's heart; open one's mind, lay bare one's mind, tell a piece of one's mind[Fr]; unbosom oneself, own to the soft impeachment; say the truth, speak the truth; turn King's (or Queen's) evidence; acknowledge the corn* [U.S.].

raise the mask, drop the mask, lift the mask, remove the mask, throw off the mask; expose; lay open; undeceive, unbeguile; disabuse, set right, correct, open the eyes of; d�sillusionner.

be disclosed &c.; transpire, come to light; come in sight &c. (be visible) 446; become known, escape the lips; come out, ooze out, creep out, leak out, peep out, crop-out; show its face, show its colors; discover &c. itself; break through the clouds, flash on the mind.

Adj. disclosed &c.v.; open, public &c. 525.

Int.out with it!

Phr. the murder is out; a light breaks in upon one; the scales fall from one's eyes; the eyes are opened.

530. Ambush[edit]

[Means of concealment]

N. camouflage; mimicry; hiding place; secret place, secret drawer; recess, hold, holes and corners; closet, crypt, adytum, abditory, oubliette.

ambush, ambuscade; stalking horse; lurking hole, lurking place; secret path, back stairs; retreat &c. (refuge) 666.

screen, cover, shade, blinker; veil, curtain, blind, cloak, cloud.

mask, visor, vizor, disguise, masquerade dress, domino.

pitfall &c. (source of danger) 667; trap &c. (snare) 545.

V. blend in, blend into the background.

lie in ambush &c (hide oneself) 528; lie in wait for, lurk; set a trap for &c (deceive) 545; ambuscade, ambush.

[transitive] camouflage.

Adj. camouflaged, hidden, concealed.

Adv. aux aguets.

531. Publication[edit]

N. publication; public announcement &c 527; promulgation, propagation, proclamation, pronunziamento [Italian]; circulation, indiction, edition; hue and cry.

publicity, notoriety, currency, flagrancy, cry, bruit, hype; vox populi; report &c (news) 532.

the Press, public press, newspaper, journal, gazette, daily; telegraphy; publisher &c v.; imprint.

circular, circular letter; manifesto, advertisement, ad., placard, bill, affiche, broadside, poster; notice &c. 527.

V. publish; make public, make known &c (information) 527; speak of, talk of; broach, utter; put forward; circulate, propagate, promulgate; spread, spread abroad; rumor, diffuse, disseminate, evulugate; put forth, give forth, send forth; emit, edit, get out; issue; bring before the public, lay before the public, drag before the public; give out, give to the world; put about, bandy about, hawk about, buzz about, whisper about, bruit about, blaze about; drag into the open day; voice.

proclaim, herald, blazon; blaze abroad, noise abroad; sound a trumpet; trumpet forth, thunder forth; give tongue; announce with beat of drum, announce with flourish of trumpets; proclaim from the housetops, proclaim at Charing Cross.

advertise, placard; post, post up afficher, publish in the Gazette, send round the crier.

raise a cry, raise a hue and cry, raise a report; set news afloat.

be published &c; be public, become public &c adj.; come out; go about, fly about, buzz about, blow about; get about, get abroad, get afloat, get wind; find vent; see the light; go forth, take air, acquire currency, pass current; go the rounds, go the round of the newspapers, go through the length and breadth of the land; virum volitare per ora[Lat]; pass from mouth to mouth; spread; run like wildfire, spread like wildfire.

Adj. published &c.v.; current &c. (news) 532; in circulation, public; notorious; flagrant, arrant; open &c 525; trumpet-tongued; encyclical, encyclic, promulgatory; exoteric.

Adv. publicly &c. adj.; in open court, with open doors.

Int. Oyez! O yes! notice!

Phr. notice is hereby given; this is to give, these are to give notice; nomina stultorum parietibus haerent[Lat]; semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum[Lat]..

532. News[edit]

N. news; information &c 527; piece of news[Fr], budget of news, budget of information; intelligence, tidings.

word, advice, aviso[Sp], message; dispatch, despatch; telegram, cable, marconigram, wire, communication, errand, embassy.

report, rumor, hearsay, on dit[Fr], flying rumor, news stirring, cry, buzz, bruit, fame; talk, oui dire[Fr], scandal, eavesdropping; town tattle, table talk; tittle tattle; canard, topic of the day, idea afloat.

bulletin, fresh news, stirring news; glad tidings; flash, news just in; on-the-spot coverage; live coverage.

old story, old news, stale news, stale story; chestnut*.

narrator &c (describe) 594; newsmonger, scandalmonger; talebearer, telltale, gossip, tattler.

[study of news reporting] journalism.

[methods of conveying news] media, news media, the press, the information industry; newspaper, magazine, tract, journal, gazette, publication &c. 531; radio, television, ticker (electronic information transmission) .

[organizations producing news reports] United Press International, UPI; Associated Press, AP; The Dow Jones News Service, DJ; The New York Times News Service, NYT[abbr]; Reuters [England]; TASS [Soviet Union]; The Nikkei [Japan].

[person reporting news as a profession] newscaster, newsman, newswoman, reporter, journalist, correspondent, foreign correspondent, special correspondent, war correspondent, news team, news department; anchorman, anchorwoman; sportscaster; weatherman.

[officials providing news for an organization] press secretary, public relations department, public relations man.

V. transpire &c (be disclosed) 529; rumor &c (publish) 531.

Adj. many-tongued; rumored; publicly rumored, currently rumored, currently reported; rife, current, floating, afloat, going about, in circulation, in every one's mouth, all over the town.

in progress; live; on the spot; in person.

Adv. as the story goes, as the story runs; as they say, it is said; by telegraph, by wireless.

Phr. "airy tongues that syllable men's names" [Milton]; what's up?; what's the latest?; what's new?; what's the latest poop?.

533. Secret[edit]

N. secret; dead secret, profound secret; arcanum, mystery; latency &c 526; Asian mystery; sealed book, secrets of the prison house; le desous des cartes [Fr].

enigma, riddle, puzzle, nut to crack, conundrum, charade, rebus, logogriph; monogram, anagram; Sphinx; crux criticorum[Lat].

maze, labyrinth, Hyrcynian wood; intricacy, meander.

problem &c (question) 461; paradox &c (difficulty) 704; unintelligibility &c. 519; terra incognita &c. (ignorance) 491.

Adj. secret &c. (concealed) 528; involved &c, 248; labyrinthine, labyrinthian, mazy.

confidential; top secret.

534. Messenger[edit]

N. messenger, envoy, emissary, legate; nuncio, internuncio; ambassador &c (diplomatist) 758.

marshal, flag bearer, herald, crier, trumpeter, bellman, pursuivant, parlementaire[Fr], apparitor.

courier, runner; dak, estafette; Mercury, Iris, Ariel.

commissionaire[Fr]; errand boy, chore boy; newsboy.

mail, overnight mail, express mail, next-day delivery; post, post office; letter bag; delivery service; United Parcel Service, UPS; Federal Express, Fedex.

telegraph, telephone; cable, wire (electronic information transmission); carrier pigeon.

[person reporting news: see news &c. 532] reporter, gentleman of the press, representative of the press; penny-a-liner; special correspondent, own correspondent; spy, scout; informer &c. 527.

535. Affirmation[edit]

N. affirmance, affirmation; statement, allegation, assertion, predication, declaration, word, averment; confirmation.

asseveration, adjuration, swearing, oath, affidavit; deposition &c (record) 551; avouchment; assurance; protest, protestation; profession; acknowledgment &c. (assent) 488; legal pledge, pronouncement; solemn averment, solemn avowal, solemn declaration.

remark, observation; position &c. (proposition) 514, saying, dictum, sentence, ipse dixit[Lat].

emphasis; weight; dogmatism &c. (certainty) 474; dogmatics &c 887.

V. assert; make an assertion &c n.; have one's say; say, affirm, predicate, declare, state; protest, profess.

put forth, put forward; advance, allege, propose, propound, enunciate, broach, set forth, hold out, maintain, contend, pronounce, pretend.

depose, depone, aver, avow, avouch, asseverate, swear; make oath, take one's oath;