User:Dan Polansky/Roget MICRA/Class II. Words Relating to Space

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Class II. Words Relating to Space


Section I. Space in General[edit]

1. Abstract Space[edit]

180. Space[edit]

[Indefinite space.]

N. space, extension, extent, superficial extent, expanse, stretch, hyperspace; room, scope, range, field, way, expansion, compass, sweep, swing, spread.

dimension, length &c. 200; distance &c. 196; size &c. 192; volume; hypervolume.

latitude, play, leeway, purchase, tolerance, room for maneuver.

spare room, elbow room, house room; stowage, roomage, margin; opening, sphere, arena.

open space, free space; void &c. (absence) 187; waste; wildness, wilderness; moor, moorland; campagna.

abyss &c. (interval) 198; unlimited space; infinity &c. 105; world; ubiquity &c. (presence) 186; length and breadth of the land.

proportions, acreage; acres, acres and perches, roods and perches, hectares, square miles; square inches, square yards, square centimeters, square meters, yards (clothing) &c.; ares, arpents.

Adj. spacious, roomy, extensive, expansive, capacious, ample; widespread, vast, world-wide, uncircumscribed; boundless &c. (infinite) 105; shoreless, trackless, pathless; extended.

Adv. extensively &c. adj.; wherever; everywhere; far and near, far and wide; right and left, all over, all the world over; throughout the world, throughout the length and breadth of the land; under the sun, in every quarter; in all quarters, in all lands; here there and everywhere; from pole to pole, from China to Peru [Johnson], from Indus to the pole [Pope], from Dan to Beersheba, from end to end; on the face of the earth, in the wide world, from all points of the compass; to the four winds, to the uttermost parts of the earth.

180a. Inextension[edit]

N. inextension, nonextension, point; dot; atom &c. (smallness) 32.

181. Region[edit]

N. region, sphere, ground, soil, area, field, realm, hemisphere, quarter, district, beat, orb, circuit, circle; reservation, pale &c. (limit) 233; compartment, department; clearing.

[political divisions: see property &c. 780 and Government &c. 737a.].

arena, precincts, enceinte, walk, march; patch, plot, parcel, inclosure, close, field, court; enclave, reserve, preserve; street &c. (abode) 189.

clime, climate, zone, meridian, latitude.

biosphere; lithosphere.

Adj. territorial, local, parochial, provincial, regional.

182. Place[edit]

[Limited space.]

N. place, lieu, spot, point, dot; niche, nook &c. (corner) 244; hole; pigeonhole &c. (receptacle) 191; compartment; premises, precinct, station; area, courtyard, square; abode &c. 189; locality &c. (situation) 183.

ins and outs; every hole and corner.

Adv. somewhere, in some place, wherever it may be, here and there, in various places, passim.

2. Relative Space[edit]

183. Situation[edit]

N. situation, position, locality, locale, status, latitude and longitude; footing, standing, standpoint, post; stage; aspect, attitude, posture, pose.

environment, surroundings (location) 184; circumjacence &c. 227.

place, site, station, seat, venue, whereabouts; ground; bearings &c. (direction) 278; spot &c. (limited space) 182.

topography, geography, chorography; map &c. 554.

V. be situated, be situate; lie, have its seat in.

Adj. situate, situated; local, topical, topographical &c. n.

Adv. in situ, in loco; here and there, passim; hereabouts, thereabouts, whereabouts; in place, here, there.

in such and such surroundings, in such and such environs, in such and such entourage, amidst such and such surroundings, amidst such and such environs, amidst such and such entourage.

184. Location[edit]

N. location, localization; lodgment; deposition, reposition; stowage, package; collocation; packing, lading; establishment, settlement, installation; fixation; insertion &c. 300.

habitat, environment, surroundings (situation) 183; circumjacence &c. 227.

anchorage, mooring, encampment.

plantation, colony, settlement, cantonment; colonization, domestication, situation; habitation &c. (abode) 189; cohabitation; "a local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's Dream]; endenization, naturalization.

V. place, situate, locate, localize, make a place for, put, lay, set, seat, station, lodge, quarter, post, install; house, stow; establish, fix, pin, root; graft; plant &c. (insert) 300; shelve, pitch, camp, lay down, deposit, reposit; cradle; moor, tether, picket; pack, tuck in; embed, imbed; vest, invest in.

billet on, quarter upon, saddle with; load, lade, freight; pocket, put up, bag.

inhabit &c. (be present) 186; domesticate, colonize; take root, strike root; anchor; cast anchor, come to an anchor; sit down, settle down; settle; take up one's abode, take up one's quarters; plant oneself, establish oneself, locate oneself; squat, perch, hive, se nicher[Fr], bivouac, burrow, get a footing; encamp, pitch one's tent; put up at, put up one's horses at; keep house.

endenizen, naturalize, adopt.

put back, replace &c. (restore) 660.

Adj. placed &c. v.; situate, posited, ensconced, imbedded, embosomed, rooted; domesticated; vested in, unremoved.

moored &c. v.; at anchor.

185. Displacement[edit]

N. displacement, elocation, transposition.

ejectment &c. 297; exile &c. (banishment) 893; removal &c. (transference) 270.

misplacement, dislocation &c. 61; fish out of water.

V. displace, misplace, displant, dislodge, disestablish; exile &c. (seclude) 893; ablegate, set aside, remove; take away, cart away; take off, draft off; lade &c. 184.

unload, empty &c. (eject) 297; transfer &c. 270; dispel.

vacate; depart &c. 293.

Adj. displaced &c. v.; unplaced, unhoused, unharbored, unestablished, unsettled; houseless, homeless; out of place, out of a situation; in the wrong place.

misplaced, out of its element.

3. Existence in Space[edit]

186. Presence[edit]

N. presence; occupancy, occupation; attendance; whereness.

permeation, pervasion; diffusion &c. (dispersion) 73.

ubiety, ubiquity, ubiquitariness; omnipresence.

bystander &c. (spectator) 444.

V. exist in space, be present &c. adj.; assister; make one of, make one at; look on, attend, remain; find oneself, present oneself; show one's face; fall in the way of, occur in a place; lie, stand; occupy; be there.

people; inhabit, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn, live, abide, lodge, nestle, roost, perch; take up one's abode &c. (be located) 184; tenant.

resort to, frequent, haunt; revisit.

fill, pervade, permeate; be diffused, be disseminated, be through; over spread, overrun; run through; meet one at every turn.

Adj. present; occupying, inhabiting &c. v.; moored &c. 184; resiant, resident, residentiary; domiciled.

ubiquitous, ubiquitary; omnipresent; universally present.

peopled, populous, full of people, inhabited.

Adv. here, there, where, everywhere, aboard, on board, at home, afield; here there and everywhere &c. (space) 180; in presence of, before; under the eyes of, under the nose of; in the face of; in propria persona[Lat].

on the spot; in person, in the flesh.

Phr. nusquam est qui ubique est [Lat][Seneca].

187. Absence[edit]


N. absence; inexistence &c. 2; nonresidence, absenteeism; nonattendance, alibi.

emptiness &c. adj.; void, vacuum; vacuity, vacancy; tabula rasa[Lat]; exemption; hiatus &c. (interval) 198; lipotype|!.

truant, absentee.

nobody; nobody present, nobody on earth; not a soul; ame qui vive[Fr].

V. be absent &c. adj.; keep away, keep out of the way; play truant, absent oneself, stay away; keep aloof, hold aloof.

withdraw, make oneself scarce, vacate; go away &c. 293.

Adj. absent, not present, away, nonresident, gone, from home; missing; lost; wanting; omitted; nowhere to be found; inexistence &c. 2.

empty, void; vacant, vacuous; untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited; tenantless; barren, sterile; desert, deserted; devoid; uninhabitable.

Adv. without, minus, nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there; in default of; sans; behind one's back.

Phr. the bird has flown, non est inventus[Lat].

"absence makes the heart grow fonder" [Bayley]; "absent in body but present in spirit" [1 Corinthians v, 3]; absento nemo ne nocuisse velit [Lat][Propertius]; "Achilles absent was Achilles still" [Homer]; aux absents les os; briller par son absence[Fr]; "conspicuous by his absence" [Russell]; "in the hope to meet shortly again and make our absence sweet" [B. Jonson].

188. Inhabitant[edit]

N. inhabitant; resident, residentiary; dweller, indweller; addressee; occupier, occupant; householder, lodger, inmate, tenant, incumbent, sojourner, locum tenens, commorant; settler, squatter, backwoodsman, colonist; islander; denizen, citizen; burgher, oppidan, cockney, cit, townsman, burgess; villager; cottager, cottier, cotter; compatriot; backsettler, boarder; hotel keeper, innkeeper; habitant; paying guest; planter.

native, indigene, aborigines, autochthones; Englishman, John Bull; newcomer &c. (stranger) 57.

aboriginal, American, Caledonian, Cambrian, Canadian, Canuck*, downeaster [U.S.], Scot, Scotchman, Hibernian, Irishman, Welshman, Uncle Sam, Yankee, Brother Jonathan.

garrison, crew; population; people &c. (mankind) 372; colony, settlement; household; mir.

V. inhabit &c. (be present) 186; endenizen &c. (locate oneself) 184.

Adj. indigenous; native, natal; autochthonal, autochthonous; British; English; American; Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Scottish, Welsh; domestic; domiciliated, domiciled; naturalized, vernacular, domesticated; domiciliary.

in the occupation of; garrisoned by, occupied by.

189. Abode[edit]

[Place of habitation, or resort.]

N. abode, dwelling, lodging, domicile, residence, apartment, place, digs, pad, address, habitation, where one's lot is cast, local habitation, berth, diggings, seat, lap, sojourn, housing, quarters, headquarters, resiance|, tabernacle, throne, ark.

home, fatherland; country; homestead, homestall; fireside; hearth, hearth stone; chimney corner, inglenook, ingle side; harem, seraglio, zenana; household gods, lares et penates[Lat], roof, household, housing, dulce domum[Lat], paternal domicile; native soil, native land.

habitat, range, stamping ground; haunt, hangout; biosphere; environment, ecological niche.

nest, nidus, snuggery; arbor, bower, &c. 191; lair, den, cave, hole, hiding place, cell, sanctum sanctorum[Lat], aerie, eyrie, eyry, rookery, hive; covert, resort, retreat, perch, roost; nidification; kala jagah.

bivouac, camp, encampment, cantonment, castrametation; barrack, casemate, casern.

tent &c. (covering) 223; building &c. (construction) 161; chamber &c. (receptacle) 191; xenodochium.

tenement, messuage, farm, farmhouse, grange, hacienda, toft.

cot, cabin, hut, chalet, croft, shed, booth, stall, hovel, bothy, shanty, dugout [U.S.], wigwam; pen &c. (inclosure) 232; barn, bawn; kennel, sty, doghold, cote, coop, hutch, byre; cow house, cow shed; stable, dovecote, columbary, columbarium; shippen; igloo, iglu, jacal; lacustrine dwelling, lacuslake dwelling, lacuspile dwelling; log cabin, log house; shack, shebang*, tepee, topek.

house, mansion, place, villa, cottage, box, lodge, hermitage, rus in urbe[Lat], folly, rotunda, tower, chateau, castle, pavilion, hotel, court, manor-house, capital messuage, hall, palace; kiosk, bungalow; casa[Sp], country seat, apartment house, flat house, frame house, shingle house, tenement house; temple &c. 1000.

hamlet, village, thorp, dorp, ham, kraal; borough, burgh, town, city, capital, metropolis; suburb; province, country; county town, county seat; courthouse [U.S.]; ghetto.

street, place, terrace, parade, esplanade, alameda, board walk, embankment, road, row, lane, alley, court, quadrangle, quad, wynd[Scot], close, yard, passage, rents, buildings, mews.

square, polygon, circus, crescent, mall, piazza, arcade, colonnade, peristyle, cloister; gardens, grove, residences; block of buildings, market place, place, plaza.

anchorage, roadstead, roads; dock, basin, wharf, quay, port, harbor.

quarter, parish &c. (region) 181.

assembly room, meetinghouse, pump room, spa, watering place; inn; hostel, hostelry; hotel, tavern, caravansary, dak bungalow, khan, hospice; public house, pub, pot house, mug house; gin mill, gin palace; bar, bar room; barrel house* [U.S.], cabaret, chophouse; club, clubhouse; cookshop, dive [U.S.], exchange [euphemism, U.S.]; grill room, saloon [U.S.], shebeen; coffee house, eating house; canteen, restaurant, buffet, cafe, estaminet, posada; almshouse, poorhouse, townhouse [U.S.].

garden, park, pleasure ground, plaisance, demesne.

[quarters for animals] cage, terrarium, doghouse; pen, aviary; barn, stall; zoo.

V. take up one's abode &c. (locate oneself) 184; inhabit &c. (be present) 186.

Adj. urban, metropolitan; suburban; provincial, rural, rustic; domestic; cosmopolitan; palatial.

Phr. eigner Hert ist goldes Werth[Ger]; "even cities have their graves" [Longfellow]; ubi libertas ibi patria[Lat]; home sweet home.

190. Contents[edit]

[Things contained.]

N. contents; cargo, lading, freight, shipment, load, bale, burden, jag; cartload, shipload; cup of, basket of, &c. (receptacle) 191 of; inside &c. 221.; stuffing, ullage.

191. Receptacle[edit]

N. receptacle; inclosure &c. 232;

recipient, receiver, reservatory.compartment; cell, cellule; follicle; hole, corner, niche, recess, nook; crypt, stall, pigeonhole,

cove, oriel; cave &c. (concavity) 252.capsule,

vesicle, cyst, pod, calyx, cancelli, utricle, bladder; pericarp, udder.stomach, paunch, venter, ventricle, crop, craw, maw, gizzard, breadbasket; mouth.

pocket, pouch, fob, sheath, scabbard, socket, bag, sac, sack, saccule, wallet, cardcase, scrip, poke, knit, knapsack, haversack, sachel, satchel, reticule, budget, net; ditty bag, ditty box; housewife, hussif; saddlebags; portfolio; quiver &c. (magazine) 636.

chest, box, coffer, caddy, case, casket, pyx, pix, caisson, desk, bureau, reliquary; trunk, portmanteau, band-box, valise; grip, grip sack [U.S.]; skippet, vasculum; boot, imperial; vache; cage, manger, rack.

vessel, vase, bushel, barrel; canister, jar; pottle, basket, pannier, buck-basket, hopper, maund|, creel, cran, crate, cradle, bassinet, wisket, whisket, jardiniere, corbeille, hamper, dosser, dorser, tray, hod, scuttle, utensil; brazier; cuspidor, spittoon.

[For liquids] cistern &c. (store) 636; vat, caldron, barrel, cask, drum, puncheon, keg, rundlet, tun, butt, cag, firkin, kilderkin, carboy, amphora, bottle, jar, decanter, ewer, cruse, caraffe, crock, kit, canteen, flagon; demijohn; flask, flasket; stoup, noggin, vial, phial, cruet, caster; urn, epergne, salver, patella, tazza, patera; pig gin, big gin; tyg, nipperkin, pocket pistol; tub, bucket, pail, skeel, pot, tankard, jug, pitcher, mug, pipkin; galipot, gallipot; matrass, receiver, retort, alembic, bolthead, capsule, can, kettle; bowl, basin, jorum, punch bowl, cup, goblet, chalice, tumbler, glass, rummer, horn, saucepan, skillet, posnet|, tureen.

[laboratory vessels for liquids] beaker, flask, Erlenmeyer flask, Florence flask, round-bottom flask, graduated cylinder, test tube, culture tube, pipette, Pasteur pipette, disposable pipette, syringe,

vial, carboy, vacuum flask, Petri dish, microtiter tray, centrifuge tube.bail, beaker, billy, canakin; catch basin, catch drain; chatti, lota, mussuk,

schooner [U.S.], spider, terrine, toby, urceus.plate, platter, dish, trencher, calabash, porringer, potager, saucer, pan, crucible;

glassware, tableware; vitrics.compote, gravy boat, creamer, sugar

bowl, butter dish, mug, pitcher, punch bowl, chafing dish.shovel,

trowel, spoon, spatula, ladle, dipper, tablespoon, watch glass, thimble.closet, commode, cupboard, cellaret, chiffonniere, locker, bin, bunker, buffet, press, clothespress, safe, sideboard, drawer, chest of drawers, chest on chest, highboy, lowboy, till, scrutoire|, secretary, secretaire, davenport, bookcase, cabinet, canterbury; escritoire, etagere, vargueno,

vitrine.chamber, apartment, room, cabin; office, court, hall, atrium; suite of rooms, apartment [U.S.], flat, story; saloon, salon, parlor; by-room, cubicle; presence chamber; sitting room, best room, keeping room, drawing room, reception room, state room; gallery, cabinet, closet; pew, box; boudoir; adytum, sanctum; bedroom, dormitory; refectory, dining room, salle-a-manger; nursery, schoolroom; library, study; studio; billiard room, smoking room; den; stateroom, tablinum, tenement.

[room for defecation and urination] bath room, bathroom, toilet, lavatory, powder room; john, jakes, necessary, loo; [in public places]

men's room, ladies' room, rest room; [fixtures: see 653 (uncleanness)].attic, loft, garret, cockloft, clerestory; cellar, vault, hold, cockpit; cubbyhole; cook house; entre-sol; mezzanine floor; ground floor, rez-de-chaussee; basement, kitchen, pantry, bawarchi-khana, scullery, offices; storeroom &c. (depository) 636;

lumber room; dairy, house; garage; hangar; outhouse;

penthouse; lean-to.portico, porch, stoop, stope, veranda, patio, lanai, terrace, deck; lobby, court, courtyard, hall, vestibule, corridor, passage, breezeway; ante room, ante chamber; lounge; piazza

[=veranda, U.S.].conservatory, greenhouse, bower, arbor,

summerhouse, alcove, grotto, hermitage.lodging &c. (abode) 189; bed &c. (support) 215; carriage &c. (vehicle) 272.

Adj. capsular; saccular, sacculated; recipient; ventricular, cystic, vascular, vesicular, cellular, camerated, locular, multilocular, polygastric; marsupial; siliquose, siliquous.

Section II. Dimensions[edit]

1. General Dimensions[edit]

192. Size[edit]

N. size, magnitude, dimension, bulk, volume; largeness &c. adj.; greatness &c. (of quantity) 31; expanse &c. (space) 180; amplitude, mass; proportions.

capacity, tonnage, tunnage; cordage; caliber, scantling.

turgidity &c. (expansion) 194; corpulence, obesity; plumpness &c. adj.; embonpoint, corporation, flesh and blood, lustihood.

hugeness &c. adj.; enormity, immensity, monstrosity.

giant, Brobdingnagian, Antaeus, Goliath, Gog and Magog, Gargantua, monster, mammoth, Cyclops; cachalot, whale, porpoise, behemoth, leviathan, elephant, hippopotamus; colossus; tun, cord, lump, bulk, block, loaf, mass, swad, clod, nugget, bushel, thumper, whooper, spanker, strapper; "Triton among the minnows" [Coriolanus].

mountain, mound; heap &c. (assemblage) 72.

largest portion &c. 50; full size, life size.

V. be large &c. adj.; become large &c. (expand) 194.

Adj. large, big; great &c. (in quantity) 31; considerable, bulky, voluminous, ample, massive, massy; capacious, comprehensive; spacious &c. 180; mighty, towering, fine, magnificent.

corpulent, stout, fat, obese, plump, squab, full, lusty, strapping, bouncing; portly, burly, well-fed, full-grown; corn fed, gram fed; stalwart, brawny, fleshy; goodly; in good case, in good condition; in condition; chopping, jolly; chub faced, chubby faced.

lubberly, hulky, unwieldy, lumpish, gaunt, spanking, whacking, whopping, walloping, thumping, thundering, hulking; overgrown; puffy &c. (swollen) 194.

huge, immense, enormous, mighty; vast, vasty; amplitudinous, stupendous; monster, monstrous, humongous, monumental; elephantine, jumbo, mammoth; gigantic, gigantean, giant, giant like, titanic; prodigious, colossal, Cyclopean, Brobdingnagian, Bunyanesque, Herculean, Gargantuan; infinite &c. 105.

large as life; plump as a dumpling, plump as a partridge; fat as a pig, fat as a quail, fat as butter, fat as brawn, fat as bacon.

immeasurable, unfathomable, unplumbed; inconceivable, unimaginable, unheard-of.

of cosmic proportions; of epic proportions, the mother of all, teh granddaddy of all.

193. Littleness[edit]

N. littleness &c. adj.; smallness &c. (of quantity) 32; exiguity, inextension; parvitude, parvity; duodecimo; Elzevir edition, epitome, microcosm; rudiment; vanishing point; thinness &c. 203.

dwarf, pygmy, pigmy, Liliputian, chit, pigwidgeon, urchin, elf; atomy, dandiprat; doll, puppet; Tom Thumb, Hop-o'-my- thumb; manikin, mannikin; homunculus, dapperling, cock-sparrow.

animalcule, monad, mite, insect, emmet, fly, midge, gnat, shrimp, minnow, worm, maggot, entozoon; bacteria; infusoria; microzoa[Microbiol]; phytozoaria; microbe; grub; tit, tomtit, runt, mouse, small fry; millet seed, mustard seed; barleycorn; pebble, grain of sand; molehill, button, bubble.

point; atom &c. (small quantity) 32; fragment &c. (small part) 51; powder &c. 330; point of a pin, mathematical point; minutiae &c. (unimportance) 643.

micrometer; vernier; scale.

microphotography, photomicrography, micrography; photomicrograph, microphotograph; microscopy; microscope (optical instruments) 445..

V. be little &c. adj.; lie in a nutshell; become small &c. (decrease) 36, (contract) 195.

Adj. little; small &c. (in quantity) 32; minute, diminutive, microscopic; microzoal; inconsiderable &c. (unimportant) 643; exiguous, puny, tiny, wee, petty, minikin, miniature, pygmy, pigmy, elfin; undersized; dwarf, dwarfed, dwarfish; spare, stunted, limited; cramp, cramped; pollard, Liliputian, dapper, pocket; portative, portable; duodecimo; dumpy, squat; short &c. 201.

impalpable, intangible, evanescent, imperceptible, invisible, inappreciable, insignificant, inconsiderable, trivial; infinitesimal, homoeopathic; atomic, subatomic, corpuscular, molecular; rudimentary, rudimental; embryonic, vestigial.

weazen|!, scant, scraggy, scrubby; thin &c. (narrow) 203; granular &c. (powdery) 330; shrunk &c. 195; brevipennate.

Adv. in a small compass, in a nutshell; on a small scale; minutely, microscopically.

194. Expansion[edit]

N. expansion; increase &c. 35 of size; enlargement, extension, augmentation; amplification, ampliation; aggrandizement, spread, increment, growth, development, pullulation, swell, dilation, rarefaction; turgescence, turgidness, turgidity; dispansion|; obesity &c. (size) 192; hydrocephalus, hydrophthalmus[Med]; dropsy, tumefaction, intumescence, swelling, tumor, diastole, distension; puffing, puffiness; inflation; pandiculation.

dilatability, expansibility.

germination, growth, upgrowth; accretion &c. 35; budding, gemmation.

overgrowth, overdistension; hypertrophy, tympany.

bulb &c. (convexity) 250; plumper; superiority of size.

[expansion of the universe] big bang; Hubble constant.

V. become larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, widen, enlarge, extend, grow, increase, incrassate, swell, gather; fill out; deploy, take open order, dilate, stretch, distend, spread; mantle, wax; grow up, spring up; bud, bourgeon[Fr], shoot, sprout, germinate, put forth, vegetate, pullulate, open, burst forth; gain flesh, gather flesh; outgrow; spread like wildfire, overrun.

be larger than; surpass &c. (be superior) 33.

render larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, spread, extend, aggrandize, distend, develop, amplify, spread out, widen, magnify, rarefy, inflate, puff, blow up, stuff, pad, cram; exaggerate; fatten.

Adj. expanded &c. v.; larger &c. (large &c. 192; swollen; expansive; wide open, wide spread; flabelliform; overgrown, exaggerated, bloated, fat, turgid, tumid, hypertrophied, dropsical; pot bellied, swag bellied|; edematous, oedematous, obese, puffy, pursy, blowzy, bigswoln, distended; patulous; bulbous &c. (convex) 250; full blown, full grown, full formed; big &c. 192; abdominous, enchymatous, rhipidate; tumefacient, tumefying.

195. Contraction[edit]

N. contraction, reduction, diminution; decrease &c. 36 of size; defalcation, decrement; lessening, shrinking &c. v.; compaction; tabes, collapse, emaciation, attenuation, tabefaction, consumption, marasmus, atrophy; systole, neck, hourglass.

condensation, compression, compactness; compendium &c. 596; squeezing &c. v.; strangulation; corrugation; astringency; astringents, sclerotics; contractility, compressibility; coarctation.

inferiority in size.

V. become small, become smaller; lessen, decrease &c. 36; grow less, dwindle, shrink, contract, narrow, shrivel, collapse, wither, lose flesh, wizen, fall away, waste, wane, ebb; decay &c. (deteriorate) 659.

be smaller than, fall short of; not come up to &c. (be inferior) 34.

render smaller, lessen, diminish, contract, draw in, narrow, coarctate; boil down; constrict, constringe; condense, compress, squeeze, corrugate, crimp, crunch, crush, crumple up, warp, purse up, pack, squeeze, stow; pinch, tighten, strangle; cramp; dwarf, bedwarf; shorten &c. 201; circumscribe &c. 229; restrain &c. 751.

[reduce in size by abrasion or paring. see subtraction 38] abrade, pare, reduce, attenuate, rub down, scrape, file, file down, grind, grind down, chip, shave, shear, wear down.

Adj. contracting &c. v.; astringent; shrunk, contracted &c. v.; strangulated, tabid, wizened, stunted; waning &c. v.; neap, compact.

unexpanded &c. (expand &c. 194); contractile; compressible; smaller &c. (small &c.193).

196. Distance[edit]

N. distance; space &c. 180; remoteness, farness, far-cry to; longinquity, elongation; offing, background; remote region; removedness; parallax; reach, span, stride.

outpost, outskirt; horizon; aphelion; foreign parts, ultima Thule[Lat], ne plus ultra[Lat], antipodes; long range, giant's stride.

dispersion &c.73.

[units of distance] length &c. 200.

cosmic distance, light-years.

V. be distant &c. adj.; extend to, stretch to, reach to, spread to, go to, get to, stretch away to; range.

remain at a distance; keep away, keep off, keep aloof, keep clear of, stand away, stand off, stand aloof, stand clear of, stay away, keep one's distance'.

[transitive] distance; distance oneself from.

Adj. distant; far off, far away; remote, telescopic, distal, wide of; stretching to &c. v.; yon, yonder; ulterior; transmarine, transpontine, transatlantic, transalpine; tramontane; ultramontane, ultramundane; hyperborean, antipodean; inaccessible, out of the way; unapproached, unapproachable; incontiguous.

Adv. far off, far away; afar, afar off; off; away; a long way off, a great way off, a good way off; wide away, aloof; wide of, clear of; out of the way, out of reach; abroad, yonder, farther, further, beyond; outre mer[Fr], over the border, far and wide, "over the hills and far away " [Gay]; from pole to pole &c. (over great space) 180; to the uttermost parts, to the ends of the earth; out of hearing, nobody knows where, a perte de vue[Fr], out of the sphere of, wide of the mark; a far cry to.

apart, asunder; wide apart, wide asunder; longo intervallo[It]; at arm's length.

Phr. "distance lends enchantment" [Campbell]; "it's a long long way to Tipperary"; out of sight, out of mind.

197. Nearness[edit]

N. nearness &c. adj.; proximity, propinquity; vicinity, vicinage; neighborhood, adjacency; contiguity &c. 199.

short distance, short step, short cut; earshot, close quarters, stone's throw; bow shot, gun shot, pistol shot; hair's breadth, span.

purlieus, neighborhood, vicinage, environs, alentours[Fr], suburbs, confines, banlieue, borderland; whereabouts.

bystander; neighbor, borderer.

approach &c. 286; convergence 7c. 290; perihelion.

V. be near &c. adj.; adjoin, hang about, trench on; border upon, verge upon; stand by, approximate, tread on the heels of, cling to, clasp, hug; huddle; hang upon the skirts of, hover over; burn.

touch &c. 199

bring near, draw near &c. 286; converge &c. 290; crowd &c. 72; place side by side &c. adv.

Adj. near, nigh; close at hand, near at hand; close, neighboring; bordering upon, contiguous, adjacent, adjoining; proximate, proximal; at hand, handy; near the mark, near run; home, intimate.

Adv. near, nigh; hard by, fast by; close to, close upon; hard upon; at the point of; next door to; within reach, within call,

within hearing, within earshot; within an ace of; but a step, not far from, at no great distance; on the verge of, on the brink of, on the skirts of; in the environs &c. n.; at one's door, at one's feet, at one's elbow, at one's finger's end, at one's side; on the tip of one's tongue; under one's nose; within a stone's throw &c. n.; in sight of, in presence of; at close quarters; cheek by jole, cheek by jowl; beside, alongside, side by side, tete-a-tete; in juxtaposition &c. (touching) 199; yardarm to yardarm, at the heels of; on the confines of, at the threshold, bordering upon, verging to; in the way.

about; hereabouts, thereabouts; roughly, in round numbers; approximately, approximatively; as good as, well-nigh.

198. Interval[edit]

N. interval, interspace; separation &c. 44; break, gap, opening; hole &c. 260; chasm, hiatus, caesura; interruption, interregnum; interstice, lacuna, cleft, mesh, crevice, chink, rime, creek, cranny, crack, chap, slit, fissure, scissure, rift, flaw, breach, rent, gash, cut, leak, dike, ha-ha.

gorge, defile, ravine, canon, crevasse, abyss, abysm; gulf; inlet, frith, strait, gully; pass; furrow &c. 259; abra; barranca, barranco; clove [U.S.], gulch [U.S.], notch [U.S.]; yawning gulf; hiatus maxime[Lat], hiatus valde deflendus[Lat]; parenthesis &c. (interjacence) 228; void 7c. (absence) 187; incompleteness &c. 53.

[interval of time] period &c. 108; interim (time) 106.

V. gape &c. (open) 260.

Adj. with an interval, far between; breachy, rimose, rimulose.

Adv. at intervals &c. (discontinuously) 70; longo intervallo[It].

199. Contiguity[edit]

N. contiguity, contact, proximity, apposition, abuttal, juxtaposition; abutment, osculation; meeting, appulse, rencontre, rencounter, syzygy[Astron], coincidence, coexistence; adhesion &c. 46; touching &c. v. (see touch 379).

borderland; frontier &c. (limit) 233; tangent; abutter.

V. be contiguous &c. adj.; join, adjoin, abut on, march with; graze, touch, meet, osculate, come in contact, coincide; coexist; adhere &c. 46.

[transitive][cause to be contiguous] juxtapose; contact; join (unite) 43; link (vinculum) 45.

Adj. contiguous; touching &c. v.; in contact &c. n.; conterminous, end to end, osculatory; pertingent|; tangential.

hand to hand; close to &c. (near) 197; with no interval &c. 198.

2. Linear Dimensions[edit]

200. Length[edit]

N. length, longitude, span; mileage; distance &c. 196.

line, bar, rule, stripe, streak, spoke, radius.

lengthening &c. v.; prolongation, production, protraction; tension, tensure; extension.

[Measures of length] line, nail, inch, hand, palm, foot, cubit, yard, ell, fathom, rood, pole, furlong, mile, league; chain, link; arpent, handbreadth, jornada [U.S.], kos, vara.

[astronomical units of distance] astronomical unit, AU, light-year, parsec.

[metric units of length] nanometer, nm, micron, micrometer, millimicron, millimeter, mm, centimeter, cm, meter, kilometer, km.

pedometer, perambulator; scale &c. (measurement) 466.

V. be long &c. adj.; stretch out, sprawl; extend to, reach to, stretch to; make a long arm, "drag its slow length along."

render long &c. adj.; lengthen, extend, elongate; stretch; prolong, produce, protract; let out, draw out, spin out|!; drawl.

enfilade, look along, view in perspective.

distend (expand) 194.

Adj. long, longsome; lengthy, wiredrawn, outstretched; lengthened &c. v.; sesquipedalian &c. (words) 577; interminable, no end of; macrocolous.

linear, lineal; longitudinal, oblong.

as long as my arm, as long as today and tomorrow; unshortened &c. (shorten &c. 201).

Adv. lengthwise, at length, longitudinally, endlong, along; tandem; in a line &c. (continuously) 69; in perspective.

from end to end, from stem to stern, from head to foot, from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot, from top to toe; fore and aft.

201. Shortness[edit]

N. shortness &c. adj.; brevity; littleness &c. 193; a span.

shortening &c. v.; abbreviation, abbreviature; abridgment, concision, retrenchment, curtailment, decurtation|; reduction &c. (contraction) 195; epitome &c. (compendium) 596.

elision, ellipsis; conciseness &c. (in style) 572.

abridger, epitomist, epitomizer.

V. be short &c. adj.; render short &c. adj.; shorten, curtail, abridge, abbreviate, take in, reduce; compress &c. (contract) 195; epitomize &c. 596.

retrench, cut short, obtruncate; scrimp, cut, chop up, hack, hew; cut down, pare down; clip, dock, lop, prune, shear, shave, mow, reap, crop; snub; truncate, pollard, stunt, nip, check the growth of; foreshorten[in drawing].

Adj. short, brief, curt; compendious, compact; stubby, scrimp; shorn, stubbed; stumpy, thickset, pug; chunky [U.S.], decurtate; retrousse; stocky; squab, squabby; squat, dumpy; little &c. 193; curtailed of its fair proportions; short by; oblate; concise &c. 572; summary.

Adv. shortly &c. adj.; in short &c. (concisely) 572.

202. Breadth[edit]

N. breadth, width, latitude, amplitude; diameter, bore, caliber, radius; superficial extent &c. (space) 180.

thickness, crassitude; corpulence &c. (size) 192; dilation &c. (expansion) 194.

V. be broad &c. adj.; become broad, render broad &c. adj.; expand &c. 194; thicken, widen, calibrate.

Adj. broad, wide, ample, extended; discous; fanlike; outspread, outstretched; "wide as a church-door" [Romeo and Juliet]; latifoliate, latifolous.

thick, dumpy, squab, squat, thickset; thick as a rope.

203. Narrowness[edit]


N. narrowness &c. adj.; closeness, exility; exiguity 7c. (little) 193.

line; hair's breadth, finger's breadth; strip, streak, vein.

monolayer; epitaxial deposition[Engin].

thinness &c. adj.; tenuity; emaciation, macilency, marcor|.

shaving, slip &c. (filament) 205; thread paper, skeleton, shadow, anatomy, spindleshanks, lantern jaws, mere skin and bone.

middle constriction, stricture, neck, waist, isthmus, wasp, hourglass; ridge, ghaut, ghat, pass; ravine &c. 198.

narrowing, coarctation, angustation, tapering; contraction &c. 195.

V. be narrow &c. adj.; narrow, taper, contract &c. 195; render narrow &c. adj; waste away.

Adj. narrow, close; slender, thin, fine; thread-like &c. (filament) 205; finespun, gossamer; paper-thin; taper, slim, slight-made; scant, scanty; spare, delicate, incapacious; contracted &c. 195; unexpanded &c. (expand &c. 194); slender as a thread.

[in reference to people or animals] emaciated, lean, meager, gaunt, macilent; lank, lanky; weedy, skinny; scrawny slinky[U.S.]; starved, starveling; herring gutted; worn to a shadow, lean as a rake [Chaucer]; thin as a lath, thin as a whipping post, thin as a wafer; hatchet-faced; lantern-jawed.

attenuated, shriveled, extenuated, tabid, marcid|, barebone, rawboned.


204. Layer[edit]

N. layer, stratum, strata, course, bed, zone, substratum, substrata, floor, flag, stage, story, tier, slab, escarpment; table, tablet; dess; flagstone; board, plank; trencher, platter.

plate; lamina, lamella; sheet, foil; wafer; scale, flake, peel; coat, pellicle; membrane, film; leaf; slice, shive, cut, rasher, shaving, integument &c. (covering) 223; eschar.

stratification, scaliness, nest of boxes, coats of an onion.

monolayer; bilayer; trilayer[Biochem], .

V. slice, shave, pare, peel; delaminate; plate, coat, veneer; cover &c. 223.

Adj. lamellar, lamellated, lamelliform, layered; laminated, laminiferous; micaceous; schistose, schistous; scaly, filmy, membranous, pellicular, flaky, squamous[Anat]; foliated, foliaceous; stratified, stratiform; tabular, discoid; spathic, spathose.



205. Filament[edit]

N. filament, line; fiber, fibril; funicle, vein; hair, capillament, cilium, cilia, pilus, pili; tendril, gossamer; hair stroke; veinlet, venula, venule.

wire, string, thread, packthread, cotton, sewing silk, twine, twist, whipcord, tape, ribbon, cord, rope, yarn, hemp, oakum, jute.

strip, shred, slip, spill, list, band, fillet, fascia, ribbon, riband, roll, lath, splinter, shiver, shaving.

beard &c. (roughness) 256; ramification; strand.

Adj. filamentous, filamentiferous, filaceous, filiform; fibrous, fibrillous; thread-like, wiry, stringy, ropy; capillary, capilliform; funicular, wire-drawn; anguilliform; flagelliform; hairy &c. (rough) 256; taeniate, taeniform, taenioid; venose, venous.

206. Height[edit]

N. height, altitude, elevation; eminence, pitch; loftiness &c. adj.; sublimity.

tallness &c. adj.; stature, procerity; prominence &c. 250.

colossus &c. (size) 192; giant, grenadier, giraffe, camelopard.

mount, mountain; hill alto, butte [U.S.], monticle, fell, knap; cape; headland, foreland; promontory; ridge, hog's back, dune; rising ground, vantage ground; down; moor, moorland; Alp; uplands, highlands; heights &c. (summit), 210; knob, loma, pena [U.S.], picacho, tump; knoll, hummock, hillock, barrow, mound, mole; steeps, bluff, cliff, craig, tor, peak, pike, clough; escarpment, edge, ledge, brae; dizzy height.

tower, pillar, column, obelisk, monument, steeple, spire, minaret, campanile, turret, dome, cupola;skyscraper.

pole, pikestaff, maypole, flagstaff; top mast, topgallant mast.

ceiling &c. (covering) 223.

high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide.

altimetry &c. (angel) 244; batophobia.

satellite, spy-in-the-sky.

V. be high &c. adj.; tower, soar, command; hover, hover over, fly over;orbit, be in orbit; cap, culminate; overhang, hang over, impend, beetle, bestride, ride, mount; perch, surmount; cover &c. 223; overtop &c. (be superior) 33; stand on tiptoe.

become high &c. adj.; grow higher, grow taller; upgrow; rise &c. (ascend) 305;send into orbit.

render high &c. adj.; heighten &c. (elevate) 307.

Adj. high, elevated, eminent, exalted, lofty, tall; gigantic &c. (big) 192; Patagonian; towering, beetling, soaring, hanging [gardens]; elevated &c. 307; upper; highest &c. (topmost) 210; high reaching, insessorial, perching.

upland, moorland; hilly, knobby [U.S.]; mountainous, alpine, subalpine, heaven kissing; cloudtopt, cloudcapt, cloudtouching; aerial.

overhanging &c. v. ; incumbent, overlying, superincumbent, supernatant, superimposed; prominent &c. c. 250.

tall as a maypole, tall as a poplar, tall as a steeple, lanky &c. (thin) 203.

Adv. on high, high up, aloft, up, above, aloof, overhead; airwind; upstairs, abovestairs; in the clouds; on tiptoe, on stilts, on the shoulders of; over head and ears; breast high.

over, upwards; from top to bottom &c. (completely) 52.

Phr. e meglio cader dalle finistre che dal tetto[It].

207. Lowness[edit]

N. lowness &c. adj.; debasement, depression, prostration &c. (horizontal) 213; depression &c. (concave) 252.

molehill; lowlands; basement floor, ground floor; rez de chaussee[Fr]; cellar; hold, bilge; feet, heels.

low water; low tide, ebb tide, neap tide, spring tide.

V. be low &c. adj.; lie low, lie flat; underlie; crouch, slouch, wallow, grovel; lower &c. (depress) 308.

Adj. low, neap, debased; nether, nether most; flat, level with the ground; lying low &c. v.; crouched, subjacent, squat, prostrate &c. (horizontal) 213.

Adv. under; beneath, underneath; below; downwards; adown, at the foot of; under foot, under ground; down stairs, below stairs; at a low ebb; below par.

208. Depth[edit]

N. depth; deepness &c. adj.; profundity, depression &c. (concavity) 252.

hollow, pit, shaft, well, crater; gulf &c. 198; bowels of the earth, botttomless pit, hell.

soundings, depth of water, water, draught, submersion; plummet, sound, probe; sounding rod, sounding line; lead.


[instrument to measure depth] sonar, side-looking sonar; bathometer.

V. be deep &c. adj.; render deep &c. adj.; deepen.

plunge &c. 310; sound, fathom, plumb, cast the lead, heave the lead, take soundings, make soundings; dig &c. (excavate) 252.

Adj. deep, deep seated; profound, sunk, buried; submerged &c. 310; subaqueous, submarine, subterranean, subterraneous, subterrene; underground.

bottomless, soundless, fathomless; unfathomed, unfathomable; abysmal; deep as a well; bathycolpian; benthal, benthopelagic; downreaching, yawning.

knee deep, ankle deep.

Adv. beyond one's depth, out of one's depth; over head and ears; mark twine, mark twain.

209. Shallowness[edit]

N. shallowness &c. adj.; shoals; mere scratch. Adj. shallow, slight, superficial; skin deep, ankle deep, knee deep; just enough to wet one's feet; shoal, shoaly.

210. Summit[edit]

N. summit, summity|; top, peak, vertex, apex, zenith, pinnacle, acme, culmination, meridian, utmost height, ne plus utra, height, pitch, maximum, climax, culminating point, crowning point, turning point; turn of the tide, fountain head; water shed, water parting; sky, pole.

tip, tip top; crest, crow's nest, cap, truck, nib; end &c. 67; crown, brow; head, nob, noddle, pate; capsheaf.

high places, heights.

topgallant mast, sky scraper; quarter deck, hurricane deck.

architrave, frieze, cornice, coping stone, zoophorus, capital, epistyle, sconce, pediment, entablature; tympanum; ceiling &c. (covering) 223.

attic, loft, garret, house top, upper story.

[metaphorical use] summit conference, summit; peak of achievement, peak of performance; peaks and troughs, peaks and valleys [in graphs].

V. culminate, crown, top; overtop &c. (be superior to) 33.

Adj. highest &c. (high &c. 206); top; top most, upper most; tiptop; culminating &c. v.; meridian, meridional; capital, head, polar, supreme, supernal, topgallant.

Adv. atop, at the top of the tree.

Phr. en flute; fleur deau[Fr].

211. Base[edit]

N. base, basement; plinth, dado, wainscot; baseboard, mopboard; bedrock, hardpan [U.S.]; foundation &c. (support) 215; substructure, substratum, ground, earth, pavement, floor, paving, flag, carped, ground floor, deck; footing, ground work, basis; hold, bilge.

bottom, nadir, foot, sole, toe, hoof, keel, root; centerboard.

Adj. bottom, undermost, nethermost; fundamental; founded on, based on, grounded on, built on.

212. Verticality[edit]

N. verticality; erectness &c. adj.; perpendicularity &c. 216a; right angle, normal; azimuth circle.

wall, precipice, cliff.

elevation, erection; square, plumb line, plummet.

V. be vertical &c. adj.; stand up, stand on end, stand erect, stand upright; stick up, cock up.

render vertical &c. adj.; set up, stick up, raise up, cock up; erect, rear, raise on its legs.

Adj. vertical, upright, erect, perpendicular, plumb, normal, straight, bolt, upright; rampant; standing up &c. v.; rectangular, orthogonal &c. 216a.

Adv. vertically &c. adj.; up, on end; up on end, right on end; a plomb[Fr], endwise; one one's legs; at right angles.

213. Horizontality[edit]

N. horizontality; flatness; level, plane; stratum &c. 204; dead level, dead flat; level plane.

recumbency, lying down &c. v.; reclination, decumbence; decumbency, discumbency|; proneness &c. adj.; accubation, supination, resupination, prostration; azimuth.

plain, floor, platform, bowling green; cricket ground; croquet ground, croquet lawn; billiard table; terrace, estrade, esplanade, parterre.

[flat land area] table land, plateau, ledge; butte; mesa (plain) 344.

[instrument to measure horizontality] level, spirit level.

V. be horizontal &c. adj.; lie, recline, couch; lie down, lie flat, lie prostrate; sprawl, loll, sit down.

render horizontal &c. adj.; lay down, lay out; level, flatten; prostrate, knock down, floor, fell.

Adj. horizontal, level, even, plane; flat &c. 251; flat as a billiard table, flat as a bowling green; alluvial; calm, calm as a mill pond; smooth, smooth as glass.

recumbent, decumbent, procumbent, accumbent; lying &c. v.; prone, supine, couchant, jacent, prostrate, recubant.

Adv. horizontally &c. adj.; on one's back, on all fours, on its beam ends.

214. Pendency[edit]

N. pendency, dependency; suspension, hanging &c. v.; pedicel, pedicle, peduncle; tail, train, flap, skirt, pigtail, pony tail, pendulum; hangnail

peg, knob, button, hook, nail, stud, ring, staple, tenterhook;; fastening &c. 45; spar, horse.

V. be pendent &c. adj.; hang, depend, swing, dangle; swag; daggle, flap, trail, flow; beetle.

suspend, hang, sling, hook up, hitch, fasten to, append.

Adj. pendent, pendulous; pensile; hanging &c. v.; beetling, jutting over, overhanging, projecting; dependent; suspended &c. v.; loose, flowing.

having a peduncle &c. n.; pedunculate, tailed, caudate.

215. Support[edit]

N. support, ground, foundation, base, basis; terra firma; bearing, fulcrum, bait [U.S.], caudex crib; point d'appui[Fr], <gr pou="" sto="" gr="">[Grk][Grk], purchase footing, hold, locus standi[Lat]; landing place, landing stage; stage, platform; block; rest, resting place; groundwork, substratum, riprap, sustentation, subvention; floor &c. (basement) 211.

supporter; aid &c. 707; prop, stand, anvil, fulciment|; cue rest, jigger; monkey; stay, shore, skid, rib, truss, bandage; sleeper; stirrup, stilts, shoe, sole, heel, splint, lap, bar, rod, boom, sprit, outrigger; ratlings.

staff, stick, crutch, alpenstock, baton, staddle; bourdon, cowlstaff, lathi, mahlstick.

post, pillar, shaft, thill, column, pilaster; pediment, pedicle; pedestal; plinth, shank, leg, socle, zocle; buttress, jamb, mullion, abutment; baluster, banister, stanchion; balustrade; headstone; upright; door post, jamb, door jamb.

frame, framework; scaffold, skeleton, beam, rafter, girder, lintel, joist, travis, trave, corner stone, summer, transom; rung, round, step, sill; angle rafter, hip rafter; cantilever, modillion;; crown post, king post; vertebra.

columella, backbone; keystone; axle, axletree; axis; arch, mainstay.

trunnion, pivot, rowlock; peg &c. (pendency) 214; tiebeam &c. (fastening) 45; thole pin.

board, ledge, shelf, hob, bracket, trevet, trivet, arbor, rack; mantel, mantle piece[Fr], mantleshelf; slab, console; counter, dresser; flange, corbel ; table, trestle; shoulder; perch; horse; easel, desk; clotheshorse, hatrack; retable; teapoy.

seat, throne, dais; divan, musnud; chair, bench, form, stool, sofa, settee, stall; arm chair, easy chair, elbow chair, rocking chair; couch, fauteuil[Fr], woolsack, ottoman, settle, squab, bench; aparejo, faldstool, horn; long chair, long sleeve chair, morris chair; lamba chauki, lamba kursi; saddle, pannel, pillion; side saddle, pack saddle; pommel.

bed, berth, pallet, tester, crib, cot, hammock, shakedown, trucklebed, cradle, litter, stretcher, bedstead; four poster, French bed, bunk, kip, palang; bedding, bichhona, mattress, paillasse; pillow, bolster; mat, rug, cushion.

footstool, hassock; tabouret; tripod, monopod.

Atlas, Persides, Atlantes, Caryatides, Hercules.

V. be supported &c.; lie on, sit on, recline on, lean on, loll on, rest on, stand on, step on, repose on, abut on, bear on, be based on &c.; have at one's back; bestride, bestraddle.

support, bear, carry, hold, sustain, shoulder; hold up, back up, bolster up, shore up; uphold, upbear; prop; under prop, under pin, under set; riprap; bandage &c. 43.

give support, furnish support, afford support, supply support, lend support, give foundations, furnish foundations, afford foundations, supply foundations, lend foundations; bottom, found, base, ground, imbed, embed.

maintain, keep on foot; aid &c. 707.

Adj. supporting, supported &c. v.; fundamental; dorsigerous.

Adv. astride on, straddle. </gr>

216. Parallelism[edit]

N. {ant. 216a} parallelism; coextension; equidistance; similarity &c. 17.

Adj. parallel; coextensive; equidistant.

Adv. alongside &c. (laterally) 236.

216a. Perpendicularity[edit]

N. {ant. 216} perpendicularity, orthogonality; verticality, &c. 212.V. be perpendicular, be orthogonal; intersect at right angles, be rectangular, be at right angles to, intersect at 90 degrees; have

no correlation.Adj. orthogonal, perpendicular; rectangular; uncorrelated.

217. Obliquity[edit]

N. obliquity, inclination, slope, slant, crookedness &c. adj.; slopeness; leaning &c. v.; bevel, tilt; bias, list, twist, swag, cant, lurch; distortion &c. 243; bend &c. (curve) 245; tower of Pisa.

acclivity, rise, ascent, gradient, khudd, rising ground, hill, bank, declivity, downhill, dip, fall, devexity|; gentle slope, rapid slope, easy ascent, easy descent; shelving beach; talus; monagne Russe[Fr]; facilis descensus averni[Lat].

V. intersect; lack parallelism.

218. Inversion[edit]

N. inversion, eversion, subversion, reversion, retroversion, introversion; contraposition &c. 237; contrariety &c. 14; reversal; turn of the tide.

overturn; somersault, somerset; summerset; culbute; revulsion; pirouette.

transposition, transposal, anastrophy, metastasis, hyperbaton, anastrophe, hysteron proteron[Grk][Grk], hypallage, synchysis, tmesis, parenthesis; metathesis; palindrome.

pronation and supination[Anat].

V. be inverted &c.; turn round, turn about, turn to the right about, go round, go about, go to the right about, wheel round, wheel about, wheel to the right about; turn over, go over, tilt over, topple over; capsize, turn turtle.

invert, subvert, retrovert, introvert; reverse; up turn, over turn, up set, over set; turn topsy turvy &c. adj.; culbuter; transpose, put the cart before the horse, turn the tables.

Adj. inverted &c. v.; wrong side out, wrong side up; inside out, upside down; bottom upwards, keel upwards; supine, on one's head, topsy- turvy, sens dessus dessous[Fr].

inverse; reverse &c. (contrary) 14; opposite &c. 237.

top heavy.

Adv. inversely &c. adj.; hirdy-girdy; heels over head, head over heels.

219. Crossing[edit]

N. crossing &c. v.; intersection, interdigitation; decussation, transversion; convolution &c. 248; level crossing.

reticulation, network; inosculation, anastomosis, intertexture, mortise.

net, plexus, web, mesh, twill, skein, sleeve, felt, lace; wicker; mat, matting; plait, trellis, wattle, lattice, grating, grille, gridiron, tracery, fretwork, filigree, reticle; tissue, netting, mokes; rivulation.

cross, chain, wreath, braid, cat's cradle, knot; entangle &c. (disorder) 59.

[woven fabrics] cloth, linen, muslin, cambric &c.

[web-footed animal] webfoot.

V. cross, decussate; intersect, interlace, intertwine, intertwist, interweave, interdigitate, interlink.

twine, entwine, weave, inweave, twist, wreathe; anastomose[Med], inosculate, dovetail, splice, link; lace, tat.

mat, plait, plat, braid, felt, twill; tangle, entangle, ravel; net, knot; dishevel, raddle.

Adj. crossing &c. v.; crossed, matted &c, v. transverse.

cross, cruciform, crucial; retiform, reticular, reticulated; areolar, cancellated, grated, barred, streaked; textile; crossbarred, cruciate, palmiped, secant; web-footed.

Adv. cross, thwart, athwart, transversely; at grade [U.S.]; crosswise.

3. Centrical Dimensions[edit]

4. General.[edit]

220. Exteriority[edit]

N. exteriority; outside, exterior; surface, superficies; skin &c. (covering) 223; superstratum; disk, disc; face, facet; extrados.

excentricity; eccentricity; circumjacence &c. 227.

V. be exterior &c. adj.; lie around &c. 227.

place exteriorly, place outwardly, place outside; put out, turn out.

Adj. exterior, external; outer most; outward, outlying, outside, outdoor; round about &c. 227; extramural; extralimitary, extramundane.

superficial, skin-deep; frontal, discoid.

extraregarding; excentric, eccentric; outstanding; extrinsic &c. 6; ecdemic[Med], exomorphic.

Adv. externally &c. adj.; out, with out, over, outwards, ab extra, out of doors; extra muros[Lat].

in the open air; sub Jove, sub dio[Lat]; a la belle etoile[Fr], al fresco.

221. Interiority[edit]

N. interiority; inside, interior; interspace, subsoil, substratum; intrados.

contents &c. 190; substance, pith, marrow; backbone &c. (center) 222; heart, bosom, breast; abdomen; vitals, viscera, entrails, bowels, belly, intestines, guts, chitterings, womb, lap; penetralia[Lat], recesses, innermost recesses; cave &c. (concavity) 252.

V. be inside &c. adj.; within &c. adv.

place within, keep within; inclose &c. (circumscribe) 229; intern; imbed &c. (insert) 300.

Adj. interior, internal; inner, inside, inward, intraregarding; inmost, innermost; deep seated, gut; intestine, intestinal; inland; subcutaneous; abdominal, coeliac, endomorphic[Physiol]; interstitial &c. (interjacent) 228; inwrought &c. (intrinsic) 5; inclosed &c. v.

home, domestic, indoor, intramural, vernacular; endemic.

Adv. internally &c. adj.; inwards, within, in, inly; here in, there in, where in; ab intra, withinside; in doors, within doors; at home, in the bosom of one's family.

222. Centrality[edit]

N. centrality, centricalness, center; middle &c. 68; focus &c. 74.

core, kernel; nucleus, nucleolus; heart, pole axis, bull's eye; nave, navel; umbilicus, backbone, marrow, pith; vertebra, vertebral column; hotbed; concentration &c. (convergence) 290; centralization; symmetry.

center of gravity, center of pressure, center of percussion, center of oscillation, center of buoyancy &c.; metacenter.

V. be central &c. adj.; converge &c. 290.

render central, centralize, concentrate; bring to a focus.

Adj. central, centrical; middle &c. 68; azygous, axial, focal, umbilical, concentric; middlemost; rachidian; spinal, vertebral.

Adv. middle; midst; centrally &c. adj.

223. Covering[edit]

N. covering, cover; baldachin, baldachino, baldaquin; canopy, tilt, awning, tent, marquee, tente d'abri[Fr], umbrella, parasol, sunshade; veil (shade) 424; shield &c. (defense) 717.

roof, ceiling, thatch, tile; pantile, pentile; tiling, slates, slating, leads; barrack [U.S.], plafond, planchment [U.S.], tiling, shed &c. (abode) 189.

top, lid, covercle|, door, operculum; bulkhead [U.S.].

bandage, plaster, lint, wrapping, dossil, finger stall.

coverlet, counterpane, sheet, quilt, tarpaulin, blanket, rug, drugget; housing; antimacassar, eiderdown, numdah, pillowcase, pillowslip; linoleum; saddle cloth, blanket cloth; tidy; tilpah [U.S.], apishamore [U.S.].

integument , tegument; skin, pellicle, fleece, fell, fur, leather, shagreen, hide; pelt, peltry; cordwain; derm; robe, buffalo robe [U.S.]; cuticle, scarfskin, epidermis.

clothing &c. 225; mask &c. (concealment) 530.

peel, crust, bark, rind, cortex, husk, shell, coat; eggshell, glume.

capsule; sheath, sheathing; pod, cod; casing, case, theca; elytron; elytrum; involucrum[Lat]; wrapping, wrapper; envelope, vesicle; corn husk, corn shuck [U.S.]; dermatology, conchology; testaceology.

inunction; incrustation, superimposition, superposition, obduction|; scale &c. (layer) 204.

[specific coverings: list] veneer, facing; overlay; plate, silver plate, gold plate, copper plate; engobe; ormolu; Sheffield plate; pavement; coating, paint; varnish &c. (resin) 356a; plating, barrel plating, anointing &c. v.; enamel; epitaxial deposition[Engin], vapor deposition; ground, whitewash, plaster, spackel, stucco, compo; cerement; ointment &c. (grease) 356.

V. cover; superpose, superimpose; overlay, overspread; wrap &c. 225; encase, incase; face, case, veneer, pave, paper; tip, cap, bind; bulkhead, bulkhead in; clapboard [U.S.].

coat, paint, varnish, pay, incrust, stucco, dab, plaster, tar; wash; besmear, bedaub; anoint, do over; gild, plate, japan, lacquer, lacker, enamel, whitewash; parget; lay it on thick.

overlie, overarch; endome; conceal &c. 528.

[of aluminum] anodize.

[of steel] galvanize.

Adj. covering &c. v.; superimposed, overlaid, plated &c. v.; cutaneous, dermal, cortical, cuticular, tegumentary, skinny, scaly, squamous[Anat]; covered &c. v.; imbricated, loricated, armor plated, ironclad; under cover; cowled, cucullate, dermatoid, encuirassed, hooded, squamiferous, tectiform; vaginate.

224. Lining[edit]

N. lining, inner coating; coating &c. (covering) 223; stalactite, stalagmite.

filling, stuffing, wadding, padding.

wainscot, parietes[Lat], wall.

V. line, stuff, incrust, wad, pad, fill.

Adj. lined &c. v..

225. Clothing[edit]

N. clothing, investment; covering &c. 223; dress, raiment, drapery, costume, attire, guise, toilet, toilette, trim; habiliment; vesture, vestment; garment, garb, palliament|, apparel, wardrobe, wearing apparel, clothes, things; underclothes.

array; tailoring, millinery; finery &c. (ornament) 847; full dress &c. (show) 882; garniture; theatrical properties.

outfit, equipment, trousseau; uniform, regimentals; continentals [Am. Hist.]; canonicals &c. 999; livery, gear, harness, turn-out, accouterment, caparison, suit, rigging, trappings, traps, slops, togs, toggery; day wear, night wear, zoot suit; designer clothes; masquerade.

dishabille, morning dress, undress.

kimono; lungi; shooting-coat; mufti; rags, tatters, old clothes; mourning, weeds; duds; slippers.

robe, tunic, paletot, habit, gown, coat, frock, blouse, toga, smock frock, claw coat, hammer coat, Prince Albert coat, sack coat, tuxedo coat, frock coat, dress coat, tail coat.

cloak, pall, mantle, mantlet mantua, shawl, pelisse, wrapper; veil; cape, tippet, kirtle, plaid, muffler, comforter, haik, huke|, chlamys, mantilla, tabard, housing, horse cloth, burnoose, burnous, roquelaure; houppelande[Fr]; surcoat, overcoat, great coat; surtout[Fr], spencer; mackintosh, waterproof, raincoat; ulster, P- coat, dreadnought, wraprascal, poncho, cardinal, pelerine; barbe, chudder, jubbah, oilskins, pajamas, pilot jacket, talma

jacket, vest, jerkin, waistcoat, doublet, camisole, gabardine; farthingale, kilt, jupe, crinoline, bustle, panier, skirt, apron, pinafore; bloomer, bloomers; chaqueta, songtag[Ger], tablier.

pants, trousers, trowsers; breeches, pantaloons, inexpressibles|!, overalls, smalls, small clothes; shintiyan|!; shorts, jockey shorts, boxer shorts; tights, drawers, panties, unmentionables; knickers, knickerbockers; philibeg, fillibeg; pants suit; culottes; jeans, blue jeans, dungarees, denims.

[brand names for jeans] Levis, Calvin Klein, Calvins, Bonjour, Gloria Vanderbilt.

headdress, headgear; chapeau[Fr], crush hat, opera hat; kaffiyeh; sombrero, jam, tam-o-shanter, tarboosh, topi, sola topi[Lat], pagri, puggaree; cap, hat, beaver hat, coonskin cap; castor, bonnet, tile, wideawake, billycock, wimple; nightcap, mobcap, skullcap; hood, coif; capote, calash; kerchief, snood, babushka; head, coiffure; crown &c. (circle) 247; chignon, pelt, wig, front, peruke, periwig, caftan, turban, fez, shako, csako, busby; kepi, forage cap, bearskin; baseball cap; fishing hat; helmet &c. 717; mask, domino.

body clothes; linen; hickory shirt [U.S.]; shirt, sark, smock, shift, chemise; night gown, negligee, dressing gown, night shirt; bedgown, sac de nuit[Fr].

underclothes[underclothing], underpants, undershirt; slip[for women], brassiere, corset, stays, corsage, corset, corselet, bodice, girdle &c. (circle) 247; stomacher; petticoat, panties; under waistcoat; jock[for men], athletic supporter, jockstrap.

sweater, jersey; cardigan; turtleneck, pullover; sweater vest.

neckerchief, neckcloth; tie, ruff, collar, cravat, stock, handkerchief, scarf; bib, tucker; boa; cummerbund, rumal, rabat.

shoe, pump, boot, slipper, sandal, galoche, galoshes, patten, clog; sneakers, running shoes, hiking boots; high-low; Blucher boot, wellington boot, Hessian boot, jack boot, top boot; Balmoral; arctics, bootee, bootikin, brogan, chaparajos; chavar, chivarras, chivarros; gums [U.S.], larrigan [N. Am.], rubbers, showshoe, stogy, veldtschoen[Ger], legging, buskin, greave, galligaskin, gamache, gamashes, moccasin, gambado, gaiter, spatterdash, brogue, antigropelos; stocking, hose, gaskins, trunk hose, sock; hosiery.

glove, gauntlet, mitten, cuff, wristband, sleeve.

swaddling cloth, baby linen, layette; ice wool; taffeta.

pocket handkerchief, hanky, hankie.

clothier, tailor, milliner, costumier, sempstress, snip; dressmaker, habitmaker, breechesmaker, shoemaker; Crispin; friseur[Fr]; cordwainer, cobbler, hosier, hatter; draper, linen draper, haberdasher, mercer.

[underpants for babies] diaper, nappy[Brit]; disposable diaper, cloth diaper; Luvs[brand names for diapers], Huggies.

V. invest; cover &c. 223; envelope, lap, involve; inwrap, enwrap; wrap; fold up, wrap up, lap up, muffle up; overlap; sheath, swathe, swaddle, roll up in, circumvest.

vest, clothe, array, dress, dight, drape, robe, enrobe, attire, apparel, accounter, rig, fit out; deck &c. (ornament) 847; perk, equip, harness, caparison.

wear; don; put on, huddle on, slip on; mantle.

Adj. invested &c. v.; habited; dighted; barbed, barded; clad, costume, shod, chausse[Fr]; en grande tenue &c. (show) 882[Fr].


Phr. "the soul of this man is his clothes" [All's Well].

226. Divestment[edit]

N. divestment; taking off &c. v..

nudity; bareness &c. adj.; undress; dishabille &c. 225; the altogether; nudation, denudation; decortication, depilation, excoriation, desquamation; molting; exfoliation; trichosis[Med].

V. divest; uncover &c. (cover &c. 223); denude, bare, strip; disfurnish; undress, disrobe &c. (dress, enrobe &c. 225); uncoif; dismantle; put off, take off, cast off; doff; peel, pare, decorticate, excoriate, skin, scalp, flay; expose, lay open; exfoliate, molt, mew; cast the skin.

Adj. divested &c. v.; bare, naked, nude; undressed, undraped; denuded; exposed; in dishabille; bald, threadbare, ragged, callow, roofless.

in a state of nature, in nature's garb, in the buff, in native buff, in birthday suit; in puris naturalibus[Lat]; with nothing on, stark naked, stark raving naked [joc.]; bald as a coot, bare as the back of one's hand; out at elbows; barefoot; bareback, barebacked; leafless, napless, hairless.

227. Circumjacence[edit]

N. circumjacence, circumambience; environment, encompassment; atmosphere, medium, surroundings.

outpost; border &c. (edge) 231; girdle &c. (circumference) 230; outskirts, boulebards, suburbs, purlieus, precincts, faubourgs, environs, entourage, banlieue; neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity.

V. lie around &c. adv.; surround, beset, compass, encompass, environ, inclose, enclose, encircle, embrace, circumvent, lap, gird; belt; begird, engird; skirt, twine round; hem in &c. (circumscribe) 229.

Adj. circumjacent, circumambient, circumfluent; ambient; surrounding &c. v.; circumferential, suburban.

Adv. around, about; without; on every side; on all sides; right and left, all round, round about.

228. Interposition[edit]

N. interposition, interjacence, intercurrence, intervenience, interlocation, interdigitation, interjection, interpolation, interlineation, interspersion, intercalation.

[interposition at a fine-grained level] interpenetration; permeation; infiltration.

[interposition by one person in another's affairs, at the intervenor's initiative] intervention, interference; intrusion, obtrusion; insinuation.

insertion &c. 300; dovetailing; embolism.

intermediary, intermedium; go between, bodkin|!, intruder, interloper; parenthesis, episode, flyleaf.

partition, septum, diaphragm; midriff; dissepiment; party wall, panel, room divider.

halfway house.

V. lie between, come between, get between; intervene, slide in, interpenetrate, permeate.

put between, introduce, import, throw in, wedge in, edge in, jam in, worm in, foist in, run in, plow in, work in; interpose, interject, intercalate, interpolate, interline, interleave, intersperse, interweave, interlard, interdigitate, sandwich in, fit in, squeeze in; let in, dovetail, splice, mortise; insinuate, smuggle; infiltrate, ingrain.

interfere, put in an oar, thrust one's nose in; intrude, obtrude; have a finger in the pie; introduce the thin end of the wedge; thrust in &c. (insert) 300.

Adj. interjacent, intercurrent, intervenient, intervening &c. v., intermediate, intermediary, intercalary, interstitial; embolismal.

parenthetical, episodic; mediterranean; intrusive; embosomed; merged.

Adv. between, betwixt; twixt; among, amongst; amid, amidst; mid, midst; in the thick of; betwixt and between; sandwich-wise; parenthetically, obiter dictum.

229. Circumscription[edit]

N. circumscription, limitation, inclosure; confinement &c. (restraint) 751; circumvallation; encincture; envelope &c. 232.

container (receptacle) 191.

V. circumscribe, limit, bound, confine, inclose; surround &c. 227; compass about; imprison &c. (restrain) 751; hedge in, wall in, rail in; fence round, fence in,hedge round; picket; corral.

enfold, bury, encase, incase, pack up, enshrine, inclasp; wrap up &c. (invest) 225; embay, embosom.

containment (inclusion) 76.

Adj. circumscribed &c. v.; begirt, lapt; buried in, immersed in; embosomed, in the bosom of, imbedded, encysted, mewed up; imprisoned &c. 751; landlocked, in a ring fence.

230. Outline[edit]

N. outline, circumference; perimeter, periphery, ambit, circuit, lines tournure, contour, profile, silhouette; bounds; coast line. zone, belt, girth, band, baldric, zodiac, girdle, tyre[Brit], cingle, clasp, girt; cordon &c. (inclosure) 232; circlet, &c. 247..

231. Edge[edit]

N. edge, verge, brink, brow, brim, margin, border, confine, skirt, rim, flange, side, mouth; jaws, chops, chaps, fauces; lip, muzzle.

threshold, door, porch; portal &c. (opening) 260; coast, shore.

frame, fringe, flounce, frill, list, trimming, edging, skirting, hem, selvedge, welt, furbelow, valance, gimp.

Adj. border, marginal, skirting; labial, labiated, marginated.

232. Inclosure[edit]

N. inclosure, envelope; case &c. (receptacle) 191; wrapper; girdle &c. 230.

pen, fold; pen fold, in fold, sheep fold; paddock, pound; corral; yard; net, seine net.

wall, hedge, hedge row; espalier; fence &c. (defense) 717; pale, paling, balustrade, rail, railing, quickset hedge, park paling, circumvallation, enceinte, ring fence.

barrier, barricade; gate, gateway; bent, dingle [U.S.]; door, hatch, cordon; prison &c. 752.

dike, dyke, ditch, fosse, moat.

V. inclose, circumscribe &c. 229.

233. Limit[edit]

N. limit, boundary, bounds, confine, enclave, term, bourn, verge, curbstone, but, pale, reservation; termination, terminus; stint, frontier, precinct, marches; backwoods.

boundary line, landmark; line of demarcation, line of circumvallation; pillars of Hercules; Rubicon, turning point; ne plus ultra[Lat]; sluice, floodgate.

Adj. definite; conterminate|, conterminable; terminal, frontier; bordering.

Adv. thus far, thus far and no further.

Phr. stick to the reservation; go beyond the pale.

5. Special[edit]

234. Front[edit]

N. front; fore, forepart; foreground; face, disk, disc, frontage; facade, proscenium, facia[Lat], frontispiece; anteriority; obverse [of a medal or coin].

fore rank, front rank; van, vanguard; advanced guard; outpost; first line; scout.

brow, forehead, visage, physiognomy, phiz, countenance, mut*; rostrum, beak, bow, stem, prow, prore, jib.

pioneer &c. (precursor) 64; metoposcopy.

V. be in front, stand in front &c. adj.; front, face, confront; bend forwards; come to the front, come to the fore.

Adj. fore, anterior, front, frontal.

Adv. before; in front, in the van, in advance; ahead, right ahead; forehead, foremost; in the foreground, in the lee of; before one's face, before one's eyes; face to face, vis-a-vis; front a front.

Phr. formosa muta commendatio est [Lat][Syrus]; frons est animi janua [Lat][Cicero]; "Human face divine" [Milton]; imago animi vultus est indices oculi [Lat][Cicero]; "sea of upturned faces" [Scott].

235. Rear[edit]

N. rear, back, posteriority; rear rank, rear guard; background, hinterland.

occiput[Anat], nape, chine; heels; tail, rump, croup, buttock, posteriors, backside scut, breech, dorsum, loin; dorsal region, lumbar region; hind quarters; aitchbone; natch, natch bone.

stern, poop, afterpart, heelpiece, crupper.

wake; train &c. (sequence) 281.

reverse; other side of the shield.

V. be behind &c. adv.; fall astern; bend backwards; bring up the rear.

Adj. back, rear; hind, hinder, hindmost, hindermost; postern, posterior; dorsal, after; caudal, lumbar; mizzen, tergal.

Adv. behind; in the rear, in the background; behind one's back; at the heels of, at the tail of, at the back of; back to back.

after, aft, abaft, astern, sternmost, aback, rearward.

Phr. ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio[It]; the other side of the coin.

236. Laterality[edit]

N. laterality; side, flank, quarter, lee; hand; cheek, jowl, jole, wing; profile; temple, parietes[Lat], loin, haunch, hip; beam.

gable, gable end; broadside; lee side.

points of the compass; East, Orient, Levant; West; orientation.

V. be on one side &c. adv.; flank, outflank; sidle; skirt; orientate.

Adj. lateral, sidelong; collateral; parietal, flanking, skirting; flanked; sideling.

many sided; multilateral, bilateral, trilateral, quadrilateral.

Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental, Hesperian.

Adv. sideways, sidelong; broadside on; on one side, abreast, alongside, beside, aside; by the side of; side by side; cheek by jowl &c. (near) 197; to windward, to leeward; laterally &c. adj.; right and left; on her beam ends.

Phr. "his cheek the may of days outworn" [Shakespeare].

237. Contraposition[edit]

N. contraposition, opposition; polarity; inversion &c. 218; opposite side; reverse, inverse; counterpart; antipodes; opposite poles, North and South.

antonym, opposite (contrariety) 14.

V. be opposite &c. adj.; subtend.

Adj. opposite; reverse, inverse; converse, antipodal, subcontrary; fronting, facing, diametrically opposite.

Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral, antarctic.

Adv. over, over the way, over against; against; face to face, vis-a- vis; as poles asunder.

238. Dextrality[edit]

N. dextrality; right, right hand; dexter, offside, starboard.

Adj. dextral, right-handed; dexter, dextrorsal, dextrorse; ambidextral, ambidextrous; dextro-.

Adv. dextrad, dextrally.

239. Sinistrality[edit]

N. sinistrality; left, left hand, a gauche; sinister, nearside, larboard, port.

Adj. left-handed; sinister; sinistral, sinistrorsal, sinistrorse, sinistrous;

Pref. laevo-.

Adv. sinistrally, sinistrously.

Section III. Form[edit]

1. General Form[edit]

240. Form[edit]

N. form, figure, shape; conformation, configuration; make, formation, frame, construction, cut, set, build, trim, cut of one's jib; stamp, type, cast, mold; fashion; contour &c. (outline) 230; structure &c. 329; plasmature.

feature, lineament, turn; phase &c. (aspect) 448; posture, attitude, pose.

[Science of form] morphism.

[Similarity of form] isomorphism.

forming &c. v.; formation, figuration, efformation; sculpture; plasmation.

V. form, shape, figure, fashion, efform, carve, cut, chisel, hew, cast; rough hew, rough cast; sketch; block out, hammer out; trim; lick into shape, put into shape; model, knead, work up into, set, mold, sculpture; cast, stamp; build &c. (construct) 161.

Adj. formed &c. v.

[Receiving form] plastic, fictile; formative; fluid.

[Giving form] plasmic.

[Similar in form] isomorphous.

[taking several forms] pleomorphic; protean; changeable, &c. 149.

241. Amorphism[edit]

N. amorphism, informity; unlicked cub; rudis indigestaque moles[Lat]; disorder &c. 59; deformity &c. 243.

disfigurement, defacement; mutilation; deforming.

chaos, randomness (disorder) 59.

[taking form from surroundings] fluid &c. 333.

V. deface[Destroy form], disfigure, deform, mutilate, truncate; derange &c. 61; blemish, mar.

Adj. shapeless, amorphous, formless; unformed, unhewn, unfashioned, unshaped, unshapen; rough, rude, Gothic, barbarous, rugged.

242. Symmetry[edit]

[Regularity of form.]

N. symmetry, shapeliness, finish; beauty &c. 845; proportion, eurythmy, uniformity, parallelism; bilateral symmetry, trilateral symmetry, multilateral symmetry; centrality &c. 222.

arborescence, branching, ramification; arbor vitae.

Adj. symmetrical, shapely, well set, finished; beautiful &c. 845; classic, chaste, severe.

regular, uniform, balanced; equal &c. 27; parallel, coextensive.

arborescent, arboriform; dendriform, dendroid; branching; ramous, ramose; filiciform, filicoid; subarborescent; papilionaceous.

fuji-shaped, fujigata[Jap.].

243. Distortion[edit]

[Irregularity of form.]

N. distortion, detortion, contortion; twist, crookedness &c. (obliquity) 217; grimace; deformity; malformation, malconformation; harelip; monstrosity, misproportion, want of symmetry, anamorphosis; ugliness &c. 846; talipes; teratology.

asymmetry; irregularity.

V. distort, contort, twist, warp, wrest, writhe, make faces, deform, misshape.

Adj. distorted &c. v.; out of shape, irregular, asymmetric, unsymmetric, awry, wry, askew, crooked; not true, not straight; on one side, crump, deformed; harelipped; misshapen, misbegotten; misproportioned, ill proportioned; ill-made; grotesque, monstrous, crooked as a ram's horn; camel backed, hump backed, hunch backed, bunch backed, crook backed; bandy; bandy legged, bow legged; bow kneed, knock kneed; splay footed, club footed; round shouldered; snub nosed; curtailed of one's fair proportions; stumpy &c. (short) 201; gaunt &c. (thin) 203; bloated &c. 194; scalene; simous; taliped, talipedic.

Adv. all manner of ways.

Phr. crooked as a Virginia fence [U.S.].

2. Special Form[edit]

244. Angularity[edit]

N. angularity, angularness; aduncity; angle, cusp, bend; fold &c. 258; notch &c. 257; fork, bifurcation.

elbow, knee, knuckle, ankle, groin, crotch, crutch, crane, fluke, scythe, sickle, zigzag, kimbo, akimbo.

corner, nook, recess, niche, oriel[Arch], coign.

right angle &c. (perpendicular) 216a, 212; obliquity &c. 217; angle of 45x, miter; acute angle, obtuse angle, salient angle, reentering angle, spherical angle.

angular measurement, angular elevation, angular distance, angular velocity; trigonometry, goniometry; altimetry; clinometer, graphometer, goniometer; theodolite; sextant, quadrant; dichotomy.

triangle, trigon, wedge; rectangle, square, lozenge, diamond; rhomb, rhombus; quadrangle, quadrilateral; parallelogram; quadrature; polygon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, oxygon, decagon.

pyramid, cone.

Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism, pyramid; parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof.

V. bend, fork, bifurcate, crinkle.

Adj. angular, bent, crooked, aduncous, uncinated, aquiline, jagged, serrated; falciform, falcated; furcated, forked, bifurcate, zigzag; furcular; hooked; dovetailed; knock kneed, crinkled, akimbo, kimbo, geniculated; oblique &c. 217.

fusiform[Microb], wedge-shaped, cuneiform; cuneate, multangular, oxygonal; triangular, trigonal, trilateral; quadrangular, quadrilateral; foursquare; rectangular, square, multilateral; polygonal &c. n.; cubical, rhomboid, rhomboidal, pyramidal.

245. Curvature[edit]

N. curvature, curvity, curvation; incurvature, incurvity|; incurvation; bend; flexure, flexion, flection; conflexure|; crook, hook, bought, bending; deflection, deflexion; inflection, inflexion; concameration; arcuation, devexity|, turn, deviation, detour, sweep; curl, curling; bough; recurvity, recurvation; sinuosity &c. 248.


carve, arc, arch, arcade, vault, bow, crescent, half-moon, lunule, horseshoe, loop, crane neck; parabola, hyperbola; helix, spiral; catenary, festoon; conchoid, cardioid; caustic; tracery; arched ceiling, arched roof; bay window, bow window.

sine curve; spline, spline curve, spline function; obliquity &c. 217.

V. be curved &c. adj[intrans].; curve, sweep, sway, swag, sag; deviate &c. 279; curl, turn; reenter.

[trans] render curved &c. adj.; flex, bend, curve, incurvate; inflect; deflect, scatter[Phys]; refract (light) 420; crook; turn, round, arch, arcuate, arch over, concamerate; bow, curl, recurve, frizzle.

rotundity &c. 249; convexity &c. 250.

Adj. curved &c. v.; curviform, curvilineal, curvilinear; devex|, devious; recurved, recurvous; crump; bowed &c. v.; vaulted, hooked; falciform, falcated; semicircular, crescentic; sinusoid[Geom], parabolic, paraboloid; luniform, lunular; semilunar, conchoidal; helical, double helical, spiral; kinky; cordiform, cordated; cardioid; heart shaped, bell shaped, boat shaped, crescent shaped, lens shaped, moon shaped, oar shaped, shield shaped, sickle shaped, tongue shaped, pear shaped, fig shaped; kidney- shaped, reniform; lentiform, lenticular; bow-legged &c. (distorted) 243; oblique &c. 217; circular &c. 247.

aduncated, arclike, arcuate, arched,beaked; bicorn, bicornuous, bicornute; clypeate, clypeiform; cymbiform, embowed, galeiform; hamate, hamiform, hamous; hooked; linguiform, lingulate; lobiform, lunate, navicular, peltate, remiform, rhamphoid; rostrate, rostriferous, rostroid; scutate, scaphoid, uncate; unguiculate, unguiform.

246. Straightness[edit]

N. straightness, rectilinearity, directness; inflexibility &c. (stiffness) 323; straight line, right line, direct line; short cut.

V. be straight &c. adj.; have no turning; not incline to either side, not bend to either side, not turn to either side, not deviate to either side; go straight; steer for &c. (directions) 278.

render straight, straighten, rectify; set straight, put straight; unbend, unfold, uncurl &c. 248, unravel &c. 219, unwrap.

Adj. straight; rectilinear, rectilineal; direct, even, right, true, in a line; unbent, virgate &c. v.; undeviating, unturned, undistorted, unswerving; straight as an arrow &c. (direct) 278; inflexible &c. 323.

laser-straight; ramrod-straight.

247. Circularity[edit]

[Simple circularity.]

N. circularity, roundness; rotundity &c. 249.

circle, circlet, ring, areola, hoop, roundlet, annulus, annulet, bracelet, armlet; ringlet; eye, loop, wheel; cycle, orb, orbit, rundle, zone, belt, cordon, band; contrate wheel, crown wheel; hub; nave; sash, girdle, cestus, cincture, baldric, fillet, fascia, wreath, garland; crown, corona, coronet, chaplet, snood, necklace, collar; noose, lasso, lassoo.

ellipse, oval, ovule; ellipsoid, cycloid; epicycloid[Geom], epicycle; semicircle; quadrant, sextant, sector.

sphere &c. 249.

V. make round &c. adj.; round.

go round; encircle &c. 227; describe a circle &c. 311.

Adj. round, rounded, circular, annular, orbicular; oval, ovate; elliptic, elliptical; egg-shaped; pear-shaped &c. 245; cycloidal &c. n.; spherical &c. 249.

Phr. "I watched the little circles die" [Tennyson].

248. Convolution[edit]

[Complex curvature.]

N. winding &c. v.; convolution, involution, circumvolution; wave, undulation, tortuosity, anfractuosity; sinuosity, sinuation; meandering, circuit, circumbendibus, twist, twirl, windings and turnings, ambages; torsion; inosculation; reticulation &c. (crossing) 219; rivulation; roughness &c. 256.

coil, roll, curl; buckle, spiral, helix, corkscrew, worm, volute, rundle; tendril; scollop, scallop, escalop; kink; ammonite, snakestone.

serpent, eel, maze, labyrinth.


V. be convoluted &c. adj.;wind, twine, turn and twist, twirl; wave, undulate, meander; inosculate; entwine, intwine; twist, coil, roll; wrinkle, curl, crisp, twill; frizzle; crimp, crape, indent, scollop, scallop, wring, intort; contort; wreathe &c. (cross) 219.

Adj. convoluted; winding, twisted &c. v.; tortile, tortive|; wavy; undated, undulatory; circling, snaky, snake-like, serpentine; serpent, anguill, vermiform; vermicular; mazy, tortuous, sinuous, flexuous, anfractuous, reclivate, rivulose, scolecoid; sigmoid, sigmoidal[Geom]; spiriferous, spiroid;

involved, intricate, complicated, perplexed; labyrinth, labyrinthic, labyrinthian, labyrinthine; peristaltic; daedalian; kinky, knotted.

wreathy, frizzly, crepe, buckled; raveled &c. (in disorder) 59.

spiral, coiled, helical; cochleate, cochleous; screw-shaped; turbinated, turbiniform.

Adv. in and out, round and round; a can of worms; Gordian knot.

249. Rotundity[edit]

N. rotundity; roundness &c. adj.; cylindricity; sphericity, spheroidity; globosity.

cylinder, cylindroid, cylindrical; barrel, drum; roll, roller; rouleau, column, rolling-pin, rundle.

cone, conoid; pear shape, egg shape, bell shape.

sphere, globe, ball, boulder, bowlder; spheroid, ellipsoid; oblong spheroid; oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid; drop, spherule, globule, vesicle, bulb, bullet, pellet, pelote, clew, pill, marble, pea, knob, pommel, horn; knot (convolution) 248.

curved surface, hypersphere; hyperdimensional surface.

V. render spherical &c.adj.; form into a sphere, sphere, roll into a ball; give rotundity &c. n.; round.

Adj. rotund; round &c. (circular) 247; cylindric, cylindrical, cylindroid; columnar, lumbriciform; conic, conical; spherical, spheroidal; globular, globated, globous, globose; egg shaped, bell shaped, pear shaped; ovoid, oviform; gibbous; rixiform; campaniform, campanulate, campaniliform; fungiform, bead-like, moniliform, pyriform, bulbous; tres atque rotundus[Lat]; round as an orange, round as an apple, round as a ball, round as a billiard ball, round as a cannon ball.

3. Superficial Form[edit]

250. Convexity[edit]

N. convexity, prominence, projection, swelling, gibbosity, bilge, bulge, protuberance, protrusion; camber, cahot [N. Am.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.]. swell.

intumescence; tumour[Brit], tumor; tubercle, tuberosity[Anat]; excrescence; hump, hunch, bunch.

boss, embossment, hub, hubble

[convex body parts] tooth[U.S.], knob, elbow, process, apophysis, condyle, bulb, node, nodule, nodosity, tongue, dorsum, bump, clump; sugar loaf &c. (sharpness) 253; bow; mamelon; molar; belly, corporation|!, pot belly, gut[coll]; withers, back, shoulder, lip, flange.

[convexities on skin] pimple, zit [slang]; wen, wheel, papula[Med], pustule, pock, proud flesh, growth, sarcoma, caruncle, corn, wart, pappiloma, furuncle, polypus, fungus, fungosity, exostosis, bleb, blister, blain; boil &c. (disease) 655; airbubble, blob, papule, verruca.

[convex body parts on chest] papilla, nipple, teat, tit [vulgar], titty [vulgar], boob [vulgar], knocker[vulgar], pap, breast, dug, mammilla.

[prominent convexity on the face] proboscis, nose, neb, beak, snout, nozzle, schnoz[coll].

peg, button, stud, ridge, rib, jutty, trunnion, snag.

cupola, dome, arch, balcony, eaves; pilaster.

relief, relievo[It], cameo; bassorilievo, mezzorilevo, altorivievo; low relief, bas relief[Fr], high relief.

hill &c. (height) 206; cape, promontory, mull; forehead, foreland; point of land, mole, jetty, hummock, ledge, spur; naze, ness.

V. be prominent &c. adj.; project, bulge, protrude, pout, bouge|[Fr], bunch; jut out, stand out, stick out, poke out; stick up, bristle up, start up, cock up, shoot up; swell over, hang over, bend over; beetle.

render prominent &c. adj.; raise 307; emboss, chase.

[become convex] belly out.

Adj. convex, prominent, protuberant, projecting &c. v.; bossed, embossed, bossy, nodular, bunchy; clavate, clavated, claviform; hummocky, moutonne, mammiliform; papulous, papilose; hemispheric, bulbous; bowed, arched; bold; bellied; tuberous, tuberculous; tumous; cornute, odontoid; lentiform, lenticular; gibbous; club shaped, hubby [U.S.], hubbly [U.S.], knobby, papillose, saddle-shaped, selliform, subclavate, torose, ventricose, verrucose.

salient, in relief, raised, repousse; bloated &c, (expanded) 194.

251. Flatness[edit]

N. flatness &c. adj.; smoothness &c. 255.

plane; level &c. 213; plate, platter, table, tablet, slab.

V. render flat, flatten; level &c. 213.

Adj. flat, plane, even, flush, scutiform, discoid; level &c. (horizontal) 213; flat as a pancake, flat as a fluke, flat as a flounder, flat as a board, flat as my hand.

252. Concavity[edit]

N. concavity, depression, dip; hollow, hollowness; indentation, intaglio, cavity, dent, dint, dimple, follicle, pit, sinus, alveolus, lacuna; excavation, strip mine; trough &c. (furrow) 259; honeycomb.

cup, basin, crater, punch bowl; cell &c. (receptacle) 191; socket.

valley, vale, dale, dell, dingle, combe, bottom, slade, strath, glade, grove, glen, cave, cavern, cove; grot, grotto; alcove, cul-de-sac; gully &c. 198; arch &c. (curve) 245; bay &c. (of the sea) 343.

excavator, sapper, miner.

honeycomb (sponge) 252a.

V. be concave &c. adj.; retire, cave in.

render concave &c. adj.; depress, hollow; scoop, scoop out; gouge, gouge out, dig, delve, excavate, dent, dint, mine, sap, undermine, burrow, tunnel, stave in.

Adj. depressed &c. v.; alveolate, calathiform, cup-shaped, dishing; favaginous, faveolate, favose; scyphiform, scyphose; concave, hollow, stove in; retiring; retreating; cavernous; porous &c. (with holes) 260; infundibul, infundibular, infundibuliform; funnel shaped, bell shaped; campaniform, capsular; vaulted, arched.

252a Sponge -- N. sponge, honeycomb, network; frit[Chem], filter.

sieve, net, screen (opening) 260.

Adj. cellular, spongy, spongious; honeycombed, alveolar; sintered; porous (opening) 260.

252a Sponge[edit]

N. sponge, honeycomb, network; frit[Chem], filter.sieve, net, screen (opening) 260.

253. Sharpness[edit]

N. sharpness &c. adj.; acuity, acumination; spinosity.

point, spike, spine, spicule[Biol], spiculum; needle, hypodermic needle, tack, nail, pin; prick, prickle; spur, rowel, barb; spit, cusp; horn, antler; snag; tag thorn, bristle; Adam's needle, bear grass [U.S.], tine, yucca.

nib, tooth, tusk; spoke, cog, ratchet.

crag, crest, arete[Fr], cone peak, sugar loaf, pike, aiguille; spire, pyramid, steeple.

beard, chevaux de frise[Fr], porcupine, hedgehog, brier, bramble, thistle; comb; awn, beggar's lice, bur, burr, catchweed, cleavers, clivers, goose, grass, hairif, hariff, flax comb, hackle, hatchel, heckle.

wedge; knife edge, cutting edge; blade, edge tool, cutlery, knife, penknife, whittle, razor, razor blade, safety razor, straight razor, electric razor; scalpel; bistoury, lancet; plowshare, coulter, colter; hatchet, ax, pickax, mattock, pick, adze, gill; billhook, cleaver, cutter; scythe, sickle; scissors, shears, pruning shears, cutters, wire cutters, nail clipper, paper cutter; sword &c. (arms) 727; bodkin &c. (perforator) 262; belduque, bowie knife, paring knife; bushwhacker [U.S.]; drawing knife, drawing shave; microtome[Microbiol]; chisel, screwdriver blade; flint blade; guillotine.

sharpener, hone, strop; grindstone, whetstone; novaculite; steel, emery.

V. be sharp &c. adj.; taper to a point; bristle with.

render sharp &c. adj.; sharpen, point, aculeate, whet, barb, spiculate, set, strop, grind; chip [flint].

cut &c. (sunder) 44.

Adj. sharp, keen; acute; acicular, aciform; aculeated, acuminated; pointed; tapering; conical, pyramidal; mucronate, mucronated; spindle shaped, needle shaped; spiked, spiky, ensiform, peaked, salient; cusped, cuspidate, cuspidated; cornute, cornuted, cornicultate; prickly; spiny, spinous, spicular; thorny, bristling, muricated, pectinated, studded, thistly, briary; craggy &c. (rough) 256; snaggy, digitated, two-edged, fusiform[Microb]; dentiform, denticulated; toothed; odontoid; starlike; stellated, stelliform; sagittate, sagittiform; arrowheaded; arrowy, barbed, spurred.

acinaciform; apiculate, apiculated; aristate, awned, awny, bearded, calamiform, cone-shaped, coniform, crestate, echinate, gladiate; lanceolate, lanciform; awl, awl-shaped, lance-shaped, awl-shaped, scimitar-shaped, sword-shaped; setarious, spinuliferous, subulate, tetrahedral, xiphoid.

cutting; sharp edged, knife edged; sharp as a razor, keen as a razor; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; sharpened &c. v.; set

254. Bluntness[edit]

N. bluntness &c. adj.

V. be blunt, render blunt &c. adj.; obtund, dull; take off the point, take off the edge; turn.

Adj. blunt, obtuse, dull, bluff; edentate, toothless.

255. Smoothness[edit]

N. smoothness &c. adj.; polish, gloss; lubricity, lubrication.

[smooth materials] down, velvet, velure, silk, satin; velveteen, velour, velours, velumen; glass, ice.

slide; bowling green &c. (level) 213; asphalt, wood pavement, flagstone, flags.

[objects used to smooth other objects] roller, steam roller, lawn roller, rolling pin, rolling mill; sand paper, emery paper, emery cloth, sander; flat iron, sad iron; burnisher, turpentine and beeswax; polish, shoe polish.

[art of cutting and polishing gemstones] lapidary.

[person who polishes gemstones] lapidary, lapidarian.

V. smooth, smoothen; plane; file; mow, shave; level, roll; macadamize; polish, burnish, calender, glaze; iron, hot-press, mangle; lubricate &c. (oil) 332.

Adj. smooth; polished &c. v.; leiodermatous, slick, velutinous; even; level &c. 213; plane &c. (flat) 251; sleek, glossy; silken, silky; lanate, downy, velvety; glabrous, slippery , glassy, lubricous, oily, soft, unwrinkled; smooth as glass, smooth as ice, smooth as monumental alabaster, smooth as velvet, smooth as oil; slippery as an eel; woolly &c. (feathery) 256.

Phr. smooth as silk; slippery as coonshit on a pump handle; slippery as a greased pig.

256. Roughness[edit]

N. roughness &c. adj.; tooth, grain, texture, ripple; asperity, rugosity, salebrosity|, corrugation, nodosity; arborescence &c. 242; pilosity.

brush, hair, beard, shag, mane, whisker, moustache, imperial, tress, lock, curl, ringlet; fimbriae, pili, cilia, villi; lovelock; beaucatcher; curl paper; goatee; papillote, scalp lock.

plumage, plumosity; plume, panache, crest; feather, tuft, fringe, toupee.

wool, velvet, plush, nap, pile, floss, fur, down; byssus, moss, bur; fluff.

knot (convolution) 248.

V. be rough &c. adj.; go against the grain.

render-rough &c. adj.; roughen, ruffle, crisp, crumple, corrugate, set on edge, stroke the wrong way, rumple.

Adj. rough, uneven, scabrous, scaly,knotted; rugged, rugose, rugous; knurly; asperous, crisp, salebrous|, gnarled, unpolished, unsmooth, roughhewn; craggy, cragged; crankling, scraggy; prickly &c. (sharp) 253; arborescent &c. 242; leafy, well-wooded; feathery; plumose, plumigerous; laciniate, laciniform, laciniose; pappose; pileous, pilose; trichogenous, trichoid[Med]; tufted, fimbriated, hairy, ciliated, filamentous, hirsute; crinose, crinite; bushy, hispid, villous, pappous, bearded, pilous, shaggy, shagged; fringed, befringed; setous|, setose, setaceous; "like quills upon the fretful porcupine" [Hamlet]; rough as a nutmeg grater, rough as a bear.

downy, velvety, flocculent, woolly; lanate, lanated; lanuginous, lanuginose; tomentose; fluffy.

Adv. against the grain.

Phr. cabello luengo y corto el seso[Sp].

257. Notch[edit]

N. notch, dent, nick, cut; indent, indentation; dimple.

embrasure, battlement, machicolation; saw, tooth, crenelle, scallop, scollop, vandyke; depression; jag.

V. notch, nick, cut, dent, indent, jag, scarify, scotch, crimp, scallop, scollop, crenulate, vandyke.

Adj. notched &c. v.; crenate, crenated; dentate, dentated; denticulate, denticulated; toothed, palmated, serrated.

258. Fold[edit]

N. fold, plicature, plait, pleat,ply, crease; tuck, gather; flexion, flexure, joint, elbow, double, doubling, duplicature, gather, wrinkle, rimple, crinkle, crankle, crumple, rumple, rivel, ruck, ruffle, dog's ear, corrugation, frounce, flounce, lapel; pucker, crow's feet; plication.

V. fold, double, plicate, plait, crease, wrinkle, crinkle, crankle, curl, cockle up, cocker, rimple, rumple, flute,frizzle, frounce, rivel, twill, corrugate, ruffle, crimple|, crumple, pucker; turn down, double down, down under; tuck, ruck, hem, gather.

Adj. folded, fluted, pleated &c. v..

259. Furrow[edit]

N. furrow, groove, rut, sulcus[Anat], scratch, streak, striae, crack, score, incision, slit; chamfer, fluting; corduroy road, cradle hole.

channel, gutter, trench, ditch, dike, dyke; moat, fosse, trough, kennel; ravine &c. (interval) 198; tajo [U.S.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.].

V. furrow &c. n.; flute, plow; incise, engrave, etch, bite in.

Adj. furrowed &c. v.; ribbed, striated, sulcated[Anat], fluted, canaliculated; bisulcous, bisulcate, bisulcated; canaliferous; trisulcate; corduroy; unisulcate; costate, rimiform.

260. Opening[edit]

N. hole, foramen; puncture, perforation; fontanel; transforation; pinhole, keyhole, loophole, porthole, peephole, mousehole, pigeonhole; eye of a needle; eyelet; slot.

opening; aperture, apertness; hiation, yawning, oscitancy, dehiscence, patefaction|, pandiculation; chasm &c. (interval) 198.

embrasure, window, casement; abatjour; light; sky light, fan light; lattice; bay window, bow window; oriel[Arch]; dormer, lantern.

outlet, inlet; vent, vomitory; embouchure; orifice, mouth, sucker, muzzle, throat, gullet, weasand, wizen, nozzle; placket.

portal, porch, gate, ostiary|, postern, wicket, trapdoor, hatch, door; arcade; cellarway, driveway, gateway, doorway, hatchway, gangway; lich gate.

way, path &c. 627; thoroughfare; channel; passage, passageway; tube, pipe; water pipe &c. 350; air pipe &c. 351; vessel, tubule, canal, gut, fistula; adjutage, ajutage; ostium; smokestack; chimney, flue, tap, funnel, gully, tunnel, main; mine, pit, adit, shaft; gallery.

alley, aisle, glade, vista.

bore, caliber; pore; blind orifice; fulgurite, thundertube.

porousness, porosity.

sieve, cullender, colander; cribble, riddle, screen; honeycomb.

apertion, perforation; piercing &c. v.; terebration, empalement, pertusion|, puncture, acupuncture, penetration.

key &c. 631, opener, master key, password, combination, passe-partout.

V. open, ope, gape, yawn, bilge; fly open.

perforate, pierce, empierce|, tap, bore, drill; mine &c. (scoop out) 252; tunnel; transpierce, transfix; enfilade, impale, spike, spear, gore, spit, stab, pink, puncture, lance, stick, prick, riddle, punch; stave in.

cut a passage through; make way for, make room for.

uncover, unclose, unrip; lay open, cut open, rip open, throw open, pop open, blow open, pry open, tear open, pull open.

Adj. open; perforated &c. v.; perforate; wide open, ajar, unclosed, unstopped; oscitant, gaping, yawning; patent.

tubular, cannular, fistulous; pervious, permeable; foraminous; vesicular, vasicular; porous, follicular, cribriform, honeycombed, infundibular, riddled; tubulous, tubulated; piped, tubate.

opening &c. v.; aperient.

Int. open sesame!

261. Closure[edit]

N. closure, occlusion, blockade; shutting up &c. v.; obstruction &c. (hindrance) 706; embolus; contraction &c. 195; infarction; constipation, obstipation; blind alley, blind corner; keddah; cul-de-sac, caecum; imperforation, imperviousness &c. adj.; impermeability; stopper &c. 263.

V. close, occlude, plug; block up, stop up, fill up, bung up, cork up, button up, stuff up, shut up, dam up; blockade, obstruct &c.

(hinder) 706; bar, bolt, stop, seal, plumb; choke, throttle; ram down, dam, cram; trap, clinch; put to the door, shut the door.

Adj. closed &c. v.; shut, operculated; unopened.

unpierced, imporous, caecal[Med]; closable; imperforate, impervious, impermeable; impenetrable; impassable, unpassable|2; invious|; pathless, wayless; untrodden, untrod.

unventilated; air tight, water tight; hermetically sealed; tight, snug.

262. Perforator[edit]

N. perforator, piercer, borer, auger, chisel, gimlet, stylet, drill, wimble, awl, bradawl, scoop, terrier, corkscrew, dibble, trocar[Med], trepan, probe, bodkin, needle, stiletto, rimer, warder, lancet; punch, puncheon; spikebit, gouge; spear &c. (weapon) 727; puncher; punching machine, punching press; punch pliers.

263. Stopper[edit]

N. stopper, stopple; plug, cork, bung, spike, spill, stopcock, tap; rammer; ram, ramrod; piston; stop-gap; wadding, stuffing, padding, stopping, dossil, pledget, tompion, tourniquet.

cover &c. 223; valve, vent peg, spigot, slide valve.

janitor, doorkeeper, porter, warder, beadle, cerberus, ostiary.

Section IV. Motion[edit]

1. Motion in General[edit]

264. Motion[edit]

N. motion, movement, move; going &c. v.; unrest.

stream, flow, flux, run, course, stir; evolution; kinematics; telekinesis.

step, rate, pace, tread, stride, gait, port, footfall, cadence, carriage, velocity, angular velocity; clip, progress, locomotion; journey &c. 266; voyage &c. 267; transit &c. 270.

restlessness &c. (changeableness) 149; mobility; movableness, motive power; laws of motion; mobilization.

V. be in motion &c. adj.; move, go, hie, gang, budge, stir, pass, flit; hover about, hover round, hover about; shift, slide, glide; roll, roll on; flow, stream, run, drift, sweep along; wander &c. (deviate) 279; walk &c. 266; change one's place, shift one's place, change one's quarters, shift one's quarters; dodge; keep going, keep moving;.

put in motion, set in motion; move; impel &c. 276; propel &c. 284; render movable, mobilize.

Adj. moving &c. v.; in motion; transitional; motory, motive; shifting, movable, mobile, mercurial, unquiet; restless &c. (changeable) 149; nomadic &c. 266; erratic &c. 279.

Adv. under way; on the move, on the wing, on the tramp, on the march.

Phr. eppur si muove [It][Galileo]; es bildet ein Talent sich in der Stille[Ger], sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt[Ger].

265. Quiescence[edit]

N. rest; stillness &c. adj.; quiescence; stagnation, stagnancy; fixity, immobility, catalepsy; indisturbance; quietism.

quiet, tranquility, calm; repose &c. 687; peace; dead calm, anticyclone|!; statue-like repose; silence &c. 203; not a breath of air, not a mouse stirring; sleep &c. (inactivity) 683.

pause, lull &c. (cessation) 142; stand still; standing still &c. v.; lock; dead lock, dead stop, dead stand; full stop; fix; embargo.

resting place; gite[Fr]; bivouac; home &c. (abode) 189; pillow &c. (support) 215; haven &c. (refuge) 666; goal &c. (arrival) 292.

V. be quiescent &c. adj.; stand still, lie still; keep quiet, repose, hold the breath.

remain, stay; stand, lie to, ride at anchor, remain in situ, tarry, mark time; bring to, heave to, lay to; pull up, draw up; hold, halt; stop, stop short; rest, pause, anchor; cast to an anchor, come to an anchor; rest on one's oars; repose on one's laurels, take breath; stop &c. (discontinue) 142.

stagnate; quieta non movere[Lat]; let alone; abide, rest and be thankful; keep within doors, stay at home, go to bed.

dwell &c. (be present) 186; settle &c. (be located) 184; alight &c. (arrive) 292 stick, stick fast; stand like a post; not stir a peg, not stir a step; be at a stand &c. n. quell, becalm, hush, stay, lull to sleep, lay an embargo on.

Adj. quiescent, still; motionless, moveless; fixed; stationary; immotile; at rest at a stand, at a standstill, at anchor; stock, still; standing still &c. v.; sedentary, untraveled, stay-at-home; becalmed, stagnant, quiet; unmoved, undisturbed, unruffled; calm, restful; cataleptic; immovable &c. (stable) 150; sleeping &c. (inactive) 683; silent &c. 403; still as a statue, still as a post, still as a mouse, still as death; vegetative, vegetating.

Adv. at a stand &c. adj.; tout court; at the halt.

Int. stop! stay! avast! halt! hold hard! whoa! hold! sabr karo!.

Phr. requiescat in pace[Lat]; Deus nobis haec otia fecit [Lat][Vergil]; "the noonday quiet holds the hill" [Tennyson].

266. Journey[edit]

[Locomotion by land.]

N. travel; traveling &c. v. wayfaring, campaigning.

journey, excursion, expedition, tour, trip, grand tour, circuit, peregrination, discursion|, ramble, pilgrimage, hajj, trek, course, ambulation, march, walk, promenade, constitutional, stroll, saunter, tramp, jog trot, turn, stalk, perambulation; noctambulation, noctambulism; somnambulism; outing, ride, drive, airing, jaunt.

equitation, horsemanship, riding, manege[Fr], ride and tie; basophobia.

roving, vagrancy, pererration|; marching and countermarching; nomadism; vagabondism, vagabondage; hoboism [U.S.]; gadding; flit, flitting, migration; emigration, immigration, demigration|, intermigration; wanderlust.

plan, itinerary, guide; handbook, guidebook, road book; Baedeker, Bradshaw, Murray; map, road map, transportation guide, subway map.

procession, cavalcade, caravan, file, cortege, column.

[Organs and instruments of locomotion] vehicle &c. 272; automobile, train, bus, airplane, plane, autobus, omnibus, subway, motorbike, dirt bike, off-road vehicle, van, minivan, motor scooter',trolley, locomotive; legs, feet, pegs, pins, trotters.

traveler &c. 268.

depot [U.S.], railway station, station.

V. travel, journey, course; take a journey, go a journey; take a walk, go out for walk &c. n.; have a run; take the air.

flit, take wing; migrate, emigrate; trek; rove, prowl, roam, range, patrol, pace up and down, traverse; scour the country, traverse the country; peragrate|; circumambulate, perambulate; nomadize, wander, ramble, stroll, saunter, hover, go one's rounds, straggle; gad, gad about; expatiate.

walk, march, step, tread, pace, plod, wend, go by shank's mare; promenade; trudge, tramp; stalk, stride, straddle, strut, foot it, hoof it, stump, bundle, bowl along, toddle; paddle; tread a path.

take horse, ride, drive, trot, amble, canter, prance, fisk, frisk, caracoler, caracole; gallop &c. (move quickly) 274.

[start riding] embark, board, set out, hit the road, get going, get underway.

peg on, jog on, wag on, shuffle on; stir one's stumps; bend one's steps, bend one's course; make one's way, find one's way, wend one's way, pick one's way, pick one's way, thread one's way, plow one's way; slide, glide, coast, skim, skate; march in procession, file on, defile.

go to, repair to, resort to, hie to, betake oneself to.

Adj. traveling &c. v.; ambulatory, itinerant, peripatetic, roving, rambling, gadding, discursive, vagrant, migratory, monadic; circumforanean, circumforaneous; noctivagrant, mundivagrant; locomotive.

wayfaring, wayworn; travel-stained.

Adv. on foot, on horseback, on Shanks's mare; by the Marrowbone stage:

in transitu &c. 270[Lat]; en route &c. 282.

Int. come along!

267. Navigation[edit]

[Locomotion by water, or air.]

N. navigation; aquatics; boating, yachting; ship &c. 273; oar, paddle, screw, sail, canvas, aileron.

natation, swimming; fin, flipper, fish's tail.

aerostation, aerostatics, aeronautics; balloonery; balloon &c. 273; ballooning, aviation, airmanship; flying, flight, volitation; wing, pinion; rocketry, space travel, astronautics, orbital mechanics, orbiting.

voyage, sail, cruise, passage, circumnavigation, periplus; headway, sternway, leeway; fairway.

mariner &c. 269.

flight, trip; shuttle, run, airlift.

V. sail; put to sea &c. (depart) 293; take ship, get under way; set sail, spread sail, spread canvas; gather way, have way on; make sail, carry sail; plow the waves, plow the deep, plow the main, plow the ocean; walk the waters.

navigate, warp, luff, scud, boom, kedge; drift, course, cruise, coast; hug the shore, hug the land; circumnavigate.

ply the oar, row, paddle, pull, scull, punt, steam.

swim, float; buffet the waves, ride the storm, skim, effleurer[Fr], dive, wade.

fly, be wafted, hover, soar, flutter, jet, orbit, rocket; take wing, take a flight, take off, ascend, blast off, land, alight; wing one's flight, wing one's way; aviate; parachute, jump, glide.

Adj. sailing &c. v.; volant, aerostatic; seafaring, nautical, maritime, naval; seagoing, coasting; afloat; navigable; aerial, aeronautic; grallatory.

Adv. under way, under sail, under canvas, under steam; on the wing, in flight, in orbit.

Phr. bon voyage; "spread the thin oar and catch the driving gale" [Pope].

268. Traveler[edit]

N. traveler, wayfarer, voyager, itinerant, passenger, commuter.

tourist, excursionist, explorer, adventurer, mountaineer, hiker, backpacker, Alpine Club; peregrinator, wanderer, rover, straggler, rambler; bird of passage; gadabout, gadling; vagrant, scatterling, landloper, waifs and estrays, wastrel, foundling; loafer; tramp, tramper; vagabond, nomad, Bohemian, gypsy, Arab, Wandering Jew, Hadji, pilgrim, palmer; peripatetic; somnambulist, emigrant, fugitive, refugee; beach comber, booly; globegirdler, globetrotter; vagrant, hobo [U.S.], night walker, sleep walker; noctambulist, runabout, straphanger, swagman, swagsman [Aust.]; trecker, trekker, zingano, zingaro.

runner, courier; Mercury, Iris, Ariel, comet.

pedestrian, walker, foot passenger; cyclist; wheelman.

rider,horseman, equestrian, cavalier, jockey, roughrider, trainer, breaker.

driver, coachman, whip, Jehu, charioteer, postilion, postboy, carter, wagoner, drayman; cabman, cabdriver; voiturier, vetturino, condottiere; engine driver; stoker, fireman, guard; chauffeur, conductor, engineer, gharry-wallah, gari-wala, hackman, syce, truckman.

Phr. on the road

269. Mariner[edit]

N. sailor, mariner, navigator; seaman, seafarer, seafaring man; dock walloper*; tar, jack tar, salt, able seaman, A. B.; man-of-war's man, bluejacket, galiongee, galionji, marine, jolly, midshipman, middy; skipper; shipman, boatman, ferryman, waterman, lighterman, bargeman, longshoreman; bargee, gondolier; oar, oarsman; rower; boatswain, cockswain; coxswain; steersman, pilot; crew. aerial navigator, aeronaut, balloonist, Icarus; aeroplanist, airman, aviator, birdman, man-bird, wizard of the air, aviatrix, flier, pilot, test pilot, glider pilot, bush pilot, navigator, flight attendant, steward, stewardess, crew; astronaut, cosmonaut; parachutist, paratrooper.

270. Transference[edit]

N. transfer, transference; translocation, elocation|; displacement; metastasis, metathesis; removal; remotion, amotion; relegation; deportation, asportation; extradition, conveyance, draft, carrying, carriage; convection, conduction, contagion; transfer &c. (of property) 783.

transit, transition; passage, ferry, gestation; portage, porterage, carting, cartage; shoveling &c. v.; vection|, vecture|, vectitation|; shipment, freight, wafture; transmission, transport, transportation, importation, exportation, transumption, transplantation, translation; shifting, dodging; dispersion &c. 73; transposition &c. (interchange) 148; traction &c. 285.

[Thing transferred] drift.

V. transfer, transmit, transport, transplace, transplant, translocate; convey, carry, bear, fetch and carry; carry over, ferry over; hand pass, forward; shift; conduct, convoy, bring, fetch, reach; tote [U.S.]; port, import, export.

send, delegate, consign, relegate, turn over to, deliver; ship, embark; waft; shunt; transpose &c. (interchange) 148; displace &c. 185; throw &c. 284; drag &c. 285; mail, post.

shovel, ladle, decant, draft off, transfuse, infuse, siphon.

Adj. transferred &c. v.; drifted, movable; portable, portative; mailable [U.S.]; contagious.

Adv. from hand to hand, from pillar to post.

on the way, by the way; on the road, on the wing, under way, in transit, on course; as one goes; in transitu[Lat], en route, chemin faisant[Fr], en passant[Fr], in mid progress, in mid course.

271. Carrier[edit]

N. carrier, porter, bearer, tranter|, conveyer; cargador; express, expressman; stevedore, coolie; conductor, locomotive, motor.

beast, beast of burden, cattle, horse, nag, palfrey, Arab, blood horse, thoroughbred, galloway, charger, courser, racer, hunter, jument, pony, filly, colt, foal, barb, roan, jade, hack, bidet, pad, cob, tit, punch, roadster, goer; racehorse, pack horse, draft horse, cart horse, dray horse, post horse; ketch; Shetland pony, shelty, sheltie; garran, garron; jennet, genet, bayard, mare, stallion, gelding; bronco, broncho, cayuse [U.S.]; creature, critter [rural U.S.]; cow pony, mustang, Narraganset, waler; stud.

Pegasus, Bucephalus, Rocinante.

ass, donkey, jackass, mule, hinny; sumpter horse, sumpter mule; burro, cuddy, ladino [U.S.]; reindeer; camel, dromedary, llama, elephant; carrier pigeon.

[object used for carrying] pallet, brace, cart, dolley; support &c. 215; fork lift.

carriage &c. (vehicle) 272; ship &c. 273.

Adj. equine, asinine.

272. Vehicle[edit]

N. vehicle, conveyance, carriage, caravan, van; common carrier; wagon, waggon, wain, dray, cart, lorry.

truck, tram; cariole, carriole; limber, tumbrel, pontoon; barrow; wheel barrow, hand barrow; perambulator; Bath chair, wheel chair, sedan chair; chaise; palankeen, palanquin; litter, brancard, crate, hurdle, stretcher, ambulance; black Maria; conestoga wagon, conestoga wain; jinrikisha, ricksha, brett, dearborn [U.S.], dump cart, hack, hackery, jigger, kittereen, mailstate, manomotor, rig, rockaway, prairie schooner [U.S.], shay, sloven [Can.], team, tonga, wheel; hobbyhorse, go-cart; cycle; bicycle, bike, two-wheeler; tricycle, velocipede, quadricycle.

equipage, turn-out; coach, chariot, phaeton, break, mail phaeton, wagonette, drag, curricle, tilbury, whisky, landau, barouche, victoria, brougham, clarence, calash, caleche[French], britzka, araba, kibitka; berlin; sulky, desobligeant[French], sociable, vis-a-vis, dormeuse[Fr]; jaunting car, outside car; dandi; doolie, dooly; munchil, palki; roller skates, skate; runabout; ski; tonjon; vettura.

post chaise, diligence, stage; stage coach, mail coach, hackney coach, glass coach; stage wagon, car, omnibus, fly, cabriolet, cab, hansom, shofle, four-wheeler, growler, droshki, drosky.

dogcart, trap, whitechapel, buggy, four-in-hand, unicorn, random, tandem; shandredhan, char-a-bancs[French].

motor car, automobile, limousine, car, auto, jalopy, clunker, lemon, flivver, coupe, sedan, two-door sedan, four-door sedan, luxury sedan; wheels [coll.], sports car, roadster, gran turismo[It], jeep, four-wheel drive vehicle, electric car, steamer; golf cart, electric wagon; taxicab, cab, taxicoach, checker cab, yellow cab; station wagon, family car; motorcycle, motor bike, side car; van, minivan, bus, minibus, microbus; truck, wagon, pick-up wagon, pick-up, tractor-trailer, road train, articulated vehicle; racing car, racer, hot rod, stock car, souped-up car..

bob, bobsled, bobsleigh; cutter; double ripper, double runner [U.S.]; jumper, sled, sledge, sleigh, toboggan.

train; accommodation train, passenger train, express trail, special train, corridor train, parliamentary train, luggage train, freight train, goods train; 1st class train, 2nd class train, 3rd class train, 1st class carriage, 2nd class carriage, 3rd class carriage, 1st class compartment, 2nd class compartment, 3rd class compartment; rolling stock; horse box, cattle truck; baggage car, express car, freight car, parlor car, dining car, Pullman car, sleeping car, sleeper, dome car; surface car, tram car, trolley car; box car, box wagon; horse car [U.S.]; bullet train, shinkansen [Jap.], cannonball, the Wabash cannonball, lightning express; luggage van; mail, mail car, mail van.

shovel, spool, spatula, ladle, hod, hoe; spade, spaddle, loy; spud; pitchfork; post hole digger.

[powered construction vehicles] tractor, steamshovel, backhoe, fork lift, earth mover, dump truck, bulldozer, grader, caterpillar, trench digger, steamroller; pile driver; crane, wrecking crane.

273. Ship[edit]

N. ship, vessel, sail; craft, bottom.

navy, marine, fleet, flotilla; shipping.

man of war &c. (combatant) 726; transport, tender, storeship; merchant ship, merchantman; packet, liner; whaler, slaver, collier, coaster, lighter; fishing boat, pilot boat; trawler, hulk; yacht; baggala; floating hotel, floating palace; ocean greyhound.

ship, bark, barque, brig, snow, hermaphrodite brig; brigantine, barkantine; schooner; topsail schooner, for and aft schooner, three masted schooner; chasse-maree[Fr]; sloop, cutter, corvette, clipper, foist, yawl, dandy, ketch, smack, lugger, barge, hoy, cat, buss; sailer, sailing vessel; windjammer; steamer, steamboat, steamship, liner, ocean liner, cruisp, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap, batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow; poke at, pip, ship of the line; destroyer, cruiser, frigate; landing ship, LST[abbr]; aircraft carrier, carrier, flattop[coll.], nuclear powered carrier; submarine, submersible, atomic submarine.

boat, pinnace, launch; life boat, long boat, jolly boat, bum boat, fly boat, cock boat, ferry oat, canal boat; swamp boat, ark, bully [Nfld.], bateau battery[Can.], broadhorn, dory, droger, drogher; dugout, durham boat, flatboat, galiot; shallop, gig, funny, skiff, dingy, scow, cockleshell, wherry, coble, punt, cog, kedge, lerret; eight oar, four oar, pair oar; randan; outrigger; float, raft, pontoon; prame; iceboat, ice canoe, ice yacht.

catamaran, hydroplane, hovercraft,coracle, gondola, carvel, caravel; felucca, caique, canoe, birch bark canoe, dugout canoe,; galley, galleyfoist; bilander, dogger, hooker, howker; argosy, carack; galliass, galleon; polacca, polacre, tartane, junk, lorcha, praam, proa, prahu, saick, sampan, xebec, dhow; dahabeah; nuggah; kayak, keel boat [U.S.], log canoe, pirogue; quadrireme, trireme; stern-wheeler [U.S.]; wanigan, wangan [U.S.], wharf boat.

balloon; airship, aeroplane; biplane, monoplane, triplane; hydroplane; aerodrome; air balloon, pilot balloon, fire balloon, dirigible, zeppelin; aerostat, Montgolfier; kite, parachute.

jet plane, rocket plane, jet liner, turbojet, prop-jet, propeller plane; corporate plane, corporate jet, private plane, private aviation; airline, common carrier; fighter, bomber, fighter-bomber, escort plane, spy plane; supersonic aircraft, subsonic aircraft.

Adv. afloat, aboard; on board, on ship board; hard a lee, hard a port, hard a starboard, hard a weather.

2. Degrees of Motion[edit]

274. Velocity[edit]

N. velocity, speed, celerity; swiftness &c. adj.; rapidity, eagle speed; expedition &c. (activity) 682; pernicity|; acceleration; haste &c. 684.

spurt, rush, dash, race, steeple chase; smart rate, lively rate, swift rate &c. adj.; rattling rate, spanking rate, strapping rate, smart pace, lively pace, swift pace, rattling pace, spanking pace, strapping pace; round pace; flying, flight.

lightning, greased lightning, light, electricity, wind; cannon ball, rocket, arrow, dart, hydrargyrum[Lat], quicksilver; telegraph, express train; torrent.

eagle, antelope, courser, race horse, gazelle, greyhound, hare, doe, squirrel, camel bird, chickaree, chipmunk, hackee [U.S.], ostrich, scorcher*.

Mercury, Ariel, Camilla, Harlequin.

[Measurement of velocity] log, log line; speedometer, odometer, tachometer, strobe, radar speed detector, radar trap, air speed gauge, wind sock, wind speed meter; pedometer.

V. move quickly, trip, fisk|; speed, hie, hasten, post, spank, scuttle; scud, scuddle; scour, scour the plain; scamper; run like mad, beat it; fly, race, run a race, cut away, shot, tear, whisk, zoom, swoosh, sweep, skim, brush; cut along, bowl along, barrel along, barrel; scorch, burn up the track; rush &c. (be violent) 173; dash on, dash off, dash forward; bolt; trot, gallop, amble, troll, bound, flit, spring, dart, boom; march in quick time, march in double time; ride hard, get over the ground.

hurry &c. (hasten) 684; accelerate, put on; quicken; quicken one's pace, mend one's pace; clap spurs to one's horse; make haste, make rapid strides, make forced marches, make the best of one's way; put one's best leg foremost, stir one's stumps, wing one's way, set off at a score; carry sail, crowd sail; go off like a shot, go like a shot, go ahead, gain ground; outstrip the wind, fly on the wings of the wind.

keep up with, keep pace with; outstrip &c. 303; outmarch.

Adj. fast, speedy, swift, rapid, quick, fleet; aliped; nimble, agile, expeditious; express; active &c. 682; flying, galloping &c. v.; light footed, nimble footed; winged, eagle winged, mercurial, electric, telegraphic; light-legged, light of heel; swift as an arrow &c. n.; quick as lightning &c. n., quick as a thought.

Adv. swiftly &c. adj.; with speed &c. n.; apace; at a great rate, at full speed, at railway speed; full drive, full gallop; posthaste, in full sail, tantivy; trippingly; instantaneously &c. 113.

under press of sail, under press of canvas, under press of sail and steam; velis et remis[Lat], on eagle's wing, in double quick time; with rapid strides, with giant strides; a pas de geant[Fr]; in seven league boots; whip and spur; ventre a terre[Fr]; as fast as one's legs will carry one, as fast as one's heels will carry one; as fast as one can lay legs to the ground, at the top of one;s speed; by leaps and bounds; with haste &c. 684.

Phr. vires acquirit eundo[Lat]; "I'll put a girdle about the earth in forty minutes" [M.N.D.]; "swifter than arrow from the Tartar's bow" [M.N.D.]; go like a bat out of hell; tempus fugit[Lat].

275. Slowness[edit]

N. slowness &c. adj.; languor &c. (inactivity) 683; drawl; creeping &c. v., lentor.

retardation; slackening &c. v.; delay &c. (lateness) 133; claudication|.

jog trot, dog trot; mincing steps; slow march, slow time.

slow goer, slow coach, slow back; lingerer, loiterer, sluggard, tortoise, snail; poke* [U.S.]; dawdle &c. (inactive) 683.

V. move slowly &c. adv.; creep, crawl, lag, slug, drawl, linger, loiter, saunter; plod, trudge, stump along, lumber; trail, drag; dawdle &c. (be inactive) 683; grovel, worm one's way, steal along; job on, rub on, bundle on; toddle, waddle, wabble, slug, traipse, slouch, shuffle, halt, hobble, limp, caludicate|, shamble; flag, falter, trotter, stagger; mince, step short; march in slow time, march in funeral procession; take one's time; hang fire &c. (be late) 133.

retard, relax; slacken, check, moderate, rein in, curb; reef; strike sail, shorten sail, take in sail; put on the drag, apply the brake; clip the wings; reduce the speed; slacken speed, slacken one's pace; lose ground.

Adj. slow, slack; tardy; dilatory &c. (inactive) 683; gentle, easy; leisurely; deliberate, gradual; insensible, imperceptible; glacial, languid, sluggish, slow paced, tardigrade|!, snail-like; creeping &c. v.; reptatorial.

Adv. slowly &c. adj.; leisurely; piano, adagio; largo, larghetto; at half speed, under easy sail; at a foots pace, at a snail's pace, at a funeral pace; in slow time, with mincing steps, with clipped wings; haud passibus aequis [Lat][Vergil].

gradually &c. adj.; gradatim[Lat]; by degrees, by slow degrees, by inches, by little and little; step by step, one step at a time; inch by inch, bit by bit, little by little, seriatim; consecutively.

Phr. dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit[Lat]; at a glacial pace.

3. Motion Conjoined with Force[edit]

276. Impulse[edit]

N. impulse, impulsion, impetus; momentum; push, pulsion, thrust, shove, jog, jolt, brunt, booming, boost [U.S.], throw; explosion &c. (violence) 173; propulsion &c. 284.

percussion, concussion, collision, occursion|, clash, encounter, cannon, carambole, appulse, shock, crash, bump; impact; elan; charge &c. (attack) 716; beating &c. (punishment) 972.

blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab; fillip; slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c. 972; squash, dowse, swap, whap, punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce|, calcitration; ruade; arietation|; cut, thrust, lunge, yerk|; carom, carrom, clip *, jab, plug*, sidewinder* [U.S.], sidewipe, sideswipe [U.S.].

hammer, sledge hammer, mall, maul, mallet, flail; ram, rammer; battering ram, monkey, pile-driving engine, punch, bat; cant hook; cudgel &c. (weapon) 727; ax &c. (sharp) 253.

[Science of mechanical forces] dynamics; seismometer, accelerometer, earthquake detector.

V. give an impetus &c. n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin[Fr]; cant; elbow, shoulder, jostle, justle, hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter; run against, bump against, butt against; knock one's head against, run one's head against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip y; fan, fan out; jab, plug *.

strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap, batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow; poke at, pink, lunge, yerk; kick, calcitrate; butt, strike at &c. (attack) 716; whip *c. (punish) 972.

come into a collision, enter into collision; collide; sideswipe; foul; fall foul of, run foul of; telescope.

throw &c. (propel) 284.

Adj. impelling &c. v.; impulsive, impellent; booming; dynamic, dynamical; impelled &c. v.

Phr. "a hit, a very palpable hit" [Hamlet].

277. Recoil[edit]

N. recoil; reaction, retroaction; revulsion; bounce, rebound, ricochet; repercussion, recalcitration; kick, contrecoup[Fr]; springing back &c. v.; elasticity &c. 325; reflection, reflexion[Brit], reflex, reflux; reverberation &c. (resonance) 408; rebuff, repulse; return.

ducks and drakes; boomerang; spring, reactionist.

elastic collision, coefficient of restitution.

V. recoil, react; spring back, fly back, bounce back, bound back; rebound, reverberate, repercuss, recalcitrate; echo, ricochet.

Adj. recoiling &c. v.; refluent, repercussive, recalcitrant, reactionary; retroactive.

Adv. on the rebound, on the recoil &c. n.

Phr. for every action there is a reaction equal in force and opposite in direction [Newton].

4. Motion with Reference to Direction[edit]

278. Direction[edit]

N. direction, bearing, course, vector; set, drift, tenor; tendency &c. 176; incidence; bending, trending &c. v.; dip, tack, aim, collimation; steering steerage.

point of the compass, cardinal points; North East, South, West; N by E, ENE, NE by N, NE, &c; rhumb, azimuth, line of collimation.

line, path, road, range, quarter, line of march; alignment, allignment; air line, beeline; straight shoot.

V. tend towards, bend towards, point towards; conduct to, go to; point to, point at; bend, trend, verge, incline, dip, determine.

steer for, steer towards, make for, make towards; aim at, level at; take aim; keep a course, hold a course; be bound for; bend one's steps towards; direct one's course, steer one's course, bend one's course, shape one's course; align one's march, allign one's march; to straight, go straight to the point; march on, march on a point.

ascertain one's direction &c. n.; s'orienter[French], see which way the wind blows; box the compass; take the air line.

Adj. directed &c. v. directed towards; pointing towards &c. v.; bound for; aligned, with alligned with; direct, straight; undeviating, unswerving; straightforward; North, Northern, Northerly, &c. n.

Adv. towards; on the road, on the high road to; en avant; versus, to; hither, thither, whither; directly; straight as an arrow, forwards as an arrow; point blank; in a bee line to, in a direct line to, as the crow flies, in a straight line to, in a bee line for, in a direct line for, in a straight line for, in a bee line with, in a direct line with, in a straight line with; in a line with; full tilt at, as the crow flies.

before the wind, near the wind, close to the wind, against the wind; windwards, in the wind's eye.

through, via, by way of; in all directions, in all manner of ways; quaquaversum[Lat], from the four winds.

Phr. the shortest distance between two points is a straight line.

279. Deviation[edit]

N. deviation; swerving &c. v.; obliquation|, warp, refraction; flection, flexion; sweep; deflection, deflexure; declination.

diversion, digression, depart from, aberration; divergence &c. 291; zigzag; detour &c. (circuit) 629; divagation.

[Desultory motion] wandering &c. v.; vagrancy, evagation; bypaths and crooked ways; byroad.

[Motion sideways, oblique motion] sidling &c. v.; knight's move at chess.

V. alter one's course, deviate, depart from, turn, trend; bend, curve &c. 245; swerve, heel, bear off; gybe, wear.

intervert; deflect; divert, divert from its course; put on a new scent, shift, shunt, draw aside, crook, warp.

stray, straggle; sidle; diverge &c. 291; tralineate|; digress, wander; wind, twist, meander; veer, tack; divagate; sidetrack; turn aside, turn a corner, turn away from; wheel, steer clear of; ramble, rove, drift; go astray, go adrift; yaw, dodge; step aside, ease off, make way for, shy.

fly off at a tangent; glance off; wheel about, face about; turn to the right about, face to the right about; waddle &c. (oscillate) 314; go out of one's way &c. (perform a circuit) 629; lose one's way.

Adj. deviating &c. v.; aberrant, errant; excursive, discursive; devious, desultory, loose; rambling; stray, erratic, vagrant, undirected, circuitous, indirect, zigzag; crab-like.

Adv. astray from, round about, wide of the mark; to the right about; all manner of ways; circuitously &c. 629.

obliquely, sideling, like the move of the knight on a chessboard.

280. Precession[edit]

[Going before.]

N. precession, leading, heading; precedence &c. 62; priority &c. 116; the lead, le pas; van &c. (front) 234; precursor &c. 64.

V. go before, go ahead, go in the van, go in advance; precede, forerun; usher in, introduce, herald, head, take the lead; lead the way, lead the dance; get the start, have the start; steal a march; get before, get ahead, get in front of; outstrip &c. 303; take precedence &c. (first in order) 62.

Adj. leading, precedent &c. v.

Adv. in advance, before, ahead, in the van, in the lead; foremost, headmost; in front; at the head, out in front; way out in front, far ahead.

Phr. seniores priores[Lat], ahead of his time.

281. Sequence[edit]

N. sequence, coming after; going after &c. (following) 281; consecution, succession; posteriority &c. 117.

continuation; order of succession; successiveness; paracme.

secondariness; subordinancy &c. (inferiority) 34.

afterbirth, afterburden; placenta, secundines[Med].

V. succeed; come after, come on, come next; follow, ensue, step into the shoes of; alternate.

place after, suffix, append.

Adj. succeeding &c.v.; sequent; subsequent, consequent, sequacious, proximate, next; consecutive &c. (continuity) 69; alternate, amoebean.

latter; posterior &c. 117.

Adv. after, subsequently; behind &c. (rear) 235.

282. Progression[edit]

[Motion forward; progressive motion.]

N. progress, progression, progressiveness; advancing &c. v.; advance, advancement; ongoing; flood, tide, headway; march &c. 266; rise; improvement &c. 658.

V. advance; proceed, progress; get on, get along, get over the ground; gain ground; forge ahead; jog on, rub on, wag on; go with the stream; keep one;s course, hold on one's course; go on, move on, come one, get on, pass on, push on, press on, go forward, move forward, come forward, get forward, pass forward, push forward, press forward, go forwards, move forwards, come forwards, get forwards, pass forwards, push forwards, press forwards, go ahead, move ahead, come ahead, get ahead, pass ahead, push ahead, press ahead; make one's way, work one's way, carve one's way, push one's way, force one's way, edge one's way, elbow one's way; make progress, make head, make way, make headway, make advances, make strides, make rapid strides &c. (velocity) 274; go ahead, shoot ahead; distance; make up leeway.

Adj. advancing &c. v.; progressive, profluent; advanced.

Adv. forward, onward; forth, on, ahead, under way, en route for, on one's way, on the way, on the road, on the high road, on the road to; in progress; in mid progress; in transitu &c. 270[Lat].

Phr. vestigia nulla retrorsum[Lat]; "westward the course of empire takes its way" [Berkeley].

283. Regression[edit]

[Motion backwards.]

N. regress, regression; retrocession, retrogression, retrograduation, retroaction; reculade; retreat, withdrawal, retirement, remigration; recession &c. (motion from) 287; recess; crab-like motion.

refluence, reflux; backwater, regurgitation, ebb, return; resilience reflection, reflexion (recoil) 277[Brit]; flip-flop, volte- face[Fr].

counter motion, retrograde motion, backward movement, motion in reverse, counter movement, counter march; veering, tergiversation, recidivation|, backsliding, fall; deterioration &c. 659; recidivism, recidivity.

reversal, relapse, turning point &c.(reversion) 145.

V. recede, regrade, return, revert, retreat, retire; retrograde, retrocede; back out; back down; balk; crawfish* [U.S.], crawl*; withdraw; rebound &c. 277; go back, come back, turn back, hark back, draw back, fall back, get back, put back, run back; lose ground; fall astern, drop astern; backwater, put about; backtrack, take the back track; veer round; double, wheel, countermarch; ebb, regurgitate; jib, shrink, shy.

turn tail, turn round, turn upon one's heel, turn one's back upon; retrace one's steps, dance the back step; sound a retreat, beat a retreat; go home.

Adj. receding &c. v.; retrograde, retrogressive; regressive, refluent, reflex, recidivous, resilient; crab-like; balky; reactionary &c. 277.

Adv. back, backwards; reflexively, to the right about; a reculons[Fr], a rebours[Fr].

Phr. revenons a nos moutons[Fr], as you were.

284. Propulsion[edit]

[Motion given to an object situated in front.]

N. propulsion, projection; propelment; vis a tergo[Lat: force from behind]; push, shove &c. (impulse) 276; ejaculate; ejection &c. 297; throw, fling, toss, shot, discharge, shy; launch, release.

[Science of propulsion] projectiles, ballistics, archery.

[devices to give propulsion] propeller, screw, twin screws, turbine, jet engine.

[objects propelled] missile, projectile, ball, discus, quoit, brickbat, shot;

[weapons which propel] arrow, gun, ballista &c. (arms) 727.

[preparation for propulsion] countdown, windup.

shooter; shot; archer, toxophilite; bowman, rifleman, marksman; good shot, crack shot; sharpshooter &c. (combatant) 726.

V. propel, project, throw, fling, cast, pitch, chuck, toss, jerk, heave, shy, hurl; flirt, fillip.

dart, lance, tilt; ejaculate, jaculate; fulminate, bolt, drive, sling, pitchfork.

send; send off, let off, fire off; discharge, shoot; launch, release, send forth, let fly; put in orbit, send into orbit, launch into orbit dash.

put in motion, set in motion; set agoing, start; give a start, give an impulse to; impel &c. 276; trundle &c. (set in rotation) 312; expel &c. 297.

carry one off one's legs; put to flight.

Adj. propelled &c. v.; propelling &c. v..; propulsive, projectile.

285. Traction[edit]

[Motion given to an object situated behind.]

N. traction; drawing &c. v.; draught, pull, haul; rake; "a long pull a strong pull and a pull all together"; towage, haulage.

V. draw, pull, haul, lug, rake, drag, tug, tow, trail, train; take in tow.

wrench, jerk, twitch, touse|; yank [U.S.].

Adj. drawing &c. v.; tractile, tractive.

286. Approach[edit]

[Motion towards.]

N. approach, approximation, appropinquation; access; appulse; afflux, affluxion; advent &c. (approach of time) 121; pursuit &c. 622.

V. approach, approximate, appropinquate; near; get near, go near, draw near; come to close quarters, come near; move towards, set in towards; drift; make up to; gain upon; pursue &c. 622; tread on the heels of; bear up; make the land; hug the shore, hug the land.

Adj. approaching &c. v.; approximative; affluent; impending, imminent &c. (destined) 152.

Adv. on the road.

Int. come hither! approach! here! come! come near! forward!

287. Recession[edit]

[Motion from.]

N. recession, retirement, withdrawal; retreat; retrocession &c. 283; departure, &c. 293; recoil &c. 277; flight &c. (avoidance) 623.

V. recede, go, move back, move from, retire; withdraw, shrink, back off; come away, move away, back away, go away, get away, drift away; depart &c. 293; retreat &c. 283; move off, stand off, sheer off; fall back, stand aside; run away &c. (avoid) 623.

remove, shunt, distance.

Adj. receding &c. v.

Phr. distance oneself from a person.

288. Attraction[edit]

 [Motion towards, actively; force causing to draw closer.]

N. attraction, attractiveness; attractivity; drawing to, pulling

towards, adduction.electrical attraction, electricity, static electricity, static, static cling; magnetism, magnetic attraction;

gravity, attraction of gravitation.[objects which attract by physical force] lodestone, loadstone, lodestar, loadstar; magnet, permanent magnet, siderite, magnetite; electromagnet; magnetic coil,

voice coil; magnetic dipole; motor coil, rotor, stator.electrical

charge; positive charge, negative charge.magnetic pole; north pole,

south pole; magnetic monopole.V. attract, draw; draw towards, pull

towards, drag towards; adduce.Adj. attracting &c. v.; attrahent,

attractive, adducent, adductive.centrifugal.Phr. ubi mel ibi apes [Latin][Plautus].

289. Repulsion[edit]

[Motion from, actively; force driving apart.]

N. repulsion; driving from &c. v.; repulse, abduction.

magnetic repulsion, magnetic levitation; antigravity.

V. repel, push from, drive apart, drive from &c. 276; chase, dispel; retrude; abduce, abduct; send away; repulse.

keep at arm's length, turn one's back upon, give the cold shoulder; send off, send away with a flea in one's ear.

Adj. repelling &c. v.; repellent, repulsive; abducent, abductive.


Phr. like charges repel; opposite charges attract; like poles repel, opposite poles attract.

290. Convergence[edit]

[Motion nearer to.]

N. convergence, confluence, concourse, conflux, congress, concurrence, concentration; convergency; appulse, meeting; corradiation.

assemblage &c. 72; resort &c. (focus) 74; asymptote.

V. converge, concur, come together, unite, meet, fall in with; close with, close in upon; center round, center in; enter in; pour in.

gather together, unite, concentrate, bring into a focus.

Adj. converging &c. v.; convergent, confluent, concurrent; centripetal; asymptotical, asymptotic; confluxible.

291. Divergence[edit]

[Motion further off.]

N. divergence, divergency; divarication, ramification, forking; radiation; separation &c. (disjunction) 44; dispersion &c. 73; deviation &c. 279; aberration.

V. diverge, divaricate, radiate; ramify; branch off, glance off, file off; fly off, fly off at a tangent; spread, scatter, disperse &c. 73; deviate &c. 279; part &c. (separate) 44.

Adj. diverging &c. v.; divergent, radiant, centrifugal; aberrant.

292. Arrival[edit]

[Terminal motion at.]

N. arrival, advent; landing; debarkation, disembarkation; reception, welcome, vin d'honneur[Fr].

home, goal, goalpost; landing place, landing stage; bunder; resting place; destination, harbor, haven, port, airport, spaceport; terminus, halting place, halting ground, landing strip, runway, terminal; journey's end; anchorage &c. (refuge) 666.

return, remigration; meeting; rencounter, encounter.

completion &c. 729.

recursion[Math, Comp].

V. arrive; get to, come to; come; reach, attain; come up with, come up to; overtake, make, fetch; complete &c. 729; join, rejoin.

light, alight, dismount; land, go ashore; debark, disembark; put in, put into; visit, cast anchor, pitch one's tent; sit down &c. (be located) 184; get to one's journey's end; make the land; be in at the death; come back, get back, come home, get home; return; come in &c. (ingress) 294; make one's appearance &c. (appear) 446; drop in; detrain, deplane; outspan; de-orbit.

come to hand; come at, come across; hit; come upon, light upon, pop upon, bounce upon, plump upon, burst upon, pitch upon; meet; encounter, rencounter; come in contact.

Adj. arriving &c. v.; homeward bound.

Adv. here, hither.

Int. welcome! hail! all Hail! good-day, good morrow!

Phr. any port in a storm.

293. Departure[edit]

 [Initial motion from.]

N. departure, decession, decampment; embarkation; outset, start; removal; exit &c. (egress) 295; exodus, hejira, flight.

leave taking, valediction, adieu, farewell, goodbye, auf wiedersehen[Ger], sayonara, dosvidanya[Russ], ciao, aloha, hasta la vista[Sp]; stirrup cup; valedictorian.

starting point, starting post; point of departure, point of embarkation, place of departure, place of embarkation; port of embarkation; airport, take-off point, taxiing runway, runway, launching pad, spaceport.

V. depart; go away; take one's departure, set out; set off, march off, put off, start off, be off, move off, get off, whip off, pack off, go off, take oneself off; start, issue, march out, debouch; go forth, sally forth; sally, set forward; be gone; hail from.

leave a place, quit, vacate, evacuate, abandon; go off the stage, make one's exit; retire, withdraw, remove; vamoose*, vamose* [U.S.]; go one's way, go along, go from home; take flight, take wing; spring, fly, flit, wing one's flight; fly away, whip away; embark; go on board, go aboard; set sail' put to sea, go to sea; sail, take ship; hoist blue Peter; get under way, weigh anchor; strike tents, decamp; walk one's chalks, cut one's stick; take leave; say good bye, bid goodbye &c. n.; disappear &c. 449; abscond &c. (avoid) 623; entrain; inspan.

Adj. departing &c. v.; valedictory; outward bound.

Adv. whence, hence, thence; with a foot in the stirrup; on the wing, on the move.

Int. begone! &c. (ejection) 297; farewell! adieu! goodbye! good day! au revoir[Fr]! fare you well! God bless you! God speed! all aboard! auf wiedersehen[Ger]! au plaisir de vous revoir[Fr]! bon voyage! gluckliche Reise[Ger]! vive valeque[Fr]!

294. Ingress[edit]

 [Motion into.] 

N. ingress; entrance, entry; introgression; influx, intrusion, inroad, incursion, invasion, irruption; ingression; penetration, interpenetration; illapse, import, infiltration; immigration; admission &c. (reception) 296; insinuation &c. (interjacence) 228; insertion &c. 300.

inlet; way in; mouth, door, &c. (opening) 260; barway; path &c. (way) 627; conduit &c. 350; immigrant.

V. have the entree; enter; go into, go in, come into, come in, pour into, pour in, flow into, flow in, creep into, creep in, slip into, slip in, pop into, pop in, break into, break in, burst into, burst in; set foot on; ingress; burst in upon, break in upon; invade, intrude; insinuate itself; interpenetrate, penetrate; infiltrate; find one's way into, wriggle into, worm oneself into.

give entrance to &c. (receive) 296; insert &c. 300.

Adj. incoming.

295. Egress[edit]

[Motion out of.]

N. egress, exit, issue; emersion, emergence; outbreak, outburst; eruption, proruption; emanation; egression; evacuation; exudation, transudation; extravasation[Med], perspiration, sweating, leakage, percolation, distillation, oozing; gush &c. (water in motion) 348; outpour, outpouring; effluence, effusion; effluxion, drain; dribbling &c. v.; defluxion; drainage; outcome, output; discharge &c. (excretion) 299.

export, expatriation; emigration, remigration; debouch, debouche; emunctory; exodus &c. (departure) 293; emigrant.

outlet, vent, spout, tap, sluice, floodgate; pore; vomitory, outgate, sally port; way out; mouth, door &c. (opening) 260; path &c. (way) 627; conduit &c. 350; airpipe &c. 351.

V. emerge, emanate, issue; egress; go out of, come out of, move out of, pass out of, pour out of, flow out of; pass out of, evacuate.

exude, transude; leak, run through, out through; percolate, transcolate|; egurgitate; strain, distill; perspire, sweat, drain, ooze; filter, filtrate; dribble, gush, spout, flow out; well, well out; pour, trickle, &c. (water in motion) 348; effuse, extravasate[Med], disembogue, discharge itself, debouch; come forth, break forth; burst out, burst through; find vent; escape &c. 671.

Adj. effused &c. v.; outgoing.

296. Reception[edit]

[Motion into, actively.]

N. reception; admission, admittance, entree, importation; introduction, intromission; immission, ingestion, imbibation, introception, absorption, ingurgitation, inhalation; suction, sucking; eating, drinking &c. (food) 298; insertion &c. 300; interjection &c. 228; introit.

V. give entrance to, give admittance to, give the entree; introduce, intromit; usher, admit, receive, import, bring in, open the door to, throw in, ingest, absorb, imbibe, inhale, breathe in; let in, take in, suck in, draw in; readmit, resorb, reabsorb; snuff up, swallow, ingurgitate; engulf, engorge; gulp; eat, drink &c. (food) 298.

Adj. admitting &c. v., admitted &c. v.; admissable; absorbent.

297. Ejection[edit]

[Motion out of, actively]

N. ejection, emission, effusion, rejection, expulsion,exportation, eviction, extrusion, trajection; discharge.

emesis, vomiting, vomition.

egestion, evacuation; ructation, eructation; bloodletting, venesection[Med], phlebotomy, paracentesis; expuition, exspuition; tapping, drainage; clearance, clearage.

deportation; banishment &c. (punishment ) 972; rouge's march; relegation, extradition; dislodgment.

bouncer [U.S.], chucker-out*.

[material vomited] vomit, vomitus[Med], puke, barf[coll].

V. give exit, give vent to; let out, give out, pour out, squeeze out, send out; dispatch, despatch; exhale, excern|, excrete; embogue; secrete, secern; extravasate[Med], shed, void, evacuation; emit; open the sluices, open the floodgates; turn on the tap; extrude, detrude; effuse, spend, expend; pour forth; squirt, spirt, spurt, spill, slop; perspire &c. (exude) 295; breathe, blow &c. (wind) 349.

tap, draw off; bale out, lade out; let blood, broach.

eject, reject; expel, discard; cut, send to coventry, boycott; chasser[Fr]; banish &c. (punish) 972; bounce * [U.S.]; fire *, fire out *; throw &c. 284 throw out, throw up, throw off, throw away, throw aside; push &c. 276 throw out, throw off, throw away, throw aside; shovel out, shovel away, sweep out, sweep away; brush off, brush away, whisk off, whisk away, turn off, turn away, send off, send away; discharge; send adrift, turn adrift, cast adrift; turn out, bundle out; throw overboard; give the sack to; send packing, send about one's business, send to the right about; strike off the roll &c. (abrogate) 756; turn out neck and heels, turn out head and shoulders, turn out neck and crop; pack off; send away with a flea in the ear; send to Jericho; bow out, show the door to.

turn out of doors, turn out of house and home; evict, oust; unhouse, unkennel; dislodge; unpeople, dispeople; depopulate; relegate, deport.

empty; drain to the dregs; sweep off; clear off, clear out, clear away; suck, draw off; clean out, make a clean sweep of, clear decks, purge.

embowel, disbowel, disembowel; eviscerate, gut; unearth, root out, root up; averuncate|; weed out, get out; eliminate, get rid of, do away with, shake off; exenterate.

vomit, throw up, regurgitate, spew, puke, keck, retch, heave, upchuck, chuck up, barf; belch out; cast up, bring up, be sick, get sick, worship the porcelain god.

disgorge; expectorate, clear the throat, hawk, spit, sputter, splutter, slobber, drivel, slaver, slabber; eructate; drool.

unpack, unlade, unload, unship, offload; break bulk; dump.

be let out.

spew forth, erupt, ooze &c. (emerge) 295.

Adj. emitting, emitted, &c. v.

Int. begone! get you gone! get away, go away, get along, go along, get along with you, go along with you! go your way! away with! off with you! get the hell out of here![vulg.], go about your business! be off! avaunt! aroynt! allez-vous-en[Fr]! jao! va-t'en[Fr]!

298. Food[edit]


N. eating &c. v.; deglutition, gulp, epulation, mastication, manducation, rumination; gluttony &c. 957.

[eating specific foods] hippophagy, ichthyophagy.

[CAUSEDBY:appetite &c. 865].

mouth, jaws, mandible, mazard, chops.

drinking &c. v.; potation, draught, libation; carousal &c. (amusement) 840; drunkenness &c. 959.

food, pabulum; aliment, nourishment, nutriment; sustenance, sustentation, sustention; nurture, subsistence, provender, corn, feed, fodder, provision, ration, keep, commons, board; commissariat &c. (provision) 637; prey, forage, pasture, pasturage; fare, cheer; diet, dietary; regimen; belly timber, staff of life; bread, bread and cheese.

comestibles, eatables, victuals, edibles, ingesta; grub, grubstake, prog, meat; bread, bread stuffs; cerealia; cereals; viands, cates, delicacy, dainty, creature comforts, contents of the larder, fleshpots; festal board; ambrosia; good cheer, good living.

beef, bisquit, bun; cornstarch [U.S.]; cookie, cooky [U.S.]; cracker, doughnut; fatling; hardtack, hoecake [U.S.], hominy [U.S.]; mutton, pilot bread; pork; roti, rusk, ship biscuit; veal; joint, piece de resistance[Fr], roast and boiled; remove, entremet, ; releve[Fr], hash, rechauffe[Fr], stew, ragout, fricassee, mince; pottage, potage, broth, soup, consomme, puree, spoonmeat; pie, pasty, volauvent; pudding, omelet; pastry; sweets &c. 296; kickshaws; condiment &c. 393.

appetizer, hors d'oeuvre[Fr].

main course, entree.

alligator pear, apple &c., apple slump; artichoke; ashcake, griddlecake, pancake, flapjack; atole, avocado, banana, beche de mer[Fr], barbecue, beefsteak; beet root; blackberry, blancmange, bloater, bouilli, bouillon, breadfruit, chop suey [U.S.]; chowder, chupatty, clam, compote, damper, fish, , frumenty, grapes, hasty pudding, ice cream, lettuce, mango, mangosteen, mince pie, oatmeal, oyster, pineapple, porridge, porterhouse steak, salmis, sauerkraut, sea slug, sturgeon ("Albany beef"), succotash [U.S.], supawn [U.S.], trepang, vanilla, waffle, walnut.

table, cuisine, bill of fare, menu, table d'hote[Fr], ordinary, entree.

meal, repast, feed, spread; mess; dish, plate, course; regale; regalement, refreshment, entertainment; refection, collation, picnic, feast, banquet, junket; breakfast; lunch, luncheon; dejeuner[Fr], bever, tiffin, dinner, supper, snack, junk food, fast food, whet, bait, dessert; potluck, table d'hote[Fr], dejeuner a la fourchette[Fr]; hearty meal, square meal, substantial meal, full meal; blowout*; light refreshment; bara, chotahazri; bara khana.

mouthful, bolus, gobbet, morsel, sop, sippet.

drink, beverage, liquor, broth, soup; potion, dram, draught, drench, swill*; nip, sip, sup, gulp.

wine, spirits, liqueur, beer, ale, malt liquor, Sir John Barleycorn, stingo, heavy wet; grog, toddy, flip, purl, punch, negus, cup, bishop, wassail; gin &c. (intoxicating liquor) 959; coffee, chocolate, cocoa, tea, the cup that cheers but not inebriates; bock beer, lager beer, Pilsener beer, schenck beer; Brazil tea, cider, claret, ice water, mate, mint julep [U.S.]; near beer, 3.2 beer, non-alcoholic beverage.

eating house &c. 189.

[person who eats] diner; hippophage; glutton &c. 957.

V. eat, feed, fare, devour, swallow, take; gulp, bolt, snap; fall to; despatch, dispatch; discuss; take down, get down, gulp down; lay in, tuck in*; lick, pick, peck; gormandize &c. 957; bite, champ, munch, cranch, craunch, crunch, chew, masticate, nibble, gnaw, mumble.

live on; feed upon, batten upon, fatten upon, feast upon; browse, graze, crop, regale; carouse &c. (make merry) 840; eat heartily, do justice to, play a good knife and fork, banquet.

break bread, break one's fast; breakfast ,lunch, dine, take tea, sup.

drink in, drink up, drink one's fill; quaff, sip, sup; suck, suck up; lap; swig; swill*, chugalug[slang], tipple &c. (be drunken) 959; empty one's glass, drain the cup; toss off, toss one's glass; wash down, crack a bottle, wet one's whistle.

purvey &c. 637.

Adj. eatable, edible, esculent, comestible, alimentary; cereal, cibarious; dietetic; culinary; nutritive, nutritious; gastric; succulent; potable, potulent|; bibulous.

omnivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous, granivorous, graminivorous, phytivorous; ichthyivorous; omophagic, omophagous; pantophagous, phytophagous, xylophagous

Phr[Biol]. "across the walnuts and the wine" [Tennyson]; "blessed hour of our dinners!" [O. Meredith]; "now good digestion wait on appetite, and health on both!" [Macbeth]; "who can cloy the hungry edge of appetite?"

299. Excretion[edit]

N. excretion, discharge, emanation; exhalation, exudation, extrusion, secretion, effusion, extravasation[Med], ecchymosis[Med]; evacuation, dejection, faeces, excrement,shit, stools, crap[vulg.]; bloody flux; cacation; coeliac-flux, coeliac-passion; dysentery; perspiration, sweat; subation, exudation; diaphoresis; sewage; eccrinology[Med].

saliva, spittle, rheum; ptyalism, salivation, catarrh; diarrhoea; ejecta, egesta[Biol], sputa; excreta; lava; exuviae &c. (uncleanness) 653[Lat].

hemorrhage, bleeding; outpouring &c. (egress) 295.

V. excrete &c. (eject) 297; emanate &c. (come out) 295.

300. Insertion[edit]

[Forcible ingress.]

N. insertion, implantation, introduction; insinuation &c. (intervention) 228; planting, &c. v.; injection, inoculation, importation, infusion; forcible ingress &c. 294; immersion; submersion, submergence, dip, plunge; bath &c. (water), 337; interment &c. 363.

clyster[Med], enema, glyster, lavage, lavement.

V. insert; introduce, intromit; put into, run into; import; inject; interject &c. 298; infuse, instill, inoculate, impregnate, imbue, imbrue.

graft, ingraft, bud, plant, implant; dovetail.

obtrude; thrust in, stick in, ram in, stuff in, tuck in, press, in, drive in, pop in , whip in, drop in, put in; impact; empierce| &c. (make a hole) 260.

imbed; immerse, immerge, merge; bathe, soak &c. (water) 337; dip, plunge &c. 310.

bury &c. (inter) 363.

insert &c itself; plunge in medias res.

Adj. inserted &c. v.

301. Extraction[edit]

[Forcible egress.]

N. extraction; extracting &c. v.; removal, elimination, extrication, eradication, evolution.

evulsion, avulsion; wrench; expression, squeezing; extirpation, extermination; ejection &c. 297; export &c. (egress) 295.

extractor, corkscrew, forceps, pliers.

V. extract, draw; take out, draw out, pull out, tear out, pluck out, pick out, get out; wring from, wrench; extort; root up, weed up, grub up, rake up, root out, weed out, grub out, rake out; eradicate; pull up by the roots, pluck up by the roots; averruncate|; unroot; uproot, pull up, extirpate, dredge.

remove; educe, elicit; evolve, extricate; eliminate &c. (eject) 297; eviscerate &c. 297.

express, squeeze out, press out.

Adj. extracted &c. v.

302. Passage[edit]

[Motion through.]

N. passage, transmission; permeation; penetration, interpenetration; transudation, infiltration; endosmose exosmose; endosmosis[Chem]; intercurrence; ingress &c. 294; egress &c. 295; path &c. 627; conduit &c. 350; opening &c. 260; journey &c. 266; voyage &c. 267.

V. pass, pass through; perforate &c. (hole) 260; penetrate, permeate, thread, thrid, enfilade; go through, go across; go over, pass over; cut across; ford, cross; pass and repass, work; make one's way, thread one's way, worm one's way, force one's way; make a passage form a passage; cut one's way through; find its way, find its vent; transmit, make way, clear the course; traverse, go over the ground.

Adj. passing &c. v.; intercurrent; endosmosmic, endosmotic[Chem].

Adv. en passant &c. (transit) 270[Fr].

303. Transcursion[edit]

[Motion beyond]

N. transcursion|, transiliency, transgression; trespass; encroachment, infringement; extravagation|, transcendence; redundancy &c. 641.

V. transgress, surpass, pass; go beyond, go by; show in front, come to the front; shoot ahead of; steal a march upon, steal a gain upon.

overstep, overpass, overreach, overgo, override, overleap, overjump, overskip, overlap, overshoot the mark; outstrip, outleap, outjump, outgo, outstep, outrun, outride, outrival, outdo; beat, beat hollow; distance; leave in the lurch, leave in the rear; throw into the shade; exceed, transcend, surmount; soar &c. (rise) 305.

encroach, trespass, infringe, trench upon, entrench on, intrench on; strain; stretch a point, strain a point; cross the Rubicon.

Adj. surpassing &c. v.

Adv. beyond the mark, ahead.

304. Shortcoming[edit]

[motion short of]

N. shortcoming, failure; falling short &c v.; default, defalcation; leeway; labor in vain, no go.

incompleteness &c. 53; imperfection &c. 651; insufficiency &c. 640; noncompletion &c. 730; failure &c. 732.

V. 303, come short of, fall short of, stop short of, come short , fall short , stop short ; not reach; want; keep within bounds, keep within the mark, keep within the compass.

break down, stick in the mud, collapse, flat out [U.S.], come to nothing; fall through, fall to the ground; cave in, end in smoke, miss the mark, fail; lose ground; miss stays.

Adj. unreached; deficient; short, short of; minus; out of depth; perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460.

Adv. within the mark, within the compass, within the bounds; behindhand; re infecta[Lat]; to no purpose; for from it.

Phr. the bubble burst.

305. Ascent[edit]

[Motion upwards]

N. ascent, ascension; rising &c. 309; acclivity, hill &c. 217; flight of steps, flight of stairs; ladder

rocket, lark; sky rocket, sky lark; Alpine Club.

V. ascend, rise, mount, arise, uprise; go up, get up, work one's way up, start up; shoot up, go into orbit; float up; bubble up; aspire.

climb, clamber, ramp, scramble, escalade, surmount; shin, shinny, shinney; scale, scale the heights.

[cause to go up] raise, elevate &c. 307.

go aloft, fly aloft; tower, soar, take off; spring up, pop up, jump up, catapult upwards, explode upwards; hover, spire, plane, swim, float, surge; leap &c. 309.

Adj. rising &c. v. scandent|, buoyant; supernatant, superfluitant|; excelsior.

Adv. uphill.

306. Descent[edit]

[Motion downwards]

N. descent, descension, declension, declination; fall; falling &c. v.: slump; drop, plunge, plummet, cadence; subsidence, collapse, lapse; downfall, tumble, slip, tilt, trip, lurch; cropper, culbute; titubation, stumble; fate of Icarus.

avalanche, debacle, landslip, landslide.

declivity, dip, hill.

[equipment for descending by rappeling] rappel.

V. descend; go down, drop down, come down; fall, gravitate, drop, slip, slide, rappel, settle; plunge, plummet, crash; decline, set, sink, droop, come down a peg; slump.

dismount, alight, light, get down; swoop; stoop &c. 308; fall prostrate, precipitate oneself; let fall &c. 308.

tumble, trip, stumble, titubate, lurch, pitch, swag, topple, topple over, tumble over, topple down, tumble down; tilt, sprawl, plump down, come down a cropper.

Adj. descending &c. v.; descendent; decurrent, decursive; labent, deciduous; nodding to its fall.

Adv. downhill, downwards.

Phr. the bottom fell out.

307. Elevation[edit]

N. elevation; raising &c. v.; erection, lift; sublevation, upheaval; sublimation, exaltation; prominence &c. (convexity) 250.

lever &c. 633; crane, derrick, windlass, capstan, winch; dredge, dredger, dredging machine.

dumbwaiter, elevator, escalator, lift.

V. heighten, elevate, raise, lift, erect; set up, stick up, perch up, perk up, tilt up; rear, hoist, heave; uplift, upraise, uprear, upbear, upcast, uphoist, upheave; buoy, weigh mount, give a lift; exalt; sublimate; place on a pedestal, set on a pedestal.

[ref] escalate (increase) 35, 102, 194.

take up, drag up, fish up; dredge.

stand up, rise up, get up, jump up; spring to one's feet; hold oneself, hold one's head up; drawn oneself up to his full height.

Adj. elevated &c. v.; stilted, attollent, rampant.

Adv. on stilts, on the shoulders of, on one's legs, on one's hind legs.

308. Depression[edit]

N. lowering &c. v.; depression; dip &c. (concavity) 252; abasement; detrusion; reduction.

overthrow, overset, overturn; upset; prostration, subversion, precipitation.

bow; courtesy, curtsy; genuflexion, genuflection, kowtow, obeisance, salaam.

V. depress, lower, let down, take down, let down a peg, take down a peg; cast; let drop, let fall; sink, debase, bring low, abase, reduce, detrude, pitch, precipitate.

overthrow, overturn, overset; upset, subvert, prostate, level, fell; cast down, take down, throw down, fling down, dash down, pull down, cut down, knock down, hew down; raze, raze to the ground, rase to the ground; trample in the dust, pull about one's ears.

sit, sit down; couch, squat, crouch, stoop, bend, bow; courtesy, curtsy; bob, duck, dip, kneel; bend the knee, bow the knee, bend the head, bow the head; cower; recline &c. (be horizontal) 213.

Adj. depressed &c. v.; at a low ebb; prostrate &c. (horizontal) 213; detrusive.

Phr. facinus quos inquinat aequat [Lat][Lucan].

309. Leap[edit]

N. leap, jump, hop, spring, bound, vault, saltation.

ance, caper; curvet, caracole; gambade|, gambado|; capriole, demivolt; buck, buck jump; hop skip and jump; falcade.

kangaroo, jerboa; chamois, goat, frog, grasshopper, flea; buckjumper; wallaby.

V. leap; jump up, jump over the moon; hop, spring, bound, vault, ramp, cut capers, trip, skip, dance, caper; buck, buck jump; curvet, caracole; foot it, bob, bounce, flounce, start; frisk &c. (amusement) 840; jump about &c. (agitation) 315; trip it on the light fantastic toe, trip the light fantastic, dance oneself off one's legs, dance off one's shoes.

Adj. leaping &c. v.; saltatory, frisky.

Adv. on the light fantastic toe.

Phr. di salto in salto[It].

310. Plunge[edit]

N. plunge, dip, dive, header; ducking &c. v.; diver.

V. plunge, dip, souse, duck; dive, plump; take a plunge, take a header; make a plunge; bathe &c.(water) 337.

submerge, submerse; immerse; douse, sink, engulf, send to the bottom.

get out of one's depth; go to the bottom, go down like a stone, drop like a lead balloon; founder, welter, wallow.

311. Circuition[edit]

[Curvilinear motion.] 

N. circuition, circulation; turn, curvet; excursion, circumvention, circumnavigation, circumambulation; northwest passage; circuit &c. 629.

turning &c. v.; wrench; evolution; coil, corkscrew.

V. turn, bend, wheel; go about, put about; heel; go round to the right about, turn round to the right about; turn on one's heel; make a circle, make a complete circle, describe a circle, describe a complete circle; go through 180x, go through 360x, pass through 180x, pass through 360x.

circumnavigate, circumambulate, circumvent; "put a girdle round about the earth" [M.N.D.]; go the round, make the round of.

wind, circulate, meander; whisk, twirl; twist &c. (convolution) 248; make a detour &c. (circuit) 629.

Adj. turning &c. v.; circuitous; circumforaneous, circumfluent.

Adv. round about.

312. Rotation[edit]

[Motion in a continued circle.]

N. rotation, revolution, spinning, gyration, turning about an axis, turning aound an axis, circulation, roll; circumrotation, circumvolution, circumgyration; volutation, circination|, turbination, pirouette, convolution.

verticity|, whir, whirl, eddy, vortex, whirlpool, gurge; countercurrent; Maelstrom, Charybdis; Ixion.

[rotating air] cyclone; tornado, whirlwind; dust devil.

[rotation of an automobile] spin-out.

axis, axis of rotation, swivel, pivot, pivot point; axle, spindle, pin, hinge, pole, arbor, bobbin, mandrel; axle shaft; gymbal; hub, hub of rotation.

[rotation and translation together] helix, helical motion.

[measure of rotation] angular momentum, angular velocity; revolutions per minute, RPM.

[result of rotation] centrifugal force; surge; vertigo, dizzy round; coriolus force.

[things that go around] carousel, merry-go-round; Ferris wheel; top, dreidel,teetotum; gyroscope; turntable, lazy suzan; screw, whirligig, rollingstone, water wheel, windmill; wheel, pulley wheel, roulette wheel, potter's wheel, pinwheel, gear; roller; flywheel; jack; caster; centrifuge, ultracentrifuge, bench centrifuge, refrigerated centrifuge, gas centrifuge, microfuge; drill, augur, oil rig; wagon wheel, wheel, tire, tyre[Brit][Brit].

[Science of rotary motion] trochilics.

[person who rotates] whirling dervish.

V. rotate; roll along; revolve, spin; turn round; circumvolve; circulate; gyre, gyrate, wheel, whirl, pirouette; twirl, trundle, troll, bowl.

roll up, furl; wallow, welter; box the compass; spin like a top, spin like a teetotum|!.

[of an automobile] spin out.

Adj. rotating &c.v.; rotary, rotary; circumrotatory, trochilic, vertiginous, gyratory; vortical, vorticose.

Adv. head over heels, round and round, like a horse in a mill.

313. Evolution[edit]

[Motion in the reverse circle.]

N. evolution, unfolding, development; evolvement; unfoldment; eversion &c. (inversion) 218.

V. evolve; unfold, unroll, unwind, uncoil, untwist, unfurl, untwine, unravel; untangle, disentangle; develop.

Adj. evolving &c. v.; evolved &c. v.

314. Oscillation