User:Dan Polansky/Roget MICRA/Class VI. Words Relating to the Sentient and Moral Powers

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Class VI. Words Relating to the Sentient and Moral Powers


Section I. Affections in General[edit]

820. Affections[edit]

N. affections, affect; character, qualities, disposition, nature, spirit, tone; temper, temperament; diathesis, idiosyncrasy; cast of mind, cast of soul, habit of mind, habit of soul, frame of mind, frame of soul; predilection, turn, natural turn of mind; bent, bias, predisposition, proneness, proclivity, propensity, propenseness, propension, propendency|; vein, humor, mood, grain, mettle; sympathy &c. (love) 897.

soul, heart, breast, bosom, inner man; heart's core, heart's strings, heart's blood; heart of hearts, bottom of one's heart, , penetralia mentis[Lat]; secret and inmost recesses of the heart, cockles of one's heart; inmost heart, inmost soul; backbone.

passion, pervading spirit; ruling passion, master passion; furore; fullness of the heart, heyday of the blood, flesh and blood, flow of soul.

energy, fervor, fire, force.

V. have affections, possess affections &c. n.; be of a character &c. n.; be affected &c. adj.; breathe.

Adj. affected, characterized, formed, molded, cast; attempered, tempered; framed; predisposed; prone, inclined; having a bias &c. n.; tinctured with, imbued with, penetrated with, eaten up with.

inborn, inbred, ingrained; deep-rooted, ineffaceable, inveterate; pathoscopic|!; congenital, dyed in the wool, implanted by nature, inherent, in the grain.

affective [med. and general].

Adv. in one's heart &c. n.; at heart; heart and soul &c. 821.

Phr. "affection is a coal that must be cool'd else suffer'd it will set the heart on fire" [Venus and Adonis].

821. Feeling[edit]

N. feeling; suffering &c. v.; endurance, tolerance, sufferance, supportance, experience, response; sympathy &c. (love) 897; impression, inspiration, affection, sensation, emotion, pathos, deep sense.

warmth, glow, unction, gusto, vehemence; fervor, fervency; heartiness, cordiality; earnestness, eagerness; empressement[Fr], gush, ardor, zeal, passion, enthusiasm, verve, furore, fanaticism; excitation of feeling &c. 824; fullness of the heart &c. (disposition) 820; passion &c. (state of excitability) 825; ecstasy &c. (pleasure) 827.

blush, suffusion, flush; hectic; tingling, thrill, turn, shock; agitation &c. (irregular motion) 315; quiver, heaving, flutter, flurry, fluster, twitter, tremor; throb, throbbing; pulsation, palpitation, panting; trepidation, perturbation; ruffle, hurry of spirits, pother, stew, ferment; state of excitement. hope &c. 858.

V. feel; receive an impression &c. n.; be impressed with &c. adj.; entertain feeling, harbor feeling, cherish feeling &c. n.

respond; catch the flame, catch the infection; enter the spirit of.

bear, suffer, support, sustain, endure, thole [Scottish], aby; abide &c. (be composed) 826; experience &c. (meet with) 151; taste, prove; labor under, smart under; bear the brunt of, brave, stand.

swell, glow, warm, flush, blush, change color, mantle; turn color, turn pale, turn red, turn black in the face; tingle, thrill, heave, pant, throb, palpitate, go pitapat, tremble, quiver, flutter, twitter; shake &c. 315; be agitated, be excited &c. 824; look blue, look black; wince; draw a deep breath.

impress &c. (excite the feelings) 824.

Adj. feeling &c. v.; sentient; sensuous; sensorial, sensory; emotive, emotional; of feeling, with feeling &c. n.

warm, quick, lively, smart, strong, sharp, acute, cutting, piercing, incisive; keen, keen as a razor; trenchant, pungent, racy, piquant, poignant, caustic.

impressive, deep, profound, indelible; deep felt, home felt, heartfelt; swelling, soul-stirring, deep-mouthed, heart-expanding, electric, thrilling, rapturous, ecstatic.

earnest, wistful, eager, breathless; fervent; fervid; gushing, passionate, warm-hearted, hearty, cordial, sincere, zealous, enthusiastic, glowing, ardent, burning, red-hot, fiery, flaming; boiling over.

pervading, penetrating, absorbing; rabid, raving, feverish, fanatical, hysterical; impetuous &c. (excitable) 825.

impressed with, moved with, touched with, affected with, penetrated with, seized with, imbued with &c. 82; devoured by; wrought up &c. (excited) 824; struck all of a heap; rapt; in a quiver &c. n.; enraptured &c. 829.

Adv. heart and soul, from the bottom of one's heart, ab imo pectore[Lat], at heart, con amore[It], heartily, devoutly, over head and ears, head over heels.

Phr. the heart big, the heart full, the heart swelling, the heart beating, the heart pulsating, the heart throbbing, the heart thumping, the heart beating high, the heart melting, the heart overflowing, the heart bursting, the heart breaking; the heart goes out, a heart as big as all outdoors (sympathy) 897.

822. Sensibility[edit]

N. sensibility, sensibleness, sensitiveness; moral sensibility; impressibility, affectibility; susceptibleness, susceptibility, susceptivity; mobility; vivacity, vivaciousness; tenderness, softness; sentimental, sentimentality; sentimentalism.

excitability &c. 825; fastidiousness &c. 868; physical sensibility &c. 375.

sore point, sore place; where the shoe pinches.

V. be sensible &c. adj.; have a tender heart, have a warm heart, have a sensitive heart.

take to heart, treasure up in the heart; shrink.

"die of a rose in aromatic pain" [Pope]; touch to the quick; touch on the raw, touch a raw nerve.

Adj. sensible, sensitive; impressible, impressionable; susceptive, susceptible; alive to, impassionable, gushing; warm hearted, tender hearted, soft hearted; tender as a chicken; soft, sentimental, romantic; enthusiastic, highflying, spirited, mettlesome, vivacious, lively, expressive, mobile, tremblingly alive; excitable &c. 825; oversensitive, without skin, thin-skinned; fastidious &c. 868.

Adv. sensibly &c. adj; to the quick, to the inmost core.

Phr. mens aequa in arduis[Lat]; pour salt in the wound. hope &c. 858.

823. Insensibility[edit]

N. insensibility, insensibleness; moral insensibility; inertness, inertia; vis inertiae[Lat]; impassibility, impassibleness; inappetency, apathy, phlegm, dullness, hebetude, supineness, lukewarmness.

cold fit, cold blood, cold heart; coldness, coolness; frigidity, sang froid[Fr]; stoicism, imperturbation &c. (inexcitability) 826; nonchalance, unconcern, dry eyes; insouciance &c. (indifference) 866; recklessness &c. 863; callousness; heart of stone, stock and stone, marble, deadness.

torpor, torpidity; obstupefaction|, lethargy, coma, trance, vegetative state; sleep &c. 683; suspended animation; stupor, stupefaction; paralysis, palsy; numbness &c. (physical insensibility) 376.

neutrality; quietism, vegetation.

V. be insensible &c. adj.; have a rhinoceros hide; show insensibility &c. n.; not mind, not care, not be affected by; have no desire for &c. 866; have no interest in, feel no interest in, take no interest in; nil admirari[Lat]; not care a straw &c. (unimportance) 643 for; disregard &c. (neglect) 460; set at naught &c. (make light of) 483; turn a deaf ear to &c. (inattention) 458; vegetate.

render insensible, render callous; blunt, obtund, numb, benumb, paralyze, deaden, hebetate, stun, stupefy; brutify; brutalize; chloroform, anaesthetize, put under; assify.

inure; harden the heart; steel, caseharden, sear.

Adj. insensible, unconscious; impassive, impassible; blind to, deaf to, dead to; unsusceptible, insusceptible; unimpressionable, unimpressible; passionless, spiritless, heartless, soulless; unfeeling, unmoral.

apathetic; leuco-|, phlegmatic; dull, frigid; cold blooded, cold hearted; cold as charity; flat, maudlin, obtuse, inert, supine, sluggish, torpid, torpedinous, torporific; sleepy &c. (inactive) 683; languid, half-hearted, tame; numbed; comatose; anaesthetic &c. 376; stupefied, chloroformed, drugged, stoned; palsy-stricken.

indifferent, lukewarm; careless, mindless, regardless; inattentive &c. 458; neglectful &c. 460; disregarding.

unconcerned, nonchalant, pococurante, insouciant, sans souci[Fr]; unambitious &c. 866.

unaffected, unruffled, unimpressed, uninspired, unexcited, unmoved, unstirred, untouched, unshocked, unstruck; unblushing &c. (shameless) 885; unanimated; vegetative.

callous, thick-skinned, hard-nosed, pachydermatous, impervious; hardened; inured, casehardened; steeled against, proof against; imperturbable &c. (inexcitable) 826; unfelt.

Adv. insensibly &c. adj.; aequo animo[Lat]; without being moved, without being touched, without being impressed; in cold blood; with dry eyes, with withers unwrung.

Phr. never mind; macht nichts [German], it is of no consequence &c. (unimportant) 643; it cannot be helped; nothing coming amiss; it is all the same to, it is all one to.

824. Excitation[edit]

N. excitation of feeling; mental excitement; suscitation, galvanism, stimulation, piquance, piquancy, provocation, inspiration, calling forth, infection; animation, agitation, perturbation; subjugation, fascination, intoxication; enravishment; entrancement; pressure, tension, high pressure.

unction, impressiveness &c. adj. hope &c. 858.

trail of temper, casus belli[Lat]; irritation &c. (anger) 900; passion &c. (state of excitability) 825; thrill &c. (feeling) 821; repression of feeling &c. 826; sensationalism, yellow journalism.

V. excite, affect, touch, move, impress, strike, interest, animate, inspire, impassion, smite, infect; stir the blood, fire the blood, warm the blood; set astir; wake, awake, awaken; call forth; evoke, provoke; raise up, summon up, call up, wake up, blow up, get up, light up; raise; get up the steam, rouse, arouse, stir; fire, kindle, enkindle, apply the torch, set on fire, inflame.

stimulate; exsuscitate|; inspirit; spirit up, stir up, work up, pique; infuse life into, give new life to; bring new blood, introduce new blood; quicken; sharpen, whet; work upon &c. (incite) 615; hurry on, give a fillip, put on one's mettle.

fan the fire, fan the flame; blow the coals, stir the embers; fan into a flame; foster, heat, warm, foment, raise to a fever heat; keep up, keep the pot boiling; revive, rekindle; rake up, rip up.

stir the feelings, play on the feelings, come home to the feelings; touch a string, touch a chord, touch the soul, touch the heart; go to one's heart, penetrate, pierce, go through one, touch to the quick; possess the soul, pervade the soul, penetrate the soul, imbrue the soul, absorb the soul, affect the soul, disturb the soul.

absorb, rivet the attention; sink into the mind, sink into the heart; prey on the mind, distract; intoxicate; overwhelm, overpower; bouleverser[Fr], upset, turn one's head.

fascinate; enrapture &c. (give pleasure) 829.

agitate, perturb, ruffle, fluster, shake, disturb, startle, shock, stagger; give one a shock, give one a turn; strike all of a heap; stun, astound, electrify, galvanize, petrify.

irritate, sting; cut to the heart, cut to the quick; try one's temper; fool to the top of one's bent, pique; infuriate, madden, make one's blood boil; lash into fury &c. (wrath) 900.

be excited &c. adj.; flush up, flare up; catch the infection; thrill &c. (feel) 821; mantle; work oneself up; seethe, boil, simmer, foam, fume, flame, rage, rave; run mad &c. (passion) 825.

Adj. excited &c. v.; wrought up, up the qui vive[Fr], astir, sparkling; in a quiver &c. 821, in a fever, in a ferment, in a blaze, in a state of excitement; in hysterics; black in the face, overwrought, tense, taught, on a razor's edge; hot, red-hot, flushed, feverish; all of a twitter, in a pucker; with quivering lips, with tears in one's eyes.

flaming; boiling over; ebullient, seething; foaming at the mouth; fuming, raging, carried away by passion, wild, raving, frantic, mad, distracted, beside oneself, out of one's wits, ready to burst, bouleverse, demoniacal.

lost, eperdu[Fr], tempest-tossed; haggard; ready to sink.

stung to the quick, up, on one;s high ropes.

exciting, absorbing, riveting, distracting &c. v.; impressive, warm, glowing, fervid, swelling, imposing, spirit-stirring, thrilling; high- wrought; soul-stirring, soul-subduing; heart-stirring, heart-swelling, heart-thrilling; agonizing &c. (painful) 830; telling, sensational, hysterical; overpowering, overwhelming; more than flesh and blood can bear; yellow.

piquant &c. (pungent) 392; spicy, appetizing, provocative, provoquant, tantalizing.

eager to go, anxious to go, chafing at the bit.

Adv. till one is black in the face.

Phr. the heart beating high, the heart going pitapat, the heart leaping into one's mouth; the blood being up, the blood boiling in one's veins; the eye glistening - "in a fine frenzy rolling"; the head turned; "when the going gets tough, the tough get going" [Richard Nixon]. hope &c. 858.

825. Excitability[edit]

N. excitability, impetuosity, vehemence; boisterousness &c. adj.; turbulence; impatience, intolerance, nonendurance; irritability &c. (irascibility) 901; itching &c. (desire) 865; wincing; disquiet, disquietude; restlessness; fidgets, fidgetiness; agitation &c. (irregular motion) 315.

trepidation, perturbation, ruffle, hurry, fuss, flurry; fluster, flutter; pother, stew, ferment; whirl; buck fever; hurry-skurry, thrill &c. (feeling) 821; state of excitement, fever of excitement; transport.

passion, excitement, flush, heat; fever, heat; fire, flame, fume, blood boiling; tumult; effervescence, ebullition; boiling over; whiff, gust, story, tempest; scene, breaking out, burst, fit, paroxysm, explosion; outbreak, outburst; agony.

violence &c. 173; fierceness &c. adj.; rage, fury, furor, furore, desperation, madness, distraction, raving, delirium; phrensy, frenzy, hysterics; intoxication; tearing passion, raging passion; anger &c. 900.

fascination, infatuation, fanaticism; Quixotism, Quixotry; tete montee[Fr].

V. be impatient &c. adj.; not be able to bear &c. 826; bear ill, wince, chafe, champ a bit; be in a stew &c. n.; be out of all patience, fidget, fuss, not have a wink of sleep; toss on one's pillow.

lose one's temper &c. 900; break out, burst out, fly out; go off, fly off, fly off at a tangent, fly off the handle, lose one's cool [coll.]; explode, flare up, flame up, fire up, burst into a flame, take fire, fire, burn; boil, boil over; foam, fume, rage, rave, rant, tear;; go wild, run wild, run mad, go into hysterics; run riot, run amuck; battre la campagne[Fr], faire le diable a quatre[Fr], play the deuce.

Adj. excitable, easily excited, in an excitable state; high-strung; irritable &c. (irascible) 901; impatient, intolerant.

feverish, febrile, hysterical; delirious, mad, moody, maggoty-headed.

unquiet, mercurial, electric, galvanic, hasty, hurried, restless, fidgety, fussy; chafing &c. v.

startlish, mettlesome, high-mettled, skittish.

vehement, demonstrative, violent, wild, furious, fierce, fiery, hot- headed, madcap.

overzealous, enthusiastic, impassioned, fanatical; rabid &c. (eager) 865.

rampant, clamorous, uproarious, turbulent, tempestuous, tumultuary, boisterous.

impulsive, impetuous, passionate; uncontrolled, uncontrollable; ungovernable, irrepressible, stanchless, inextinguishable, burning, simmering, volcanic, ready to burst forth, volatile.

excited, exciting &c. 824.

Int. pish! pshaw!

Phr. noli me tangere[Lat]; "filled with fury, rapt, inspir'd" [Collins]; maggiore fretta minore atto[It].

826. Inexcitability[edit]

N. inexcitability, imperturbability, inirritability; even temper, tranquil mind, dispassion; tolerance, patience, coolth [coll.].

passiveness &c. (physical inertness) 172; hebetude, hebetation; impassibility &c. (insensibility) 823; stupefaction.

coolness, calmness &c. adj.; composure, placidity, indisturbance, imperturbation, sang froid[Fr], tranquility, serenity; quiet, quietude; peace of mind, mental calmness. hope &c. 858.

staidness &c. adj.; gravity, sobriety, Quakerism; philosophy, equanimity, stoicism, command of temper; self-possession, self-control, self-command, self-restraint, ice water in one's veins; presence of mind.

submission &c. 725; resignation; sufferance, supportance, endurance, longsufferance, forbearance; longanimity; fortitude; patience of Job, patience "on a monument" [Twelfth Night], patience "sovereign o'er transmuted ill" [Johnson]; moderation; repression of feelings, subjugation of feeling; restraint &c. 751.

tranquillization &c. (moderation) 174.

V. be composed &c. adj.

laisser faire[Fr], laisser aller[Fr]; take things easily, take things as they come; take it easy, rub on, live and let live; take easily, take cooly, take in good part; aequam servare mentem [Latin].

bear the brunt, bear well; go through, support, endure, brave, disregard.

tolerate, suffer, stand, bide; abide, aby; bear with, put up with, take up with, abide with; acquiesce; submit &c. (yield) 725; submit with a good grace; resign oneself to, reconcile oneself to; brook, digest, eat, swallow, pocket, stomach.

make light of, make the best of, make "a virtue of necessity" [Chaucer]; put a good face on, keep one's countenance; check &c. 751 check oneself.

compose, appease &c. (moderate)174; propitiate; repress &c. (restrain) 751; render insensible &c. 823; overcome one's excitability, allay one's excitability, repress one's excitability &c. 825; master one's feelings.

make oneself easy; make one's mind easy; set one's mind at ease, set one's mind at rest.

calm down, cool down; gentle; thaw, grow cool.

be borne, be endured; go down.

Adj. inexcitable, unexcitable; imperturbable; unsusceptible &c. (insensible) 823; unpassionate, dispassionate; cold-blooded, irritable; enduring &c. v.; stoical, Platonic, philosophic, staid, stayed; sober, sober minded; grave; sober as a judge, grave as a judge; sedate, demure, cool-headed.

easy-going, peaceful, placid, calm; quiet as a mouse; tranquil, serene; cool as a cucumber, cool as a custard; undemonstrative.

temperate &c. (moderate) 174; composed, collected; unexcited, unstirred, unruffled, undisturbed, unperturbed, unimpassioned; unoffended; unresisting.

meek, tolerant; patient, patient as Job; submissive &c. 725; tame; content, resigned, chastened, subdued, lamblike; gentle as a lamb; suaviter in modo[Lat]; mild as mothers milk; soft as peppermint; armed with patience, bearing with, clement, long-suffering.

Adv. "like patience on a monument smiling at grief" [Twelfth Night]; aequo animo[Lat], in cold blood &c. 823; more in sorrow than in anger.

Int. patience! and shuffle the cards.

Phr. "cool calm and collected", keep calm in the midst of a storm; "adversity's sweet milk, philosophy" [Romeo and Juliet]; mens aequa in arduis philosophia stemma non inspecite [Lat][Seneca]; quo me cumque rapit tempestas deferor hospes [Lat][Horace]; "they also serve who only stand and wait" [Milton].

Section II Personal Affections 1. Passive Affections

hope &c. 858.

Section II. Personal Affections[edit]

1. Passive Affections[edit]

827. Pleasure[edit]

N. pleasure, gratification, enjoyment, fruition; oblectation, delectation, delection; relish, zest; gusto &c. (physical pleasure) 377; satisfaction &c. (content) 831; complacency.

well-being; good &c. 618; snugness, comfort, ease; cushion &c. 215; sans souci[French:without worry], mind at ease.

joy, gladness, delight, glee, cheer, sunshine; cheerfulness &c. 836.

treat, refreshment; amusement &c. 840; luxury &c. 377.

mens sana in corpore sano [Latin: a sound mind in a sound body][Juvenal].

happiness, felicity, bliss; beatitude, beautification; enchantment, transport, rapture, ravishment, ecstasy; summum bonum[Lat]; paradise, elysium &c. ( heaven) 981; third heaven|!, seventh heaven, cloud nine; unalloyed happiness &c.; hedonics, hedonism.

honeymoon; palmy days, halcyon days; golden age, golden time; Dixie, Dixie's land; Saturnia regna[Lat], Arcadia, Shangri-La, happy valley, Agapemone.

V. be pleased &c. 829; feel pleasure, experience pleasure &c. n.; joy; enjoy oneself, hug oneself; be in clover &c. 377, be in elysium &c. 981; tread on enchanted ground; fall into raptures, go into raptures.

feel at home, breathe freely, bask in the sunshine.

be pleased &c. 829 with; receive pleasure, derive pleasure &c. n. from; take pleasure &c. n. in; delight in, rejoice in, indulge in, luxuriate in; gloat over &c. (physical pleasure) 377; enjoy, relish, like; love &c. 897; take to, take a fancy to; have a liking for; enter into the spirit of.

take in good part.

treat oneself to, solace oneself with.

Adj. pleased &c. 829; not sorry; glad, gladsome; pleased as Punch.

happy, blest, blessed, blissful, beatified; happy as a clam at high water [U.S.], happy as a clam, happy as a king, happy as the day is long; thrice happy, ter quaterque beatus[Lat]; enjoying &c. v.; joyful &c. (in spirits) 836; hedonic.

in a blissful state, in paradise &c. 981, in raptures, in ecstasies, in a transport of delight.

comfortable &c. (physical pleasure) 377; at ease; content &c. 831; sans souci[Fr].

overjoyed, entranced, enchanted; enraptures; enravished; transported; fascinated, captivated.

with a joyful face, with sparkling eyes.

pleasing &c. 829; ecstatic, beatic; painless, unalloyed, without alloy, cloudless.

Adv. happily &c. adj.; with pleasure &c. (willingfully) 602; with glee &c. n..

Phr. one's heart leaping with joy.

"a wilderness of sweets" [P.L.]; "I wish you all the joy that you can wish" [M. of Venice]; jour de ma vie; "joy ruled the day and love the night" [Dryden]; "joys season'd high and tasting strong of guilt" [Young]; "oh happiness, our being's end and aim!" [Pope]; "there is a pleasure that is born of pain" [O Meridith]; "throned on highest bliss" [P.L.]; vedi Napoli e poi muori[It]; zwischen Freud und Leid ist die Brucke nicht weit [German: the bridge between joy and sorrow is not wide].

828. Pain[edit]

N. mental suffering, pain, dolor; suffering, sufferance; ache, smart &c. (physical pain) 378; passion.

displeasure, dissatisfaction, discomfort, discomposure, disquiet; malaise; inquietude, uneasiness, vexation of spirit; taking; discontent &c. 832.

dejection &c. 837; weariness &c. 841; anhedonia. hope &c. 858.

annoyance, irritation, worry, infliction, visitation; plague, bore; bother, botheration; stew, vexation, mortification, chagrin, esclandre[Fr]; mauvais quart d'heur[Fr].

care, anxiety, solicitude, trouble, trial, ordeal, fiery ordeal, shock, blow, cark, dole, fret, burden, load.

concern, grief, sorrow, distress, affliction, woe, bitterness, heartache; carking cares; heavy heart, aching heart, bleeding heart, broken heart; heavy affliction, gnawing grief.

unhappiness, infelicity, misery, tribulation, wretchedness, desolation; despair &c. 859; extremity, prostration, depth of misery.

nightmare, ephialtes, incubus.

pang, anguish, agony; torture, torment; purgatory &c. (hell) 982.

hell upon earth; iron age, reign of terror; slough of despond &c. (adversity) 735; peck of troubles; "ills that flesh is heir to" &c. (evil) 619[Hamlet]; miseries of human life; "unkindest cut of all" [Julius Caesar].

sufferer, victim, prey, martyr, object of compassion, wretch, shorn lamb.

V. feel pain, suffer pain, experience pain, undergo pain, bear pain, endure pain &c. n., smart, ache &c. (physical pain) 378; suffer, bleed, ail; be the victim of.

labor under afflictions; bear the cross; quaff the bitter cup, have a bad time of it; fall on evil days &c. (adversity) 735; go hard with, come to grief, fall a sacrifice to, drain the cup of misery to the dregs, "sup full of horrors" [Macbeth].

sit on thorns, be on pins and needles, wince, fret, chafe, worry oneself, be in a taking, fret and fume; take on, take to heart; cark.

grieve; mourn &c. (lament) 839; yearn, repine, pine, droop, languish, sink; give way; despair &c. 859; break one's heart; weigh upon the heart &c. (inflict pain) 830.

Adj. in pain, in a state of pain, full of pain &c. n.; suffering &c. v.; pained, afflicted, worried, displeased &c. 830; aching, griped, sore &c. (physical pain) 378; on the rack, in limbo; between hawk and buzzard.

uncomfortable, uneasy; ill at ease; in a taking, in a way; disturbed; discontented &c. 832; out of humor &c. 901a; weary &c. 841.

heavy laden, stricken, crushed, a prey to, victimized, ill-used.

unfortunate &c. (hapless) 735; to be pitied, doomed, devoted, accursed, undone, lost, stranded; fey.

unhappy, infelicitous, poor, wretched, miserable, woe-begone; cheerless &c. (dejected) 837; careworn.

concerned, sorry; sorrowing, sorrowful; cut up, chagrined, horrified, horror-stricken; in grief, plunged in grief, a prey to grief &c. n.; in tears &c. (lamenting) 839; steeped to the lips in misery; heart-stricken, heart-broken, heart-scalded; broken-hearted; in despair &c. 859.

Phr. "the iron entered into our soul"; haeret lateri lethalis arundo [Lat][Vergil]; one's heart bleeding; "down, thou climbing sorrow" [Lear]; "mirth cannot move a soul in agony" [Love's Labor's Lost]; nessun maggior dolere che ricordarsi del tempo felice nella miseria [It]; "sorrow's crown of sorrow is remembering happier things" [Tennyson]; "the Niobe of Nations" [Byron].

829. Pleasurableness[edit]

N. pleasurableness, pleasantness, agreeableness &c. adj.; pleasure giving, jucundity, delectability; amusement &c. 840.

attraction &c. (motive) 615; attractiveness, attractability; invitingness &c. adj.; harm, fascination, enchantment, witchery, seduction, winning ways, amenity, amiability; winsomeness. hope &c. 858.

loveliness &c. (beauty) 845; sunny side, bright side; sweets &c. (sugar) 396; goodness &c. 648; manna in the wilderness, land flowing with milk and honey; bittersweet; fair weather.

treat; regale &c. (physical pleasure) 377; dainty; titbit, tidbit; nuts, sauce piquante[Fr].

V. cause pleasure, produce pleasure, create pleasure, give pleasure, afford pleasure, procure pleasure, offer pleasure, present pleasure, yield pleasure &c. 827.

please, charm, delight, becharm, imparadise; gladden &c. (make cheerful) 836; take, captivate, fascinate; enchant, entrance, enrapture, transport, bewitch; enravish.

bless, beatify; satisfy; gratify, desire; &c. 865; slake, satiate, quench; indulge, humor, flatter, tickle; tickle the palate &c. (savory) 394; regale, refresh; enliven; treat; amuse &c. 840; take one's fancy, tickle one's fancy, hit one's fancy; meet one's wishes; win the heart, gladden the heart, rejoice the heart, warm the cockles of the heart; do one's heart good.

attract, allure &c. (move) 615; stimulate &c. (excite) 824; interest.

make things pleasant, popularize, gild the pill, sugar-coat the pill, , sweeten.

Adj. causing pleasure &c. v.; laetificant; pleasure-giving, pleasing, pleasant, pleasurable; agreeable; grateful, gratifying; leef|, lief, acceptable; welcome, welcome as the roses in May; welcomed; favorite; to one's taste, to one's mind, to one's liking; satisfactory &c. (good) 648.

refreshing; comfortable; cordial; genial; glad, gladsome; sweet, delectable, nice, dainty; delicate, delicious; dulcet; luscious &c. 396; palatable &c. 394; luxurious, voluptuous; sensual &c. 377.

[of people] attractive &c. 615; inviting, prepossessing, engaging; winning, winsome; taking, fascinating, captivating, killing; seducing, seductive; heart-robbing, alluring, enticing; appetizing &c. (exciting) 824; cheering &c. 836; bewitching; enchanting, entrancing, enravishing.

charming; delightful, felicitous, exquisite; lovely &c. (beautiful) 845; ravishing, rapturous; heartfelt, thrilling, ecstatic; beatic; beatific; seraphic; empyrean; elysian &c. (heavenly) 981.

palmy, halcyon, Saturnian.

Phr. decies repetita placebit[Lat]; "charms strike the sight but merit wins the soul" [Pope]; "sweetness and light" [Swift]; beauty is only skin deep.

830. Painfulness[edit]

N. painfulness &c. adj.; trouble, care &c. (pain) 828; trial; affliction, infliction; blow, stroke, burden, load, curse; bitter pill, bitter draught; waters of bitterness.

annoyance, grievance, nuisance, vexation, mortification, sickener; bore, bother, pother, hot water, "sea of troubles" [Hamlet], hornet's nest, plague, pest.

cancer, ulcer, sting, thorn; canker &c. (bane) 663; scorpion &c. (evil doer) 913; dagger &c. (arms) 727; scourge &c. (instrument of punishment) 975; carking care, canker worm of care.

mishap, misfortune &c. (adversity) 735; desagrement[Fr], esclandre[Fr], rub.

source of irritation, source of annoyance; wound, open sore; sore subject, skeleton in the closet; thorn in the flesh, thorn in one's side; where the shoe pinches, gall and wormwood.

sorry sight, heavy news, provocation; affront &c. 929; "head and front of one's offending" [Othello]. hope &c. 858.

infestation, molestation; malignity &c. (malevolence) 907.

V. cause pain, occasion pain, give pain, bring pain, induce pain, produce pain, create pain, inflict pain &c. 828; pain, hurt, wound.

pinch, prick, gripe &c. (physical pain) 378; pierce, lancinate, cut.

hurt the feelings, wound the feelings, grate upon the feelings, grate upon the nerves, jar upon the feelings; wring the heart, pierce the heart, lacerate the heart, break the heart, rend the heart; make the heart bleed; tear the heart strings, rend the heart strings; draw tears from the eyes.

sadden; make unhappy &c. 828; plunge into sorrow, grieve, fash, afflict, distress; cut up, cut to the heart.

displease, annoy, incommode, discompose, trouble, disquiet; faze, feaze, feeze (U.S.); disturb, cross, perplex, molest, tease, tire, irk, vex, mortify, wherret|, worry, plague, bother, pester, bore, pother, harass, harry, badger, heckle, bait, beset, infest, persecute, importune.

wring, harrow, torment, torture; bullyrag; put to the rack, put to the question; break on the wheel, rack, scarify; cruciate, crucify; convulse, agonize; barb the dart; plant a dagger in the breast, plant a thorn in one's side.

irritate, provoke, sting, nettle, try the patience, pique, fret, rile, tweak the nose, chafe, gall; sting to the quick, wound to the quick, cut to the quick; aggrieve, affront, enchafe, enrage, ruffle, sour the temper; give offense &c. (resentment) 900.

maltreat, bite, snap at, assail; smite &c. (punish) 972.

sicken, disgust, revolt, nauseate, disenchant, repel, offend, shock, stink in the nostrils; go against the stomach, turn the stomach; make one sick, set the teeth on edge, go against the grain, grate on the ear; stick in one's throat, stick in one's gizzard; rankle, gnaw, corrode, horrify, appal, appall, freeze the blood; make the flesh creep, make the hair stand on end; make the blood curdle, make the blood run cold; make one shudder.

haunt the memory; weigh on the heart, prey on the heart, weigh on the mind, prey on the mind, weigh on the spirits, prey on the spirits; bring one's gray hairs with sorrow to the grave; add a nail to one's coffin.

Adj. causing pain, hurting &c. v.; hurtful &c. (bad) 649; painful; dolorific, dolorous; unpleasant; unpleasing, displeasing; disagreeable, unpalatable, bitter, distasteful; uninviting; unwelcome; undesirable, undesired; obnoxious; unacceptable, unpopular, thankless.

unsatisfactory, untoward, unlucky, uncomfortable.

distressing; afflicting, afflictive; joyless, cheerless, comfortless; dismal, disheartening; depressing, depressive; dreary, melancholy, grievous, piteous; woeful, rueful, mournful, deplorable, pitiable, lamentable; sad, affecting, touching, pathetic.

irritating, provoking, stinging, annoying, aggravating, mortifying, galling; unaccommodating, invidious, vexatious; troublesome, tiresome, irksome, wearisome; plaguing, plaguy; awkward.

importunate; teasing, pestering, bothering, harassing, worrying, tormenting, carking.

intolerable, insufferable, insupportable; unbearable, unendurable; past bearing; not to be borne, not to be endured; more than flesh and blood can bear; enough to drive one mad, enough to provoke a saint, enough to make a parson swear, enough to gag a maggot.

shocking, terrific, grim, appalling, crushing; dreadful, fearful, frightful; thrilling, tremendous, dire; heart-breaking, heart-rending, heart-wounding, heart-corroding, heart-sickening; harrowing, rending.

odious, hateful, execrable, repulsive, repellent, abhorrent; horrid, horrible, horrific, horrifying; offensive.

nauseous, nauseating; disgusting, sickening, revolting; nasty; loathsome, loathful; fulsome; vile &c. (bad) 649; hideous &c. 846. hope &c. 858.

sharp, acute, sore, severe, grave, hard, harsh, cruel, biting, caustic; cutting, corroding, consuming, racking, excruciating, searching, grinding, grating, agonizing; envenomed; catheretic, pyrotic[Med].

ruinous, disastrous, calamitous, tragical; desolating, withering; burdensome, onerous, oppressive; cumbrous, cumbersome.

Adv. painfully &c. adj;; with pain &c. 828; deuced.

Int. hinc illae lachrymae[Lat]!

Phr. surgit amari aliquid[Lat]; the place being too hot to hold one; the iron entering into the soul; "he jests at scars that never felt a wound" [Romeo and Juliet]; "I must be cruel only to be kind" [Hamlet]; "what deep wounds ever closed without a scar?" [Byron].

831. Content[edit]

N. content, contentment, contentedness; complacency, satisfaction, entire satisfaction, ease, heart's ease, peace of mind; serenity &c. 826; cheerfulness &c. 836; ray of comfort; comfort &c. (well- being) 827.

reconciliation; resignation &c. (patience) 826.

[person who is contented] waiter on Providence.

V. be content &c. adj.; rest satisfied, rest and be thankful; take the good the gods provide, let well alone, let well enough alone, feel oneself at home, hug oneself, lay the flattering unction to one's soul.

take up with, take in good part; accept, tolerate; consent &c. 762; acquiesce, assent &c. 488; be reconciled to, make one's peace with; get over it; take heart, take comfort; put up with &c. (bear) 826.

render content &c. adj.; set at ease, comfort; set one's heart at ease, set one's mind at ease, set one's heart at rest, set one's mind at rest; speak peace; conciliate, reconcile, win over, propitiate, disarm, beguile; content, satisfy; gratify &c. 829.

be tolerated &c. 826; go down, go down well, go down with; do; be OK.

Adj. content, contented; satisfied &c. v.; at ease, at one's ease, at home; with the mind at ease, sans souci[Fr], sine cura[Lat], easygoing, not particular; conciliatory; unrepining, of good comfort; resigned &c. (patient) 826; cheerful &c. 836.

unafflicted, unvexed, unmolested, unplagued; serene &c. 826; at rest, snug, comfortable; in one's element.

satisfactory, tolerable, good enough, OK, all right, acceptable.

Adv. contently, contentedly, to one's heart's content; a la bonne heure[Fr]; all for the best.

Int. amen &c. (assent) 488; very well, all the better, so much the better, well and good; it will do, that will do; it cannot be helped.

Phr. nothing comes amiss.

"a heart with room for every joy" [Bailey]; ich habe genossen das irdische Gluck ich habe gelebt und geliebet [Ger][Schiller]; "nor cast one longing lingering look behind" [Gray]; "shut up in measureless content" [Macbeth]; "sweet are the thoughts that savor of content" [R. Greene]; "their wants but few their wishes all confined" [Goldsmith]; might as well relax and enjoy it.

832. Discontent[edit]

N. discontent, discontentment; dissatisfaction; dissent &c. 489.

disappointment, mortification; cold comfort; regret &c. 833; repining, taking on &c. v.; heart-burning, heart-grief; querulousness &c. (lamentation) 839; hypercriticism.

inquietude, vexation of spirit, soreness; worry, concern, fear &c. 860.

[person who is discontented] malcontent, grumbler, growler, croaker, dissident, dissenter, laudator temporis acti[Lat]; censurer, complainer, fault-finder, murmerer. hope &c. 858.

cave of Adullam, indignation meeting, "winter of our discontent" [Henry VI]; "with what I most enjoy contented least" [Shakespeare].

V. be discontented &c. adj.; quarrel with one's bread and butter; repine; regret &c. 833; wish one at the bottom of the Red Sea; take on, take to heart; shrug the shoulders; make a wry face, pull a long face; knit one's brows; look blue, look black, look black as thunder, look blank, look glum.

take in bad part, take ill; fret, chafe, make a piece of work[Fr]; grumble, croak; lament &c. 839.

cause discontent &c. n.; dissatisfy, disappoint, mortify, put out, disconcert; cut up; dishearten.

Adj. discontented; dissatisfied &c. v.; unsatisfied, ungratified; dissident; dissentient &c. 489; malcontent, malcontented, exigent, exacting, hypercritical.

repining &c. v.; regretful &c. 833; down in the mouth &c. (dejected) 837.

in high dudgeon, in a fume, in the sulks, in the dumps, in bad humor; glum, sulky; sour as a crab; soured, sore; out of humor, out of temper.

disappointing &c. v.; unsatisfactory.

frustrated (failure) 732.

Int. so much the worse!

Phr. that won't do, that will never do, it will never do; curtae nescio quid semper abest rei [Lat][Horace]; ne Jupiter Quidem omnibus placet[Lat]; "poor in abundance, famished at a feast" [Young].

833. Regret[edit]

N. regret, repining; homesickness, nostalgia; mal du pays, maladie[Fr]; lamentation &c.. 839; penitence &c. 950.

bitterness, heartburning.

recrimination (accusation) 938.

laudator temporis acti &c. (discontent) 832[Lat].

V. regret, deplore; bewail &c. (lament) 839; repine, cast a longing lingering look behind; rue, rue the day; repent &c. 950; infandum renovare dolorem [Lat].

prey on the mind, weigh on the mind, have a weight on the mind; leave an aching void.

Adj. regretting &c. v.; regretful; homesick.

regretted &c. v.; much to be regretted, regrettable; lamentable &c. (bad) 649.

Adv. regrettably, unfortunately; most unfortunately.

Int. alas!; what a pity! hang it!

Phr. 'tis pity, 'tis too true; "sigh'd and look'd and sigh'd again" [Dryden]; "I'm sorry.".

834. Relief[edit]

N. relief; deliverance; refreshment &c. 689; easement, softening, alleviation, mitigation, palliation, soothing, lullaby.

solace, consolation, comfort, encouragement.

lenitive, restorative &c. (remedy) 662; cushion &c. 215; crumb of comfort, balm in Gilead.

V. relieve, ease, alleviate, mitigate, palliate, soothe; salve; soften, soften down; foment, stupe, poultice; assuage, allay.

cheer, comfort, console; enliven; encourage, bear up, pat on the back, give comfort, set at ease; gladden the heart, cheer the heart; inspirit, invigorate.

remedy; cure &c. (restore) 660; refresh; pour balm into, pour oil on.

smooth the ruffled brow of care, temper the wind to the shorn lamb, lay the flattering unction to one's soul. hope &c. 858.

disburden &c. (free) 705; take a load off one's chest, get a load off one's chest, take off a load of care.

be relieved; breathe more freely, draw a long breath; take comfort; dry the tears, dry the eyes, wipe the tears, wipe the eyes.

Adj. relieving &c. v.; consolatory, soothing; assuaging, assuasive; balmy, balsamic; lenitive, palliative; anodyne &c. (remedial) 662; curative &c. 660.

Phr. "here comes a man of comfort" [Measure for Measure].

835. Aggravation[edit]

N. aggravation, worsening, heightening; exacerbation; exasperation; overestimation &c. 482; exaggeration &c. 549.

V. aggravate, render worse, heighten, embitter, sour; exacerbate; exasperate, envenom; enrage, provoke, tease.

add fuel to the fire, add fuel to the flame; fan the flame &c. (excite) 824; go from bad to worse &c. (deteriorate) 659.

Adj. aggravated &c. v.; worse, unrelieved; aggravable; aggravating &c. v.

Adv. out of the frying pan into the fire, from bad to worse, worse and worse.

Int. so much the worse!

836. Cheerfulness[edit]

N. cheerfulness &c. adj.; geniality, gayety, l'allegro[Fr], cheer, good humor, spirits; high spirits, animal spirits, flow of spirits; glee, high glee, light heart; sunshine of the mind, sunshine of the breast; gaiete de coeur[Fr], bon naturel[Fr].

liveliness &c. adj.; life, alacrity, vivacity, animation, allegresse; jocundity, joviality, jollity; levity; jocularity &c. (wit) 842.

mirth, merriment, hilarity, exhilaration; laughter &c. 838; merrymaking &c. (amusement) 840; heyday, rejoicing &c. 838; marriage bell.

nepenthe, Euphrosyne, sweet forgetfulness.

optimism &c. (hopefulness) 858; self complacency; hedonics, hedonism.

V. be cheerful &c. adj.; have the mind at ease, smile, put a good face upon, keep up one's spirits; view the bright side of the picture, view things en couleur de rose[Fr]; ridentem dicere virum[Lat], cheer up, brighten up, light up, bear up; chirp, take heart, cast away care, drive dull care away, perk up.

keep a stiff upper lip.

rejoice &c. 838; carol, chirrup, lilt; frisk, rollick, give a loose to mirth.

cheer, enliven, elate, exhilarate, gladden, inspirit, animate, raise the spirits, inspire; perk up; put in good humor; cheer the heart, rejoice the heart; delight &c. (give pleasure) 829.

Adj. cheerful; happy &c. 827; cheery, cheerly; of good cheer, smiling; blithe; in spirits, in good spirits; breezy, bully, chipper [U.S.]; in high spirits, in high feather; happy as the day is long, happy as a king; gay as a lark; allegro; debonair; light, lightsome, light hearted; buoyant, debonnaire, bright, free and easy, airy; janty, jaunty, canty; hedonic; riant; sprightly, sprightful; spry; spirited, spiritful; lively, animated, vivacious; brisk as a bee; sparkling, sportive; full of play, full of spirit; all alive.

sunny, palmy; hopeful &c. 858.

merry as a cricket, merry as a grig, merry as a marriage bell; joyful, joyous, jocund, jovial; jolly as a thrush, jolly as a sandboy; blithesome; gleeful, gleesome; hilarious, rattling.

winsome, bonny, hearty, buxom. hope &c. 858.

playful, playsome; folatre[Fr], playful as a kitten, tricksy, frisky, frolicsome; gamesome; jocose, jocular, waggish; mirth loving, laughter-loving; mirthful, rollicking.

elate, elated; exulting, jubilant, flushed; rejoicing &c. 838; cock-a- hoop.

cheering, inspiriting, exhilarating; cardiac, cardiacal; pleasing &c. 829; palmy.

Adv. cheerfully &c. adj.

Int. never say die! come! cheer up! hurrah! &c. 838; "hence loathed melancholy!" begone dull care! away with melancholy!

Phr. "a merry heart goes all the day" [A winter's Tale]; "as merry as the day is long" [Much Ado]; ride si sapis [Lat][Martial].

837. Dejection[edit]

N. dejection; dejectedness &c. adj.; depression, prosternation|; lowness of spirits, depression of spirits; weight on the spirits, oppression on the spirits, damp on the spirits; low spirits, bad spirits, drooping spirits, depressed spirits; heart sinking; heaviness of heart, failure of heart.

heaviness &c. adj.; infestivity, gloom; weariness &c. 841; taedium vitae, disgust of life; mal du pays &c. (regret) 833; anhedonia.

melancholy; sadness &c. adj.; il penseroso[It], melancholia, dismals, blues, lachrymals, mumps, dumps, blue devils, doldrums; vapors, megrims, spleen, horrors, hypochondriasis[Med], pessimism; la maladie sans maladie [Fr]; despondency, slough of Despond; disconsolateness &c. adj.; hope deferred, blank despondency; voiceless woe.

prostration of soul; broken heart; despair &c. 859; cave of despair, cave of Trophonius

demureness &c. adj.; gravity, solemnity; long face, grave face.

hypochondriac, seek sorrow, self-tormentor, heautontimorumenos, malade imaginaire[Fr], medecin tant pis[Fr]; croaker, pessimist; mope, mopus.

[Cause of dejection] affliction &c. 830; sorry sight; memento mori[Lat]; damper, wet blanket, Job's comforter.

V. be dejected &c. adj.; grieve; mourn &c. (lament) 839; take on, give way, lose heart, despond, droop, sink.

lower, look downcast, frown, pout; hang down the head; pull a long face, make a long face; laugh on the wrong side of the mouth; grin a ghastly smile; look blue, look like a drowned man; lay to heart, take to heart.

mope, brood over; fret; sulk; pine, pine away; yearn; repine &c. (regret) 833; despair &c. 859.

refrain from laughter, keep one's countenance; be grave, look grave &c. adj.; repress a smile.

depress; discourage, dishearten; dispirit; damp, dull, deject, lower, sink, dash, knock down, unman, prostrate, break one's heart; frown upon; cast a gloom, cast a shade on; sadden; damp one's hopes, dash one's hopes, wither one's hopes; weigh on the mind, lie heavy on the mind, prey on the mind, weigh on the spirits, lie heavy on the spirits, prey on the spirits; damp the spirits, depress the spirits.

Adj. cheerless, joyless, spiritless; uncheerful, uncheery; unlively; unhappy &c. 828; melancholy, dismal, somber, dark, gloomy, triste[Fr], clouded, murky, lowering, frowning, lugubrious, funereal, mournful, lamentable, dreadful.

dreary, flat; dull, dull as a beetle, dull as ditchwater; depressing &c. v.

"melancholy as a gib cat"; oppressed with melancholy, a prey to melancholy; downcast, downhearted; down in the mouth, down in one;s luck; hope &c. 858. heavy-hearted; in the dumps, down in the dumps, in the suds, in the sulks, in the doldrums; in doleful dumps, in bad humor; sullen; mumpish, dumpish, mopish, moping; moody, glum; sulky &c. (discontented) 832; out of sorts, out of humor, out of heart, out of spirits; ill at ease, low spirited, in low spirits, a cup too low; weary &c. 841; discouraged, disheartened; desponding; chapfallen, chopfallen, jaw fallen, crest fallen.

sad, pensive, penseroso[It], tristful; dolesome, doleful; woebegone; lacrymose, lachrymose, in tears, melancholic, hypped, hypochondriacal, bilious, jaundiced, atrabilious, saturnine, splenetic; lackadaisical.

serious, sedate, staid, stayed; grave as a judge, grave as an undertaker, grave as a mustard pot; sober, sober as a judge, solemn, demure; grim; grim-faced, grim-visaged; rueful, wan, long-faced.

disconsolate; unconsolable, inconsolable; forlorn, comfortless, desolate, desole[Fr], sick at heart; soul sick, heart sick; au desespoir[Fr]; in despair &c. 859; lost.

overcome; broken down, borne down, bowed down; heartstricken &c (mental suffering) 828; cut up, dashed, sunk; unnerved, unmanned; down fallen, downtrodden; broken-hearted; careworn.

Adv. with a long face, with tears in one's eyes; sadly &c. adj.

Phr. the countenance falling; the heart failing, the heart sinking within one; "a plague of sighing and grief" [Henry IV]; " thick-ey'd musing and curs'd melancholy" [Henry IV]; " the sickening pang of hope deferred" [Scott].

838. Rejoicing[edit]

N. rejoicing, exultation, triumph, jubilation, heyday, flush, revelling; merrymaking &c. (amusement) 840; jubilee &c. (celebration) 883; paean, Te Deum &c. (thanksgiving) 990[Lat]; congratulation &c. 896.

smile, simper, smirk, grin; broad grin, sardonic grin.

laughter (amusement) 840.

risibility; derision &c. 856.

Momus; Democritus the Abderite; rollicker.

V. rejoice, thank one's stars, bless one's stars; congratulate oneself, hug oneself; rub one's hands, clap one's hands; smack the lips, fling up one's cap; dance, skip; sing, carol, chirrup, chirp; hurrah; cry for joy, jump for joy, leap with joy; exult &c. (boast) 884; triumph; hold jubilee &c. (celebrate) 883; make merry &c. (sport) 840.

laugh, raise laughter &c. (amuse) 840.

Adj. rejoicing &c. v.; jubilant, exultant, triumphant; flushed, elated, pleased, delighted, tickled pink.

amused &c. 840; cheerful &c. 836.

laughable &c. (ludicrous) 853.

Int. hurrah! Huzza! aha! hail! tolderolloll! Heaven be praised! io triumphe! tant mieux[Fr]! so much the better.

Phr. the heart leaping with joy; ce n'est pas etre bien aise que de rire[Fr]; "Laughter holding both his sides" [Milton]; " le roi est mort, vive le roi "; "with his eyes in flood with laughter" [Cymbeline].

839. Lamentation[edit]

N. lament, lamentation; wail, complaint, plaint, murmur, mutter, grumble, groan, moan, whine, whimper, sob, sigh, suspiration, heaving, deep sigh.

cry &c. (vociferation) 411; scream, howl; outcry, wail of woe, ululation; frown, scowl.

tear; weeping &c. v.; flood of tears, fit of crying, lacrimation, lachrymation, melting mood, weeping and gnashing of teeth.

plaintiveness &c. adj.; languishment; condolence &c. 915. hope &c. 858.

mourning, weeds, willow, cypress, crape, deep mourning; sackcloth and ashes; lachrymatory; knell &c. 363; deep death song, dirge, coronach, nenia, requiem, elegy, epicedium; threne; monody, threnody; jeremiad, jeremiade|!; ullalulla.

mourner; grumbler &c. (discontent) 832; Noobe; Heraclitus.

V. lament, mourn, deplore, grieve, weep over; bewail, bemoan; condole with &c. 915; fret &c. (suffer) 828; wear mourning, go into mourning, put on mourning; wear the willow, wear sackcloth and ashes; infandum renovare dolorem &c. (regret) 833[Lat][Vergil]; give sorrow words.

sigh; give a sigh, heave, fetch a sigh; "waft a sigh from Indus to the pole" [Pope]; sigh "like a furnace" [As you Like It]; wail.

cry, weep, sob, greet, blubber, pipe, snivel, bibber, whimper, pule; pipe one's eye; drop tears, shed tears, drop a tear, shed a tear; melt into tears, burst into tears; fondre en larmes[Fr]; cry oneself blind, cry one's eyes out; yammer.

scream &c. (cry out) 411; mew &c. (animal sounds) 412; groan, moan, whine; roar; roar like a bull, bellow like a bull; cry out lustily, rend the air.

frown, scowl, make a wry face, gnash one's teeth, wring one's hands, tear one's hair, beat one's breast, roll on the ground, burst with grief.

complain, murmur, mutter, grumble, growl, clamor, make a fuss about, croak, grunt, maunder; deprecate &c. (disapprove) 932.

cry out before one is hurt, complain without cause.

Adj. lamenting &c. v.; in mourning, in sackcloth and ashes; sorrowing, sorrowful &c. (unhappy) 828; mournful, tearful; lachrymose; plaintive, plaintful; querulous, querimonious; in the melting mood; threnetic.

in tears, with tears in one's eyes; with moistened eyes, with watery eyes; bathed in tears, dissolved in tears; "like Niobe all tears" [Hamlet].

elegiac, epicedial.

Adv. de profundis[Lat]; les larmes aux yeux[Fr].

Int. heigh-ho! alas! alack! O dear! ah me! woe is me! lackadaisy! well a day! lack a day! alack a day! wellaway! alas the day! O tempora O mores! what a pity! miserabile dictu[Lat]! O lud lud! too true!

Phr. tears standing in the eyes, tears starting from the eyes; eyes suffused, eyes swimming, eyes brimming, eyes overflowing with tears; "if you have tears prepare to shed them now" [Julius Caesar]; interdum lacrymae pondera vocis habent [Lat][Ovid]; "strangled his language in his tears" [Henry VIII]; "tears such as angels weep" [Paradise Lost].

840. Amusement[edit]

N. amusement, entertainment, recreation, fun, game, fun and games; diversion, divertissement; reaction, solace; pastime, passetemps[Fr], sport; labor of love; pleasure &c. 827.

relaxation; leisure &c. 685.

fun, frolic, merriment, jollity; joviality, jovialness; heyday; laughter &c. 838; jocosity, jocoseness; drollery, buffoonery, tomfoolery; mummery, pleasantry; wit &c. 842; quip, quirk.

[verbal expressions of amusement: list] giggle, titter, snigger, snicker, crow, cheer, chuckle, shout; horse laugh, , belly laugh, hearty laugh; guffaw; burst of laughter, fit of laughter, shout of laughter, roar of laughter, peal of laughter; cachinnation; Kentish fire; tiger.

play; game, game at romps; gambol, romp, prank, antic, rig, lark, spree, skylarking, vagary, monkey trick, gambade, fredaine, escapade, echappee[Fr], bout, espieglerie[Fr]; practical joke &c. (ridicule) 856.

dance; hop, reel, rigadoon, saraband, hornpipe, bolero, ballroom dance; minuet[ballroom dances: list], waltz, polka, fox trot, hope &c. 858. tango, samba, rhumba, twist, stroll, hustle, cha-cha; fandango, cancan; bayadere; breakdown, cake-walk, cornwallis [U.S.], break dancing; nautch-girl; shindig* [U.S.]; skirtdance, stag dance, Virginia reel, square dance; galop, galopade; jig, Irish jig, fling, strathspey; allemande[Fr]; gavot, gavotte, tarantella; mazurka, morisco|, morris dance; quadrille; country dance, folk dance; cotillon, Sir Roger de Coverley; ballet &c. (drama) 599; ball; bal, bal masque, bal costume; masquerade; Terpsichore.

festivity, merrymaking; party &c. (social gathering) 892; blowout [U.S.], hullabaloo, hoedown, bat* [U.S.], bum* [U.S.], bust*, clambake [U.S.], donation party [U.S.], fish fry [U.S.], jamboree*, kantikoy, nautch, randy, squantum [U.S.], tear *, Turnerfest, yule log; fete, festival, gala, ridotto; revels, revelry, reveling; carnival, brawl, saturnalia, high jinks; feast, banquet &c. (food) 298; regale, symposium, wassail; carouse, carousal; jollification, junket, wake, Irish wake, picnic, fete champetre[Fr], regatta, field day; treat.

round of pleasures, dissipation, a short life and a merry one, racketing, holiday making.

rejoicing &c. 838; jubilee &c. (celebration) 883.

bonfire, fireworks, feu-de-joie, firecracker.

holiday; gala day, red letter day, play day; high days and holidays; high holiday, Bank holiday; May day, Derby day; Saint Monday, Easter Monday, Whit Monday; Bairam; wayz-goos, bean feast; Arbor Day, Declaration Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Memorial Day, Thanksgiving Day; Mardi gras[Fr],mi-careme[Fr], feria[Lat], fiesta.

place of amusement, theater; hall, concert room, ballroom, assemblyroom; music hall.

park, plaisance; national park, national forest, state park, county park, city park, vest-pocket park, public park (public) 737a; arbor; garden &c. (horticulture) 371; pleasure ground, playground, cricketground, croquet ground, archery ground, hunting ground; tennis court, racket court; bowling alley, green alley; croquet lawn, rink, glaciarum, skating rink; roundabout, merry-go-round; swing; montagne Russe[Fr].

game of chance, game of skill.

athletic sports, gymnastics; archery, rifle shooting; tournament, pugilism &c. (contention) 720; sports &c. 622; horse racing, the turf; aquatics &c. 267; skating, sliding; cricket, tennis, lawn tennis; hockey, football, baseball, soccer, ice hockey, basketball; rackets, fives, trap bat and ball, battledore and shuttlecock, la grace; pall-mall, tipcat, croquet, golf, curling, pallone, polo, water polo; tent pegging; tilting at the ring, quintain[medeival];, greasy pole; quoits, horseshoes, discus; rounders, lacrosse; tobogganing, water polo; knurr and spell.

[childrens' games] leapfrog, hop skip and jump; mother may I; French and English, tug of war; blindman's bluff, hunt the slopper, hide and seek, kiss in the ring; snapdragon; cross questions and crooked answers.; crisscross, hopscotch; jacks, jackstones, marbles; mumblety-peg, mumble-the-peg, pushball, shinney, shinny, tag &c.

billiards, pool, pingpong, pyramids, bagatelle; bowls, skittles, ninepins, kain, American bowls; tenpins [U.S.], tivoli.

cards, card games; whist, rubber; round game; loo, cribbage, besique, euchre, drole, ecarte[Fr], picquet, allfours, quadrille, omber, reverse, Pope Joan, commit; boston, boaston; blackjack, twenty-one, vingtun[Fr]; quinze[Fr], thirty-one, put, speculation, connections, brag, cassino, lottery, commerce, snip-snap-snoren, lift smoke, blind hookey, Polish bank, Earl of Coventry, Napoleon, patience, pairs; banker; blind poker, draw poker, straight poker, stud poker; bluff, bridge, bridge whist; lotto, monte, three-card monte, nap, penny-ante, poker, reversis, squeezers, old maid, fright, beggar-my-neighbor; baccarat. hope &c. 858.

[cards: list] ace, king, queen, knave, jack, ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, trey, deuce; joker; trump, wild card.

[card suits: list] spades, hearts, clubs, diamonds; major suit, minor suit.

bower; right bower, left bower; dummy; jackpot; deck.

[hands at poker: list] pair, two pair, three of a kind, straight, flush, full-house, four of a kind, royal flush; misere &c.

[board games: list] chess, draughts, checkers, checquers, backgammon, dominos, merelles, nine men's morris, go bang, solitaire; game of fox and goose; monopoly; loto &c.

scrabble[word games: list], scribbage, boggle, crossword puzzle, hangman.

morra; gambling &c. (chance) 621.

toy, plaything, bauble; doll &c. (puppet ) 554; teetotum; knickknack &c. (trifle) 643; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; peep show, puppet show, raree show, gallanty show; toy shop; "quips and cranks and wanton wiles, nods and becks and wreathed smiles" [Milton].

entertainer, showman, showgirl; dancer, tap dancer, song-and-dance man; vaudeville act; singer; musician &c. 416.

sportsman, gamester, reveler; master of ceremonies, master of revels; pompom girl; arbiter elegantiarum[Lat]; arbiter bibendi[Lat], archer, fan [U.S.], toxophilite, turfman.

V. amuse, entertain, divert, enliven; tickle the fancy; titillate, raise a smile, put in good humor; cause laughter, create laughter, occasion laughter, raise laughter, excite laughter, produce laughter, convulse with laughter; set the table in a roar, be the death of one.

recreate, solace, cheer, rejoice; please &c. 829; interest; treat, regale.

amuse oneself, game; play a game, play pranks, play tricks; sport, disport, toy, wanton, revel, junket, feast, carouse, banquet, make merry, drown care; drive dull care away; frolic, gambol, frisk, romp; caper; dance &c. (leap) 309; keep up the ball; run a rig, sow one's wild oats, have one's fling, take one's pleasure; paint the town red*; see life; desipere in loco[Lat], play the fool.

make holiday, keep holiday; go a Maying.

while away the time, beguile the time; kill time, dally.

smile, simper, smirk; grin, grin like a Cheshire cat; mock, laugh in one's sleeve; laugh, laugh outright; giggle, titter, snigger, crow, snicker, chuckle, cackle; burst out, burst into a fit of laughter; shout, split, roar.

shake one's sides, split one's sides, hold both one's sides; roar with laughter, die with laughter.

Adj. amusing, entertaining, diverting &c. v.; recreational, recreative, lusory; pleasant &c. (pleasing) 829; laughable &c. (ludicrous) 853; witty &c. 842; fun, festive, festal; jovial, jolly, jocund, roguish, rompish; playful, playful as a kitten; sportive, ludibrious|.

funny; very funny, hilarious, uproarious, side-splitting.

amused &c. v.; "pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw" [Pope]; laughing &c. v. ; risible; ready to burst, ready to split, ready to die with laughter; convulsed with laughter, rolling in the aisles.

Adv. "on the light fantastic toe" [Milton], at play, in sport.

Int. vive la bagatelle[Fr]! vogue la galere[Fr]!

Phr. deus nobis haec otia fecit[Lat]; dum vivimus vivamus[Lat]; dulce est desipere in loco [Lat][Horace]; "(every room) hath blazed with lights and brayed with minstrelsy" [Timon of Athens]; misce stullitiam consiliis brevem [Lat][Horace]. hope &c. 858.

841. Weariness[edit]

N. weariness, defatigation|; lassitude &c. (fatigue) 688; drowsiness &c. 683.

disgust, nausea, loathing, sickness; satiety &c. 869; taedium vitae &c. (dejection) 837; boredom, ennui.

wearisomeness, tediousness &c. adj.; dull work, tedium, monotony, twice-told tale.

bore, buttonholer, proser, wet blanket; pill*, stiff*; heavy hours, "the enemy" [time].

V. weary; tire &c. (fatigue) 688; bore; bore to death, weary to death, tire to death, bore out of one's skull, bore out of one's life, weary out of one's life, tire out of one's life, bore out of all patience, weary out of all patience, wear out one's patience, tire out of all patience; set to sleep, send to sleep; buttonhole.

pall, sicken, nauseate, disgust.

harp on the same string; drag its slow length along, drag its weary length along.

never hear the last of; be tired of, be sick of, be tired with &c. adj.; yawn; die with ennui.

[of journalistic articles] MEGO, my eyes glaze over.

Adj. wearying &c. v.; wearing; wearisome, tiresome, irksome; uninteresting, stupid, bald, devoid of interest, dry, monotonous, dull, arid, tedious, humdrum, mortal, flat; prosy, prosing; slow, soporific, somniferous.

disgusting &c. v.; unenjoyed.

weary, tired &c. v.; drowsy &c. (sleepy) 683; uninterested, flagging, used up, worn out, blase, life-weary, weary of life; sick of.

Adv. wearily &c. adj.; usque ad nauseam[Lat].

Phr. time hanging heavily on one's hands; toujours perdrix[Fr]; crambe repetita[Lat].

842. Wit[edit]

N. wit, humor, wittiness; sense of humor; attic wit, attic salt; atticism; salt, esprit, point, fancy, whim, drollery, pleasantry.

farce, buffoonery, fooling, tomfoolery; shenanigan [U.S.], harlequinade &c. 599; broad farce, broad humor; fun, espieglerie[Fr]; vis comica[Lat].

jocularity; jocosity, jocoseness; facetiousness; waggery, waggishness; whimsicality; comicality &c. 853.

banter, badinage, retort, repartee, smartness, ready wit, quid-pro- quo; ridicule &c. 856.

jest, joke, jape, jibe; facetiae[Lat], levity, quips and cranks; capital joke; canorae nugae[Lat]; standing jest, standing joke, private joke, conceit, quip, quirk, crank, quiddity, concetto, plaisanterie[Fr], brilliant idea; merry thought, bright thought, happy thought; sally; flash of wit, flash of merriment; scintillation; mot[Fr], mot pour rire [French]; witticism, smart saying, bon-mot,jeu d'esprit[Fr],epigram; jest book; dry joke, quodlibet, cream of the jest.

word-play, jeu de mots[Fr]; play of words, play upon words; pun, punning; double entente, double entendre &c. (ambiguity) 520[Fr]; quibble, verbal quibble; conundrum &c. (riddle) 533; anagram, acrostic, double acrostic, trifling, idle conceit, turlupinade|.

old joke, tired joke, flat joke, Joe Miller|!.

V. joke, jest, crack a joke, make a joke, jape, cut jokes; perpetrate a joke; pun, perpetrate a pun; make fun of, make merry with; kid, kid around, fool around; set the table in a roar &c. (amuse) 840.

retort; banter &c. (ridicule) 856; ridentem dicere verum[Lat]; joke at one's expense.

take in jest. hope &c. 858.

[make a joke which is not funny] bomb, fall flat; go over like a lead balloon.

Adj. witty, attic; quick-witted, nimble-witted; smart; jocular, jocose, humorous; facetious, waggish, whimsical; kidding, joking, puckish; playful &c. 840; merry and wise; pleasant, sprightly, light, spirituel, sparkling, epigrammatic, full of point, ben trovato[It]; comic &c. 853.

zany, madcap.

funny, amusing &c. (amusement) 840.

Adv. jokingly, in joke, in jest, in sport, in play.

Phr. adhibenda est in jocando moderatio[Lat]; "gentle dullness ever loves a joke" [Pope]; "leave this keen encounter of our wits" [Richard III]; just joking, just kidding; "surely you jest!".

843. Dullness[edit]

N. dullness, heaviness, flatness; infestivity &c. 837, stupidity &c. 499; want of originality; dearth of ideas.

prose, matter of fact; heavy book, conte a dormir debout[Fr]; platitude.

V. be dull &c. adj.; prose, take au serieux[Fr], be caught napping.

render dull &c. adj.; damp, depress, throw cold water on, lay a wet blanket on; fall flat upon the ear.

no joke, serious matter (importance) 642.

Adj. dull, dull as ditch water; unentertaining, uninteresting, flat, dry as dust; unfunny, unlively, logy [U.S.]; unimaginative; insulse; dry as dust; prosy, prosing, prosaic; matter of fact, commonplace, pedestrian, pointless; "weary stale flat and unprofitable" [Hamlet].

stupid, slow, flat, insipid, vapid, humdrum, monotonous; melancholic &c. 837; stolid &c. 499; plodding.

boring, tiresome, tedious &c. 841.

Phr. davus sum non Aedipus; deadly dull and boring, DDB[abbr].

844. Humorist[edit]

N. humorist, wag, wit, reparteeist, epigrammatist, punster; bel esprit, life of the party; wit-snapper, wit- cracker, wit-worm; joker, jester, Joe Miller|!, drole de corps, gaillard, spark; bon diable[Fr]; practical joker.

buffoon, farceur[French], merry-andrew, mime, tumbler, acrobat, mountebank, charlatan, posturemaster, harlequin, punch, pulcinella, scaramouch, clown; wearer of the cap and bells, wearer of the motley; motley fool; pantaloon, gypsy; jack-pudding, jack in the green, jack a dandy; wiseacre, wise guy, smartass [coll.]; fool &c. 501.

zany, madcap; pickle-herring, witling, caricaturist, grimacier; persifleur.

2. Discriminative Affections[edit]

845. Beauty[edit]

N. beauty, the beautiful, <gr to="" kalon="" gr="">[Grk], le beau ideal.

[Science of the perception of beauty] aesthetics, callaesthetics|!.

[of people] pulchritude, form elegance, grace, beauty unadorned, natural beauty; symmetry &c. 242; comeliness, fairness &c. adj.; polish, gloss; good effect, good looks; belle tournure; trigness; bloom, brilliancy, radiance, splendor, gorgeousness, magnificence; sublimity, sublimification|. hope &c. 858.

concinnity, delicacy, refinement; charm, je ne sais quoi[Fr], style.

Venus, Aphrodite, Hebe, the Graces, Peri, Houri, Cupid, Apollo, Hyperion, Adonis, Antionous, Narcissus.

peacock, butterfly; garden; flower of, pink of; bijou; jewel &c. (ornament) 847; work of art.

flower, flow'ret gay, wildflower; rose[flowers: list], lily, anemone, asphodel, buttercup, crane's bill, daffodil, tulip, tiger lily, day lily, begonia, marigold, geranium, lily of the valley, ranunculus[ISA:herb@flowering], rhododendron, windflower.

pleasurableness &c 829.

beautifying; landscaping, landscape gardening; decoration &c. 847; calisthenics|!.

[person who is beautiful] beauty; hunk [of men].

V. be beautiful &c. adj.; shine, beam, bloom; become one &c. (accord) 23; set off, grace.

render beautiful &c. adj.; beautify; polish, burnish; gild &c. (decorate) 847; set out.

"snatch a grace beyond the reach of art" [Pope].

Adj. beautiful, beauteous; handsome; gorgeous; pretty; lovely, graceful, elegant, prepossessing; attractive &c. (inviting) 615; delicate, dainty, refined; fair, personable, comely, seemly; bonny [Scottish]; good- looking; well-favored, well-made, well-formed, well-proportioned; proper, shapely; symmetrical &c. (regular) 242; harmonious &c. (color) 428; sightly.

fit to be seen, passable, not amiss.

goodly, dapper, tight, jimp; gimp; janty, jaunty; trig, natty, quaint, trim, tidy,neat, spruce, smart, tricksy.

bright, bright eyed; rosy cheeked, cherry cheeked; rosy, ruddy; blooming, in full bloom.

brilliant, shining; beamy, beaming; sparkling, splendid, resplendent, dazzling, glowing; glossy, sleek.

rich, superb, magnificent, grand, fine, sublime, showy, specious.

artistic, artistical; aesthetic; picturesque, pictorial; fait a peindre[Fr]; well-composed, well grouped, well varied; curious.

enchanting &c. (pleasure-giving) 829; becoming &c. (accordant) 23; ornamental &c. 847.

undeformed, undefaced, unspotted; spotless &c. (perfect) 650.

Phr. auxilium non leve vultus habet [Lat][Ovid]; "beauty born of murmuring sound" [Wordsworth]; "flowers preach to us if we will hear" [C.G. Rossetti]; gratior ac pulchro veniens in corpore virtus [Lat][Vergil]; "none but the brave deserve the fair" [Dryden]; "thou who hast the fatal gift of beauty" [Byron]. </gr>

846. Ugliness[edit]

N. ugliness &c. adj.; deformity, inelegance; acomia; disfigurement &c. (blemish) 848; want of symmetry, inconcinnity; distortion &c. 243; squalor &c. (uncleanness) 653.

forbidding countenance, vinegar aspect, hanging look, wry face, "spretae injuria formae" [Vergil].

[person who is ugly] eyesore, object, witch, hag, figure, sight, fright; monster; dog[coll.], woofer[coll.], pig[coll.]; octopus, specter, scarecrow, harridan|!, satyr|!, toad, monkey, baboon, Caliban, Aesop, "monstrum horrendum informe ingens cui lumen ademptum" [Latin][Vergil].

V. be ugly &c. adj.; look ill, grin horribly a ghastly smile, make faces.

render ugly &c. adj.; deface; disfigure, defigure|; distort &c. 23; blemish &c. (injure) 659; soil &c. (render unclean) 653. hope &c. 858.

Adj. ugly, ugly as sin, ugly as a toad, ugly as a scarecrow, ugly as a dead monkey; plain, bald (unadorned) 849; homely ; ordinary, unornamental, inartistic; unsightly, unseemly, uncomely, unlovely; unshapely; sightless, seemless; not fit to be seen; unbeauteous, unbeautiful; beautiless, semibeautiful; shapeless &c. (amorphous) 241.

misshapen, misproportioned; monstrous; gaunt &c. (thin) 203; dumpy &c. (short) 201; curtailed of its fair proportions; ill-made, ill- shaped, ill-proportioned; crooked &c. (distorted) 243; hard featured, hard visaged; ill-favored, hard-favored, evil-favored; ill-looking; unprepossessing, unattractive, uninviting, unpleasing.

graceless, inelegant; ungraceful, ungainly, uncouth, stiff; rugged, rough, gross, rude, awkward, clumsy, slouching, rickety; gawky; lumping, lumpish; lumbering; hulky, hulking; unwieldy.

squalid, haggard; grim, grim faced, grim visaged; grisly, ghastly; ghost like, death like; cadaverous, grewsome, gruesome.

frightful, hideous, odious, uncanny, forbidding; repellant, repulsive, repugnant, grotesque, bizarre; grody [coll.], grody to the max [coll.]; horrid, horrible; shocking &c. (painful) 830.

foul &c. (dirty) 653; dingy &c. (colorless) 429; gaudy &c. (color) 428; disfigured &c. v.; discolored.

847. Ornament[edit]

N. ornament; floridness c. adj. turgidity, turgescence; altiloquence &c. adj.; declamation, teratology|!; well-rounded periods; elegance &c. 578; orotundity.

inversion, antithesis, alliteration, paronomasia; figurativeness &c. (metaphor) 521.

flourish; flowers of speech, flowers of rhetoric; frills of style, euphuism, euphemism.

big-sounding words, high-sounding words; macrology, sesquipedalia verba[Lat], Alexandrine; inflation, pretension; rant, bombast, fustian, prose run mad; fine writing; sesquipedality; Minerva press.

phrasemonger; euphuist, euphemist.

V. ornament, overlay with ornament, overcharge; smell of the lamp.

Adj. ornament &c. v.; beautified &c. 847; ornate, florid, rich, flowery; euphuistic, euphemistic; sonorous; high-sounding, big- sounding; inflated, swelling, tumid; turgid, turgescent; pedantic, pompous, stilted; orotund; high flown, high flowing; sententious, rhetorical, declamatory; grandiose; grandiloquent, magniloquent, altiloquent; sesquipedal, sesquipedalian; Johnsonian, mouthy; bombastic; fustian; frothy, flashy, flaming.

antithetical, alliterative; figurative &c. 521; artificial &c. (inelegant) 579.

Adv. ore rutundo[Lat].

847a. Jewelry[edit]

N. jewel[ornaments worn by people on the body][general], jewelry, jewellery; bijoutry|!; bijou, bijouterie[Fr]; trinket ;fine jewelry; costume jewelry, junk jewelry; gem, gemstone, precious stone.

[forms of jewelry: list] necklace, bracelet, anklet; earring; locket, pendant, charm bracelet; ring, pinky ring; carcanet; chain, chatelaine; broach, pin, lapel pin, torque.

[gemstones: list] diamond, brilliant, rock[coll.]; beryl, emerald; chalcedony, agate, heliotrope; girasol, girasole; onyx, plasma; sard, sardonyx; garnet, lapis lazuli, opal, peridot[ISA:gemstone], tourmaline , chrysolite; sapphire, ruby, synthetic ruby; spinel, spinelle; balais; oriental, oriental topaz; turquois, turquoise; zircon, cubic zirconia; jacinth, hyacinth, carbuncle, amethyst; alexandrite, cat's eye, bloodstone, hematite, jasper, moonstone, sunstone.

[jewelry materials derived from living organisms] pearl, cultured pearl, fresh-water pearl; mother of pearl; coral.

[person who sells jewels] jeweler.

[person who studies gemstones] gemologist; minerologist.

[person who cuts gemstones] lapidary, lapidarian.

[study of gemstones] gemology, gemmology; minerology.

V. shine like a diamond.

Adj. bejeweled; diamond &c. n[gemstones]..


848. Blemish[edit]

N. blemish, disfigurement, deformity; adactylism; flaw, defect &c. (imperfection) 651 ; injury &c. (deterioration) 659; spots on the sun|!; eyesore.

stain, blot; spot, spottiness; speck, speckle, blur.

tarnish, smudge; dirt &c. 653.

[blemish on a person's skin: list] freckle, mole, macula[Anat], patch, blotch, birthmark; blobber lip, blubber lip; blain, maculation, ; scar, wem|; pustule; whelk; excrescence, pimple &c. (protuberance) 250.

V. disfigure &c. (injure) 659; speckle.

Adj. pitted, freckled, discolored; imperfect &c. 651; blobber-lipped, bloodshot; injured &c. (deteriorated) 659.

849. Simplicity[edit]

N. simplicity; plainness, homeliness; undress, chastity.

V. be simple &c. adj.

render simple &c. adj.; simplify, uncomplicate.

Adj. simple, plain; homely, homespun; ordinary, household.

unaffected; ingenuous, sincere (artless) 703; free from affectation, free from ornament; simplex munditiis [Lat][Horace]; sans facon[Fr], en deshabille[Fr].

chaste, inornate, severe. hope &c. 858.

unadorned, bare, unornamented, undecked, ungarnished, unarranged, untrimmed, unvarnished.

bald, flat, dull.

Phr. veritatis simplex oratio est[Lat].

850. Taste[edit]

[Good taste.]

N. taste; good taste, refined taste, cultivated taste; delicacy, refinement, fine feeling, gust, gusto, tact, finesse; nicety &c. (discrimination) 465; <gr to="" prepon="" gr="">[Grk]; polish, elegance, grace.

judgment, discernment &c. 465.

dilettantism, dilettanteism; virtu; fine art; culture, cultivation.

[Science of taste] aesthetics.

man of taste &c. ; connoisseur, judge, critic, conoscente, virtuoso, amateur, dilettante, Aristarchus, Corinthian, arbiter elegantiarum[Lat], stagirite, euphemist.

"caviare to the general" [Hamlet].

V. appreciate, judge, criticise, discriminate &c. 465

Adj. in good taste, cute, tasteful, tasty; unaffected, pure, chaste, classical, attic; cultivated, refined; dainty; esthetic, aesthetic, artistic; elegant &c 578; euphemistic.

to one's taste, to one's mind; after one's fancy; comme il faut[Fr]; tire a quatre epingles[Fr].

Adv. elegantly &c. adj.

Phr. nihil tetigit quod non ornavit [Lat][from Johnson's epitaph on Goldsmith]; chacun a son gout[Fr]; oculi pictura tenentur aures cantibus [Lat][Cicero]. </gr>

851. Vulgarity[edit]

[Bad taste.]

N. vulgarity, vulgarism; barbarism, Vandalism, Gothicism|!; mauvis gout[Fr], bad taste; gaucherie, awkwardness, want of tact; ill-breeding &c. (discourtesy) 895.

courseness &c. adj.; indecorum, misbehavior.

lowness, homeliness; low life, mauvais ton[Fr], rusticity; boorishness &c. adj.; brutality; rowdyism, blackguardism; ribaldry; slang &c. (neology) 563.

bad joke, mauvais plaisanterie[Fr].

[Excess of ornament] gaudiness, tawdriness; false ornament; finery, frippery, trickery, tinsel, gewgaw, clinquant; baroque, rococo.

rough diamond, tomboy, hoyden, cub, unlicked cub; clown &c. (commonalty) 876; Goth, Vandal, Boeotian; snob, cad, gent; parvenu &c. 876; frump, dowdy; slattern &c. 653.

V. be vulgar &c. adj.; misbehave; talk shop, smell of the shop.

Adj. in bad taste vulgar, unrefined.

coarse, indecorous, ribald, gross; unseemly, unbeseeming, unpresentable; contra bonos mores[Lat]; ungraceful &c. (ugly) 846.

dowdy; slovenly &c. (dirty) 653; ungenteel, shabby genteel; low, common, hoi polloi[Grk] &c. (plebeian) 876; uncourtly; uncivil &c. (discourteous) 895; ill bred, ill mannered; underbred; ungentlemanly, ungentlemanlike; unladylike, unfeminine; wild, wild as an unbacked colt.

untutored, unschooled (ignorant) 491.

unkempt. uncombed, untamed, unlicked, unpolished, uncouth; plebeian; incondite; heavy, rude, awkward; homely, homespun, home bred; provincial, countrified, rustic; boorish, clownish; savage, brutish, blackguard, rowdy, snobbish; barbarous, barbaric; Gothic, unclassical, doggerel, heathenish, tramontane, outlandish; uncultivated; Bohemian.

obsolete &c. (antiquated) 124; unfashionable ; newfangled &c. (unfamiliar) 83; odd &c. (ridiculous) 853. hope &c. 858.

particular; affected &c. 855; meretricious; extravagant, monstrous, horrid; shocking &c. (painful) 830.

gaudy, tawdry, overornamented, baroque, rococo; bedizened, tricked out, gingerbread; obtrusive.

852. Fashion[edit]

N. fashion, style, ton, bon ton|!, society; good society, polite society; monde[Fr]; drawing-room, civilized life, civilization, town, beau monde[Fr], high life, court; world; fashionable world, gay world; Vanity Fair; show &c. (ostentation) 822.

manners, breeding &c. (politeness) 894; air, demeanor &c. (appearance) 448; savoir faire[Fr]; gentlemanliness, gentility, decorum, propriety, biens�ance[Fr]; conventions of society; Mrs. Grundy; punctilio; form, formality; etiquette, point of etiquette; dress &c. 225.

custom &c. 613; mode, vogue, go; rage &c. (desire) 865; prevailing taste; fad, trend, bandwagon, furore, thing, in thing, craze, chic, last word.

man of fashion, woman of fashion, man of the world, woman of the world; height of fashion, pink of fashion, star of fashion, glass of fashion, leader of fashion; arbiter elegantiarum &c. (taste) 850[Lat]; the beautiful people, the fashion set, upper ten thousand &c. (nobility) 875; elite &c. (distinction) 873; smart set; the four hundred [U.S.]; in crowd.

V. be fashionable &c. adj., be the rage &c. n.; have a run, pass current.

follow the fashion, conform to the fashion, fall in with the fashion, follow the trend, follow the crowd &c. n.; go with the stream &c. (conform) 82; savoir vivre[Fr], savoir faire[Fr]; keep up appearances, behave oneself.

set the fashion, bring in the fashion; give a tone to society, cut a figure in society; keep one's carriage.

Adj. fashionable; in fashion &c. n.; a la mode, comme il faut[Fr]; admitted in society, admissible in society &c. n.; presentable; conventional &c. (customary) 613; genteel; well-bred, well mannered, well behaved, well spoken; gentlemanlike, gentlemanly; ladylike; civil, polite &c. (courteous) 894.

polished, refined, thoroughbred, courtly; distingue[Fr]; unembarrassed, degage[Fr]; janty, jaunty; dashing, fast.

modish, stylish, chic, trendy, recherche; newfangled &c. (unfamiliar) 83; all the rage, all the go|!; with it, in, faddish, .

in court, in full dress, in evening dress; en grande tenue[Fr] &c. (ornament) 847.

Adv. fashionably &c. adj.; for fashion's sake.

Phr. a la francaise, a la parisienne; a l' anglaise[Fr], a l' americaine[Fr]; autre temps autre mauers[Fr]; chaque pays a sa guise[Fr].

853. Ridiculousness[edit]

N. ridiculousness &c. adj.; comicality, oddity &c. adj.; extravagance, drollery.

farce, comedy; burlesque &c. (ridicule) 856; buffoonery &c. (fun) 840; frippery; doggerel verses; absurdity &c. 497; bombast &c. (unmeaning) 517; anticlimax, bathos; eccentricity, monstrosity &c. (unconformity) 83; laughingstock &c. 857.

V. be ridiculous &c. adj.; pass from the sublime to the ridiculous; make one laugh; play the fool, make a fool of oneself, commit an absurdity.

Adj. ridiculous, ludicrous; comical; droll, funny, laughable, pour rire, grotesque, farcical, odd; whimsical, whimsical as a dancing bear; fanciful, fantastic, queer, rum, quizzical, quaint, bizarre; screaming; eccentric &c. (unconformable) 83; strange, outlandish, out of the way, baroque, weird; awkward &c. (ugly) 846. hope &c. 858.

extravagant, outre, monstrous, preposterous, bombastic, inflated, stilted, burlesque, mock heroic.

drollish; seriocomic, tragicomic; gimcrack, contemptible &c. (unimportant) 643; doggerel; ironical &c. (derisive) 856; risible.

Phr. risum teneatis amici [Horace]; rideret Heraclitus; du sublime au ridicule il n'y a qu'un pas [Napoleon].

854. Fop[edit]

N. fop, fine gentleman; swell; dandy, dandiprat|!; exquisite, coxcomb, beau, macaroni, blade, blood, buck, man about town, fast man; fribble, milliner|!; Jemmy Jessamy|!, carpet knight; masher, dude. fine lady, coquette; flirt, vamp.

855. Affectation[edit]

N. affectation; affectedness &c. adj.; acting a part &c. v.; pretense &c. (falsehood) 544, (ostentation) 882; boasting &c. 884.

charlatanism, quackery, shallow profundity; pretension, airs, pedantry, purism, precisianism, euphuism; teratology &c. (altiloquence) 577.

mannerism, simagree, grimace.

conceit, foppery, dandyism, man millinery, coxcombry, puppyism.

stiffness, formality, buckram; prudery, demureness, coquetry, mock modesty, minauderie, sentimentalism; mauvais honte, false shame.

affector, performer, actor; pedant, pedagogue, doctrinaire, purist, euphuist, mannerist; grimacier; lump of affectation, precieuse ridicule[Fr], bas bleu[Fr], blue stocking, poetaster; prig; charlatan &c. (deceiver) 548; petit maitre &c. (fop) 854; flatterer &c. 935; coquette, prude, puritan.

V. affect, act a part, put on; give oneself airs &c. (arrogance) 885; boast &c. 884; coquet; simper, mince, attitudinize, pose; flirt a fan; overact, overdo.

Adj. affected, full of affectation, pretentious, pedantic, stilted, stagy, theatrical, big-sounding, ad captandum; canting, insincere.

not natural, unnatural; self-conscious; maniere; artificial; overwrought, overdone, overacted; euphuist &c. 577.

stiff, starch, formal, prim, smug, demure, tire a quatre epingles, quakerish, puritanical, prudish, pragmatical, priggish, conceited, coxcomical, foppish, dandified; finical, finikin; mincing, simpering, namby-pamby, sentimental.

Phr. "conceit in weakest bodies strongest works" [Hamlet].

856. Ridicule[edit]

N. ridicule, derision; sardonic smile, sardonic grin; irrision; scoffing &c. (disrespect) 929; mockery, quiz|!, banter, irony, persiflage, raillery, chaff, badinage; quizzing &c. v.; asteism.

squib, satire, skit, quip, quib, grin.

parody, burlesque, travesty, travestie; farce &c. (drama) 599; caricature.

buffoonery &c. (fun) 840; practical joke; horseplay.

scorn, contempt &c. 930.

V. ridicule[transitive], deride, mock, taunt; snigger; laugh in one's sleeve; tease[ridicule lightly], badinage, banter, rally, chaff, joke, twit, quiz, roast; haze [U.S.]; tehee; fleer; show up.

[i.p.] play upon, play tricks upon; fool to the top of one's bent; laugh at, grin at, smile at; poke fun at.

satirize, parody, caricature, burlesque, travesty.

turn into ridicule; make merry with; make fun of, make game of, make a fool of, make an April fool of; rally; scoff &c. (disrespect) 929. hope &c. 858.

raise a laugh &c. (amuse) 840; play the fool, make a fool of oneself.

Adj. derisory, derisive; mock, mocking; sarcastic, ironic, ironical, quizzical, burlesque, Hudibrastic; scurrilous &c. (disrespectful) 929.

Adv. in ridicule &c. n.

857. Laughingstock[edit]

[Object and cause of ridicule.]

N. laughingstock, jestingstock, gazingstock; butt, game, fair game; April fool &c. (dupe) 547.

original, oddity; queer fish, odd fish; quiz, square toes; old monkey, old fogey, fogey monkey, fogy monkey; buffoon &c. (jester) 844; pantomimist &c. (actor) 599.


jest &c. (wit) 842.

Phr. dum vitant stulti vitia in contraria currunt[Lat].

3. Prospective Affections[edit]

858. Hope[edit]

N. hope, hopes; desire &c. 865; fervent hope, sanguine expectation, trust, confidence, reliance; faith &c. (belief) 484; affiance, assurance; secureness, security; reassurance.

good omen, good auspices; promise, well grounded hopes; good prospect, bright prospect; clear sky.

assumption, presumption; anticipation &c. (expectation) 507.

hopefulness, buoyancy, optimism, enthusiasm, heart of grace, aspiration.

[person who is hopeful] optimist, utopian, utopist.

castles in the air, castles in Spain, chateaux en Espagne[Fr], le pot aut lait[Fr], Utopia, millennium; day dream, golden dream; dream of Alnaschar; airy hopes, fool's paradise; mirage &c. (fallacies of vision) 443; fond hope.

beam of hope, ray of hope, gleam of hope, glimmer of hope, flash of hope, dawn of hope, star of hope; cheer; bit of blue sky, silver lining, silver lining of the cloud, bottom of Pandora's box, balm in Gilead; light at the end of the tunnel.

anchor, sheet anchor, mainstay; staff &c. (support) 215; heaven &c. 981.

V. hope, trust, confide, rely on, put one's trust in; lean upon; pin one's hope upon, pin one's faith upon &c. (believe) 484.

feel hope, entertain hope, harbor hope, indulge hope, cherish hope, feed hope, foster hope, nourish hope, encourage hope, cling to hope, live in hope, &c. n.; see land; feel assured, rest assured, feel confident, rest confident &c. adj.

presume; promise oneself; expect &c. (look forward to) 507.

hope for &c. (desire) 865; anticipate.

be hopeful &c. adj.; look on the bright side of, view on the sunny side, voir en couleur de rose[Fr], make the best of it, hope for the best; put a good face upon, put a bold face upon, put the best face upon; keep one's spirits up; take heart, take heart of grace; be of good heart, be of good cheer; flatter oneself, "lay the flattering unction to one's soul"

catch at a straw[hamlet], hope against hope, reckon one's chickens before they are hatched, count one's chickens before they are hatched.

[cause hope] give hope, inspire hope, raise hope, hold out hope &c. n.; promise, bid fair, augur well, be in a fair way, look up, flatter, tell a flattering tale; raise expectations[sentient subject]; encourage, cheer, assure, reassure, buoy up, embolden. hope &c. 858.

Adj. hoping &c. v.; in hopes &c. n.; hopeful, confident; secure &c. (certain) 484; sanguine, in good heart, buoyed up, buoyant, elated, flushed, exultant, enthusiastic; heartsome; utopian.

unsuspecting, unsuspicious; fearless, free from fear, free from suspicion, free from distrust, free from despair, exempt from fear, exempt from suspicion, exempt from distrust, exempt from despair; undespairing, self reliant.

probable, on the high road to; within sight of shore, within sight of land; promising, propitious; of promise, full of promise; of good omen; auspicious, de bon augure[Fr]; reassuring; encouraging, cheering, inspiriting, looking up, bright, roseate, couleur de rose[Fr], rose- colored.

Adv. hopefully &c. adj.

Int. God speed!

Phr. nil desperandum [Lat][Horace]; never say die, dum spiro spero[Lat], latet scintillula forsan[Lat], all is for the best, spero meliora[Lat]; every cloud has a silver lining; " the wish being father to the thought" [Henry IV]; "hope told a flattering tale"; rusticus expectat dum defluat amnis[Lat].

at spes non fracta[Lat]; ego spem prietio non emo [Lat][Terence]; un Dieu est ma fiance[Fr]; " hope! thou nurse of young desire " [Bickerstaff]; in hoc signo spes mea[Lat]; in hoc signo vinces[Lat]; la speranza e il pan de miseri[It]; l'esperance est le songe d'un homme eveille[Fr]; " the mighty hopes that make us men" [Tennyson]; " the sickening pang of hope deferred " [Scott].

859. Hopelessness[edit]

N. hopelessness &c. adj.; despair, desperation; despondency, depression &c. (dejection) 837; pessimism, pessimist; Job's comforter; bird of bad omen, bird of ill omen.

abandonment, desolation; resignation, surrender, submission &c. 725.

hope deferred, dashed hopes; vain expectation &c. (disappointment) 509.

airy hopes &c. &c 858; forlorn hope; gone case, dead duck, gone coon* [U.S.]; goner*; bad job, bad business; enfant perdu[Fr]; gloomy horizon, black spots in the horizon; slough of Despond, cave of Despair; immedicabile vulnus[Lat].

V. despair; lose all hope, give up all hope, abandon all hope, relinquish all hope, lose the hope of, give up the hope of, abandon the hope of, relinquish the hope of; give up, give over; yield to despair; falter; despond &c. (be dejected) 837; jeter le manche apres la cognee[Fr].

inspire despair, drive to despair &c. n.; disconcert; dash one's hopes, crush one's hopes, destroy one's hopes; hope against hope.

abandon; resign, surrender, submit &c. 725.

Adj. hopeless, desperate, despairing, gone, in despair, au desespoir[Fr], forlorn, desolate; inconsolable &c. (dejected) 837; broken hearted.

unpromising, unpropitious; inauspicious, ill-omened, threatening, clouded over.

out of the question, not to be thought of; impracticable &c. 471; past hope, past cure, past mending, past recall; at one's last gasp &c. (death) 360; given up, given over.

incurable, cureless, immedicable, remediless, beyond remedy; incorrigible; irreparable, irremediable, irrecoverable, irreversible, irretrievable, irreclaimable, irredeemable, irrevocable; ruined, undone; immitigable.

Phr. "lasciate ogni speranza voi ch'entrate" [Dante]; its days are numbered; the worst come to the worst; "no change, no pause, no hope, yet I hope &c. 858. endure" [Shelley]; "O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon" [Milton]; "mene mene tekel upharson" [Old Testament].

860. Fear[edit]

N. fear, timidity, diffidence, want of confidence; apprehensiveness, fearfulness &c. adj.; solicitude, anxiety, care, apprehension, misgiving; feeze [U.S.]; mistrust &c. (doubt) 485; suspicion, qualm; hesitation &c. (irresolution) 605.

nervousness, restlessness &c. adj.; inquietude, disquietude, worry, concern; batophobia; heartquake; flutter, trepidation, fear and trembling, perturbation, tremor, quivering, shaking, trembling, throbbing heart, palpitation, ague fit, cold sweat; abject fear &c. (cowardice) 862; mortal funk, heartsinking, despondency; despair &c. 859.

fright; affright, affrightment; boof alarm[U.S.], dread, awe, terror, horror, dismay, consternation, panic, scare, stampede [of horses].

intimidation, terrorism, reign of terror.

[Object of fear] bug bear, bugaboo; scarecrow; hobgoblin &c. (demon) 980; nightmare, Gorgon, mormo, ogre, Hurlothrumbo, raw head and bloody bones, fee-faw-fum, bete noire[Fr], enfant terrible[Fr].

alarmist &c. (coward) 862.

V. fear, stand in awe of; be afraid &c. adj.; have qualms &c. n.; apprehend, sit upon thorns, eye askance; distrust &c. (disbelieve) 485.

hesitate &c. (be irresolute) 605; falter, funk, cower, crouch; skulk &c. (cowardice) 862; let " I dare not" wait upon "I would "; take fright, take alarm; start, wince, flinch, shy, shrink; fly &c. (avoid) 623.

tremble, shake; shiver, shiver in one's shoes; shudder, flutter; shake like an aspen leaf, tremble like an aspen leaf, tremble all over; quake, quaver, quiver, quail.

grow pale, turn pale; blench, stand aghast; not dare to say one's soul is one's own.

inspire fear, excite fear, inspire awe, excite awe; raise aprehensions; be in a daze, bulldoze [U. S.]; faze, feeze [U. S.]; give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm; alarm, startle, scare, cry " wolf," disquiet, dismay; fright, frighten, terrify; astound; fright from one's propriety; fright out of one's senses, fright out of one's wits, fright out of one's seven senses; awe; strike all of a heap, strike an awe into, strike terror; harrow up the soul, appall, unman, petrify, horrify; pile on the agony.

make one's flesh creep, make one's hair stand on end, make one's blood run cold, make one's teeth chatter; take away one's breath, stop one's breath; make one tremble &c.

haunt; prey on the mind, weigh on the mind.

put in fear, put in bodily fear; terrorize, intimidate, cow, daunt, overawe, abash, deter, discourage; browbeat, bully; threaten &c. 909.

Adj. fearing &c. v.; frightened &c. v.; in fear, in a fright &c. n.; haunted with the fear of &c. n.; afeard.

afraid, fearful; timid, timorous; nervous, diffident, coy, faint- hearted, tremulous, shaky, afraid of one's shadow, apprehensive, restless, fidgety; more frightened than hurt.

aghast; awe-stricken, horror-stricken, terror-stricken, panic- stricken, awestruck, awe-stricken, horror-struck; frightened to death, white as a sheet; pale, pale as a ghost, pale as death, pale as ashes; breathless, in hysterics.

inspiring fear &c. v.; alarming; formidable, redoubtable; perilous &c. (danger) 665; portentous; fearful; dread, dreadful; fell; dire, direful; shocking; terrible, terrific; tremendous; horrid, horrible, horrific; ghastly; awful, awe-inspiring; revolting &c. (painful) 830; Gorgonian.

Adv. in terrorem[Lat].

Int. " angels and ministers of grace defend us!" [Hamlet]. hope &c. 858.

Phr. ante tubam trepidat[Latin]; horresco referens[Latin], one's heart failing one, obstupui steteruntque comae et vox faucibus haesit [Lat][Vergil].

"a dagger of the mind " [Macbeth]; expertus metuit [Lat][Horace]; " fain would I climb but that I fear to fall" [Raleigh]; " fear is the parent of cruelty " [Froude]; " Gorgons and hydras and chimeras dire " [Paradise Lost]; omnia tuta timens [Latin][Vergil]; " our fears do make us traitors "

861. Courage[edit]

N. courage, bravery, valor; resoluteness, boldness &c. adj.; spirit, daring, gallantry, intrepidity; contempt of danger, defiance of danger; derring-do; audacity; rashness &c. 863; dash; defiance &c. 715; confidence, self-reliance.

manliness, manhood; nerve, pluck, mettle, game; heart, heart of grace; spunk, , guts, face, virtue, hardihood, fortitude, intestinal fortitude; firmness &c. (stability) 150; heart of oak; bottom, backbone, spine &c. (perseverance) 604a. resolution &c. (determination) 604; bulldog courage.

prowess, heroism, chivalry.

exploit, feat, achievement; heroic deed, heroic act; bold stroke.

man, man of mettle; hero, demigod, Amazon, Hector; lion, tiger, panther, bulldog; gamecock, fighting-cock; bully, fire eater &c. 863.

V. be courageous &c. adj.; dare, venture, make bold; face danger, front danger, affront danger, confront danger, brave danger, defy danger, despise danger, mock danger; look in the face; look full in the face, look boldly in the face, look danger in the face; face; meet, meet in front; brave, beard; defy &c. 715.

take courage, muster courage, summon up courage, pluck up courage; nerve oneself, take heart; take heart, pluck up heart of grace; hold up one's head, screw one's courage to the sticking place; come up to scratch; stick to one's guns, standfire, stand against; bear up, bear up against; hold out &c. (persevere) 604a.

put a bold face upon; show a bold front, present a bold front; show fight; face the music.

bell the cat, take the bull by the horns, beard the lion in his den, march up to the cannon's mouth, go through fire and water, run the gantlet.

give courage, infuse courage, inspire courage; reassure, encourage, embolden, inspirit, cheer, nerve, put upon one's mettle, rally, raise a rallying cry; pat on the back, make a man of., keep in countenance.

Adj. courageous, brave; valiant, valorous; gallant, intrepid; spirited, spiritful; high-spirited, high-mettled; mettlesome, plucky; manly, manful; resolute; stout,.stout-hearted; iron-hearted, lion- hearted; heart of oak; Penthesilean.

bold, bold-spirited; daring, audacious; fearless, dauntless, dreadless, aweless; undaunted, unappalled, undismayed, unawed, unblanched, unabashed, unalarmed, unflinching, unshrinking, unblanching, unapprehensive; confident, self-reliant; bold as a lion, bold as brass.

enterprising, adventurous; venturous, venturesome; dashing, chivalrous; soldierly &c. (warlike) 722; heroic.

fierce, savage; pugnacious &c. (bellicose) 720.

strong-minded, hardy, doughty; firm &c. (stable) 150; determined &c. (resolved) 604; dogged, indomitable &c. (persevering) 604a.

up to, up to the scratch; upon one's mettle; reassured &c. v.; unfeared, undreaded.

Phr. one's blood being up; courage sans peur [Fr];fortes fortuna adjuvat [Lat][Terence]; "have I not in my time heard lions roar " [Taming of the Shrew]; " I dare do all that may become a man " [Macbeth]; male hope &c. 858. vincetis sed vincite [Lat][Ovid]; omne solum forti patria[Lat]; " self- trust is the essence of heroism " [Emerson]; stimulos dedit oemula virtus [Lat][Lucan]; " strong and great, a hero " [Longfellow]; teloque animus proestantior omni [Lat][Ovid]; "there, is always safety in valor" [Emerson]; virtus ariete fortier[Lat].

862. Cowardice[edit]

N. cowardice, pusillanimity; cowardliness &c. adj.; timidity, effeminacy.

poltroonery, baseness; dastardness, dastardy; abject fear, funk; Dutch courage; fear &c. 860; white feather, faint heart; cold feet * [U. S.], yellow streak*.

coward, poltroon, dastard, sneak, recreant; shy cock, dunghill cock; coistril, milksop, white liver, lily liver, nidget, one that cannot say " bo" to a goose; slink; Bob Acres, Jerry Sneak.

alarmist, terrorist|!, pessimist; runagate &c. (fugitive) 623.

V. quail &c. (fear) 860; be cowardly &c. adj., be a coward &c. n.; funk; cower,skulk, sneak; flinch, shy, fight shy, slink, turn tail; run away &c. (avoid) 623; show, the white feather.

Adj. coward, cowardly; fearful, shy; timid, timorous; skittish; poor- spirited, spiritless, soft, effeminate.

weak-minded; infirm of purpose &c. 605; weak-hearted, fainthearted, chickenhearted, henhearted, lilyhearted, pigeon-hearted; white- livered, lily-livered, milk-livered; milksop, smock-faced; unable to say " bo " to a goose.

dastard, dastardly; base, craven, sneaking, dunghill, recreant; unwarlike, unsoldier-like.

" in face a lion but in heart a deer".

unmanned; frightened &c. 860.

Int. sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every man for himself]; devil take the hindmost!

Phr. ante tubam trepidat[Lat], one's courage oozing out; degeneres animos timor arguit [Lat][Vergil]. hope &c. 858.

863. Rashness[edit]

N. rashness &c. adj.; temerity, want of caution, imprudence, indiscretion; overconfidence, presumption, audacity.

precipitancy, precipitation; impetuosity,; levity; foolhardihood, foolhardiness; heedlessness, thoughtlessness &c. (inattention) 458; carelessness &c. (neglect) 460; desperation; Quixotism, knight-errantry; fire eating.

gaming, gambling; blind bargain, leap in the dark, leap of faith, fool's paradise; too many eggs in one basket.

desperado, rashling, madcap, daredevil, Hotspur, fire eater, bully, bravo, Hector, scapegrace, enfant perdu[Fr]; Don Quixote, knight- errant, Icarus; adventurer; gambler, gamester; dynamitard; boomer [U. S.].

V. be rash &c. adj.; stick at nothing, play a desperate game; run into danger &c. 665; play with fire, play with edge tools.

carry too much sail, sail too near the wind, ride at single anchor, go out of one's depth.

take a leap in the dark, buy a pig in a poke.

donner tete baissee [Fr]; knock, one's bead against a wall &c. (be unskillful) 699; rush on destruction; kick against the pricks, tempt Providence, go on a forlorn hope, go on a fool's errand.

reckon one's chickens before they are hatched, count one's chickens before they are hatched, reckon without one's host; catch at straws; trust to a broken reed, lean on a broken reed.

Adj. rash, incautious, indiscreet; imprudent, improvident, temerarious; uncalculating; heedless; careless &c. (neglectful) 460; without ballast, heels over head, head over heels; giddy &c. (inattentive) 458; wanton, reckless, wild, madcap; desperate, devil-may-care.

hot-blooded, hotheaded, hotbrained; headlong, headstrong; breakneck; foolhardy; harebrained; precipitate, impulsive. overconfident, overweening; venturesome, venturous; adventurous, Quixotic, fire eating, cavalier; janty, jaunty, free and easy.

off one's guard &c. (inexpectant) 508.

Adv. post haste, a corps perdu[Fr], hand over head, tete baissee[Fr], headforemost; happen what may, come what may.

Phr. neck or nothing, the devil being in one; non semper temeritas est felix [Lat][Livy]; paucis temeritas est bono multis malo [Lat][Phaedrus].

864. Caution[edit]

N. caution; cautiousness &c. adj.; discretion, prudence, cautel|, heed, circumspection, calculation, deliberation.

foresight &c. 510; vigilance &c. 459; warning &c. 668.

coolness &c. adj.; self-possession, self-command; presence of mind, sang froid[Fr]; well-regulated mind; worldly wisdom, Fabian policy.

V. be cautious &c. adj.; take care, take heed, take good care; have a care mind, what one is about; be on one's guard &c. (keep watch) 459; "make assurance doubly sure" [Macbeth].

bespeak &c. (be early) 132.

think twice, look before one leaps, count the cost, look to the main chance, cut one's coat according to one's cloth; feel one's ground, feel one's way; see how the land lies &c. (foresight) 510; wait to see how the cat jumps; bridle one's tongue; reculer pour mieux sauter &c. (prepare) 673[Fr]; let well alone, let well enough alone; let sleeping dogs lie, ne pas reveiller le chat qui dort [French: don't wake a sleeping cat].

keep out of harm's way, keep out of troubled waters; keep at a respectful distance, stand aloof; keep on the safe side, be on the safe side.

husband one's resources &c. 636.

caution &c. (warn) 668. hope &c. 858.

Adj. cautious, wary, guarded; on one's guard &c. (watchful) 459; cavendo tutus[Lat]; in medio tutissimus[Lat]; vigilant.

careful, heedful; cautelous|, stealthy, chary, shy of, circumspect, prudent, discreet, politic; sure-footed &c. (skillful) 698.

unenterprising, unadventurous, cool, steady, self-possessed; overcautious.

Adv. cautiously &c. adj.

Int. have a care!

Phr. timeo Danaos [Lat][Vergil]; festina lente[Lat].

ante victoriam ne canas triumphum [Lat: don't sing out victory before the triumph]; "give, every man thine ear but few thy voice" [Hamlet]; he who laughs last laughs best, il rit bien qui rit le dernier[Fr]; ni firmes carta que no leas ni bebas agua que no veas [Sp]; nescit vox missa reverti [Lat][Horace]; " love all, trust a few " [All's Well]; noli irritare leones [Lat]; safe bind safe find; " if it ain't broke, don't fix it" [Bert Lance].

865. Desire[edit]

N. desire, wish, fancy, fantasy; want, need, exigency.

mind, inclination, leaning, bent, animus, partiality, penchant, predilection; propensity &c. 820; willingness &c. 602; liking, love, fondness, relish.

longing, hankering, inkling; solicitude, anxiety; yearning, coveting; aspiration, ambition, vaulting ambition; eagerness, zeal, ardor, empressement[Fr], breathless impatience, overanxiety; impetuosity, &c. 825.

appetite, appetition, appetence, appetency; sharp appetite, keenness, hunger, stomach, twist; thirst, thirstiness; drouth, mouthwatering; itch, itching; prurience, cacoethes[Lat], cupidity, lust, concupiscence.

edge of appetite, edge of hunger; torment of Tantalus; sweet tooth, lickerish tooth; itching palm; longing eye, wistful eye, sheep's eye.

[excessive desire for money] greed &c. 817a.

voracity &c. (gluttony) 957.

passion, rage, furore, mania, manie|; inextinguishable desire; dipsomania, kleptomania.

[Person who desires] lover, amateur, votary, devotee, aspirant, solicitant, candidate, applicant, supplicant; cormorant &c. 957.

[Object of desire] desideratum; want &c. (requirement) 630; "a consummation devoutly to be wished "; attraction, magnet, allurement, fancy, temptation, seduction, fascination, prestige, height of one's ambition, idol; whim, whimsy, whimsey; maggot; hobby, hobby-horse.

Fortunatus's cap; wishing cap, wishing stone, wishing well.

care for, affect, like, list; take to, cling to, take a fancy to; fancy; prefer &c. (choose) 609.

have an eye, have a mind to; find it in one's heart &c. (be willing) 602; have a fancy for, set one's eyes upon; cast a sheep's eye upon, look sweet upon; take into one's head, have at heart, be bent upon; set one's cap at, set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon; covet.

want, miss, need, feel the want of, would fain have, would fain do; would be glad of.

be hungry &c. adj.; have a good appetite, play a good knife and fork; hunger after, thirst after, crave after, lust after, itch after, hanker after, run mad after; raven for, die for; burn to.

desiderate; sigh for, cry for, gape for, gasp for, pine for, pant for, languish for, yearn for, long, be on thorns for, hope for; aspire after; catch at, grasp at, jump at. hope &c. 858.

woo, court, solicit; fish for, spell for, whistle for, put up for; ogle.

cause desire, create desire, raise desire, excite desire, provoke desire; whet the appetite; appetize, titillate, allure, attract, take one's fancy, tempt; hold out temptation, hold out allurement; tantalize, make one's mouth water, faire venir l'eau a la bouche [Fr].

gratify desire &c. (give pleasure) 829.

Adj. desirous; desiring &c. v.; inclined &c. (willing) 602; partial to; fain, wishful, optative; anxious, wistful, curious; at a loss for, sedulous, solicitous. craving, hungry, sharp-set, peckish, ravening, with an empty stomach, esurient, lickerish, thirsty, athirst, parched with thirst, pinched with hunger, famished, dry, drouthy; hungry as a hunter, hungry as a hawk, hungry as a horse, hungry as a church mouse, hungry as a bear.

[excessively desirous] greedy &c. 817a.

unsatisfied, unsated, unslaked; unsaturated.

eager, avid, keen; burning, fervent, ardent; agog; all agog; breathless; impatient &c. (impetuous) 825; bent on, intent on, set on, bent upon, intent upon, set upon; mad after, enrage, rabid, dying for, devoured by desire.

aspiring, ambitious, vaulting, skyaspiring, high-reaching.

desirable; desired &c. v.; in demand; pleasing &c. (giving pleasure) 829; appetizing, appetible; tantalizing.

Adv. wistfully &c. adj.; fain.

Int. would that, would that it were! O for! esto perpetual

Phr[Lat]. the wish being father to the thought; sua cuique voluptas[Lat]; hoc erat in votis[Lat], the mouth watering, the fingers itching; aut Caesar aut nullus[Lat].

"Cassius has a lean and hungry look" [Jul. Caesar]; " hungry as the grave " [Thomson]; " I was born to other things " [Tennyson]; " not what we wish but what we want " [Merrick]; " such joy ambition finds " [P. L.]; " the sea hath bounds but deep desire hath none " [Venus and Adonis]; ubi mel ibi apes[Lat].

867. Indifference[edit]

N. indifference, neutrality; coldness &c. adj.; anaphrodisia; unconcern, insouciance, nonchalance; want of interest, want of earnestness; anorexy, anorexia, inappetency; apathy &c. (insensibility) 823; supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; disdain &c. 930; recklessness &c. 863; inattention &c. 458.

anaphrodisiac, antaphrodisiac; lust-quencher, passion- queller.

V. be indifferent &c. adj.; stand neuter; take no interest in &c. (insensibility) 823; have no desire for &c. 865,have no taste for, have no relish for; not care for; care nothing for, care nothing about; not care a straw about, not care a fig for, not care a whit about &c. (unimportance) 643; not mind.

set at naught &c. (make light of) 483; spurn &c. (disdain) 930.

Adj. indifferent, cold, frigid, lukewarm; cool, cool as a cucumber; unconcerned, insouciant, phlegmatic, pococurante, easygoing, devil- may-care, careless, listless, lackadaisical; half-hearted; unambitious, unaspiring, undesirous, unsolicitous, unattracted.

[indifferent toward people] aloof, unapproachable, remote; uncaring.

unattractive, unalluring, undesired, undesirable, uncared for, unwished, unvalued, all one to.

insipid &c. 391; vain.

Adv. for aught one cares.

Int. never mind; Who cares? whatever you like, whatever.

Phr. I couldn't care less, I could care less; anything will do; es macht nichts [German]. hope &c. 858.

868. Dislike[edit]

N. dislike, distaste, disrelish, disinclination, displacency.

reluctance; backwardness &c. (unwillingness) 603.

repugnance, disgust, queasiness, turn, nausea, loathing; averseness, aversation|, aversion; abomination, antipathy, abhorrence, horror; mortal antipathy, rooted antipathy, mortal horror, rooted horror; hatred, detestation; hate &c. 898; animosity &c. 900; hydrophobia; canine madness; byssa, xenophobia. sickener; gall and wormwood &c. (unsavory) 395; shuddering, cold sweat.

V. mislike misrelish, dislike, disrelish; mind, object to; have rather not, would rather not, prefer not to, not care for; have a dislike for, conceive a dislike to, entertain a dislike for, take a dislike to, have an aversion to, have an aversion for; have no taste for, have no stomach for.

shun, avoid &c. 623; eschew; withdraw from, shrink from, recoil from; not be able to bear, not be able to abide, not be able to endure; shrug the shoulders at, shudder at, turn up the nose at, look askance at; make a mouth, make a wry face, make a grimace; make faces.

loathe, nauseate, abominate, detest, abhor; hate &c. 898; take amiss &c. 900; have enough of &c. (be satiated) 869.

wish away, unwish

cause dislike, excite dislike; disincline, repel, sicken; make sick, render sick; turn one's stomach, nauseate, wamble, disgust, shock, stink in the nostrils; go against the grain, go against the stomach; stick in the throat; make one's blood run cold &c. (give pain) 830; pall.

Adj. disliking &c. v.; averse from, loathe, loathe to, loth, adverse; shy of, sick of, out of conceit with; disinclined; heartsick, dogsick; queasy.

disliked &c. v.; uncared for, unpopular; out of favor; repulsive, repugnant, repellant; abhorrent, insufferable, fulsome, nauseous; loathsome, loathful; offensive; disgusting &c. v.; disagreeable c. (painful) 830.

Adv. usque ad nauseam[Lat].

Int. faugh! foh! ugh!

Phr. non libet[Lat].

868. Fastidiousness[edit]

N. fastidiousness &c. adj.; nicety, hypercriticism, difficulty in being pleased, friandise[Fr], epicurism, omnia suspendens naso[Lat].

epicure, gourmet.

[Excess of delicacy] prudery.

V. be fastidious &c. adj.; have a sweet tooth.

mince the matter; turn up one's nose at &c. (disdain) 930; look a gift horse in the mouth, see spots on the sun.

Adj. fastidious, nice, delicate, delicat, finical, finicky, demanding, meticulous, exacting, strict, anal[vulg.], difficult, dainty, lickerish, squeamish, thin-skinned; squeasy, queasy; hard to please, difficult to please; querulous, particular, straitlaced, scrupulous; censorious &c. 932; hypercritical; overcritical.

Phr. noli me tangere[Lat].

869. Satiety[edit]

N. satiety, satisfaction, saturation, repletion, glut, surfeit; cloyment, satiation; weariness &c. 841. spoiled child; enfant gete[Fr], enfant terrible[Fr]; too much of a good thing, toujours perdrix[Fr]; crambe repetita[Lat].

V. sate, satiate, satisfy, saturate; cloy, quench, slake, pall, glut., gorge, surfeit; bore &c. (weary) 841; tire &c. (fatigue) 688; spoil. hope &c. 858.

have enough of, have quite enough of, have one's fill, have too much of; be satiated &c. adj.

Adj. satiated &c. v.; overgorged; blase, used up, sick of, heartsick.

Int. enough! hold! eheu jam satis[Lat]! basta!

4. Contemplative Affections[edit]

870. Wonder[edit]

N. wonder, marvel; astonishment, amazement, wonderment, bewilderment; amazedness &c. adj.; admiration, awe; stupor, stupefaction; stound|, fascination; sensation; surprise &c. (inexpectation) 5O8.

note of admiration; thaumaturgy &c.(sorcery) 992.

V. wonder, marvel, admire; be surprised &c. adj.; start; stare; open one's eyes, rub one's eyes, turn up one's eyes; gloar|; gape, open one's mouth, hold one's breath; look aghast, stand aghast, stand agog; look blank &c. (disappointment) 509; tombe des nues[Fr]; not believe one's eyes, not believe one's ears, not believe one's senses.

not be able to account for &c. (unintelligible) 519; not know whether one stands on one's head or one's heels.

surprise, astonish, amaze, astound; dumfound, dumfounder; startle, dazzle; daze; strike, strike with wonder, strike with awe; electrify; stun, stupefy, petrify, confound, bewilder, flabbergast, stagger, throw on one's beam ends, fascinate, turn the head, take away one's breath, strike dumb; make one's hair stand on end, make one's tongue cleave to the roof of one's mouth; make one stare.

take by surprise &c. (be unexpected) 508.

be wonderful &c. adj.; beggar description, beggar the imagination, baffle description; stagger belief.

Adj. surprised &c. v.; aghast, all agog, breathless, agape; open- mouthed; awestruck, thunderstruck, moonstruck, planet-struck; spellbound; lost in amazement, lost in wonder, lost in astonishment; struck all of a heap, unable to believe one's senses, like a duck ion thunder.

wonderful, wondrous; surprising &c. v.; unexpected &c. 508; unheard of; mysterious &c. (inexplicable) 519; miraculous. indescribable, inexpressible, inaffable; unutterable, unspeakable.

monstrous, prodigious, stupendous, marvelous; inconceivable, incredible; inimaginable, unimaginable; strange &c. (uncommon) 83; passing strange.

striking &c. v.; overwhelming; wonder-working.

Adv. wonderfully, &c. adj.; fearfully; for a wonder, in the name of wonder; strange to say; mirabile dictu[Lat], mirabile visu[Lat]; to one's great surprise.

with wonder &c. n., with gaping mouth; with open eyes, with upturned eyes.

Int. lo, lo and behold! O! heyday! halloo! what! indeed! really! surely! humph! hem! good lack, good heavens, good gracious! Ye gods! good Lord! good grief! Holy cow! My word! Holy shit![vulg.], gad so! welladay! dear me! only think! lackadaisy! my stars, my goodness! gracious goodness! goodness gracious! mercy on us! heavens and earth! God bless me! bless us, bless my heart! odzookens! O gemini! adzooks! hoity-toity! strong! Heaven save the mark, bless the mark! can such things be! zounds! 'sdeath! what on earth, what in the world! who would have thought it! &c. (inexpectation) 508; you don't say so! You're kidding!. No kidding? what do you say to that! nous verrons[Fr]! how now! where am I?

Phr. vox faucibus haesit[Lat]; one's hair standing on end. hope &c. 858.

871. Expectance[edit]

N. expectance &c. (expectation) 507.

example, instance (conformity) 82.

normality (habit) 613

nine days' wonder.

V. expect &c. 507; not be surprised, not wonder &c. 870; nil admirari[Lat], make nothing of.

Adj. expecting &c. v.; unamazed, astonished at nothing; blase &c. (weary) 841; expected &c. v.; foreseen; unsurprising.

common, ordinary, normal, typical, usual &c. (habitual) 613.

Adv. naturally, as a matter of course.

Int. no wonder; of course.

872. Prodigy[edit]

N. prodigy, phenomenon; wonder, wonderment; marvel, miracle; monster &c. (unconformity) 83; curiosity, lion, sight, spectacle; jeu de theatre[Fr], coup de theatre; gazingstock; sign; St. Elmo's fire, St. Elmo's light; portent &c. 512.

bursting of a shell, bursting of a bomb; volcanic eruption, peal of thunder; thunder-clap, thunder-bolt.

what no words can paint; wonders of the world; annus mirabilis[Lat]; dignus vindice nodus[Lat].

Phr. natura il fece e poi roppe la stampa [Ital.].

hope &c. 858.

5. Extrinsic Affections[edit]

873. Repute[edit]

N. distinction, mark, name, figure; repute, reputation; good repute, high repute; note, notability, notoriety, eclat, " the bubble reputation " [As You Like It], vogue, celebrity; fame, famousness; renown; popularity, aura popularis[Lat]; approbation &c. 931; credit, succes d'estime[Fr], prestige, talk of the town; name to conjure with.

glory, honor; luster &c. (light) 420; illustriousness &c. adj.

account, regard, respect; reputableness &c. adj.; respectability &c. (probity) 939; good name, good report; fair name.

dignity; stateliness &c. adj.; solemnity, grandeur, splendor, nobility, majesty, sublimity.

rank, standing, brevet rank, precedence, pas, station, place, status; position, position in society; order, degree, baccalaureate, locus standi[Lat], caste, condition.

greatness &c. adj.; eminence; height &c. 206; importance &c. 642; preeminence, supereminence; high mightiness, primacy; top of the ladder, top of the tree.

elevation; ascent &c. 305; superaltation, exaltation; dignification, aggrandizement. dedication, consecration, enthronement, canonization, celebration, enshrinement, glorification.

hero, man of mark, great card, celebrity, worthy, lion, rara avis[Lat], notability, somebody; classman; man of rank &c. (nobleman) 875; pillar of the state, pillar of the church, pillar of the community.

chief &c. (master) 745; first fiddle &c. (proficient) 700; cynosure, mirror; flower, pink, pearl; paragon &c. (perfection) 650; choice and master spirits of the age; elite; star,.sun, constellation, galaxy. ornament, honor, feather in one's cap, halo, aureole, nimbus; halo of glory, blaze of glory, blushing honors; laurels &c. (trophy) 733.

memory, posthumous fame, niche in the temple of fame; immortality, immortal name; magni nominis umbra [Lat][Lucan].

V. be conscious of glory; be proud of &c. (pride) 878; exult &c. (boast) 884; be vain of &c. (vanity) 880.

be distinguished &c. adj.; shine &c. (light) 420; shine forth, figure; cut a figure, make a dash, make a splash. rival, surpass; outshine, outrival, outvie, outjump; emulate, eclipse; throw into the shade, cast into the shade; overshadow.

live, flourish, glitter, flaunt, gain honor , acquire honor &c. n.; play first fiddle &c. (be of importance) 642, bear the palm, bear the bell; lead the way; take precedence, take the wall of; gain laurels, win laurels, gain spurs, gain golden opinions &c. (approbation) 931; take one's degree, pass one's examination.

make a noise, make some noise, make a noise in the world; leave one's mark, exalt one's horn, blow one's horn, star it, have a run, be run after; come into vogue, come to the front; raise one's head.

enthrone, signalize, immortalize, deify, exalt to the skies; hand one's name down to posterity.

consecrate; dedicate to, devote to; enshrine, inscribe, blazon, lionize, blow the trumpet, crown with laurel.

confer honor on, reflect honor on &c. v. ; shed a luster on; one's honor, ennoble.

give honor to, do honor to, pay honor to, render honor to; honor, accredit, pay regard to, dignify, glorify; sing praises to &c. (approve) 931; lock up to; exalt, aggrandize, elevate, nobilitate[Lat]. hope &c. 858.

Adj. distinguished, distingue[Fr], noted; of note &c. n.; honored &c. v.; popular; fashionable &c. 852.

in good odor in; favor, in high favor; reputable, respectable, creditable.

remarkable &c. (important) 642; notable, notorious; celebrated, renowned, ion every one's mouth, talked of; famous, famed; far-famed; conspicuous, to the front; foremost; in the front rank, in the ascendant.

imperishable, deathless, immortal, never fading, aere perennius[Lat]; time honored.

illustrious, glorious, splendid, brilliant, radiant; bright &c. 420; full-blown; honorific.

eminent, prominent; high &c. 206; in the zenith; at the head of, at the top of the tree; peerless, of the first water.; superior &c. 33; supereminent, preeminent.

great, dignified, proud, noble, honorable, worshipful, lordly, grand, stately, august, princely. imposing, solemn, transcendent, majestic, sacred, sublime, heaven-born, heroic, sans peur et sans reproche[Fr]; sacrosanct.

Int. hail! all hail! ave! viva! vive[Fr]! long life to! banzai![Jap.]; glory be to, honor be to?

Phr. one's name being in every mouth, one's name living for ever; sic itur ad astra[Lat], fama volat[Lat], aut Caesar aut nullus[Lat]; not to know him argues oneself unknown; none but himself could be his parallel, palmam qui meruit ferat [Lat][Nelson's motto].

"above all Greek above all Roman fame " [Pope]; - cineri gloria sera est [Lat][Martial]; "great is the glory for the strife is hard " [Wordsworth]; honor virtutis praemium [Lat][Cicero]; immensum gloria calcar habet [Lat][Ovid]; " the glory dies not and the grief is past " [Brydges]; vivit post funera virtus[Lat].

874. Disrepute[edit]

N. disrepute, discredit; ill repute, bad repute, bad name, bad odor, bad favor, ill name, ill odor, ill favor; disapprobation &c. 932; ingloriousness, derogation; abasement, debasement; abjectness &c. adj.; degradation, dedecoration; a long farewell to all my greatness [Henry VIII]; odium, obloquy, opprobrium, ignominy.

dishonor, disgrace; shame, humiliation; scandal, baseness, vileness; turpitude &c. (improbity) 940; infamy.

tarnish, taint, defilement, pollution. stain, blot, spot, blur, stigma, brand, reproach, imputation, slur.

crying shame, burning shame; scandalum magnatum[Lat], badge of infamy, blot in one's escutcheon; bend sinister, bar sinister; champain, point champain; byword of reproach; Ichabod.

argumentum ad verecundiam[Lat]; sense of shame &c. 879.

V. be inglorious &c. adj.; incur disgrace &c. n.; have a bad name, earn a bad name; put a halter round one's neck, wear a halter round one's neck; disgrace oneself, expose oneself.

play second fiddle; lose caste; pale one's ineffectual fire; recede into the shade; fall from one's high estate; keep in the background &c. (modesty) 881; be conscious of disgrace &c. (humility) 879; look blue, look foolish, look like a fool; cut a poor figure, cut a sorry figure; laugh on the wrong side of the mouth; make a sorry face, go away with a flea in. one's ear, slink away.

cause shame &c. n.; shame, disgrace, put to shame, dishonor; throw dishonor upon, cast dishonor upon, fling dishonor upon, reflect dishonor upon &c. n.; be a reproach &c. n. to; derogate from.

tarnish, stain, blot sully, taint; discredit; degrade, debase, defile; beggar; expel &c. (punish) 972. hope &c. 858.

impute shame to, brand, post, stigmatize, vilify, defame, slur, cast a slur upon, hold up to shame, send to Coventry; tread under foot, trample under foot; show up, drag through the mire, heap dirt upon; reprehend &c. 932.

bring low, put down, snub; take down a peg, take down a peg lower, take down a peg or two.

obscure. eclipse, outshine, take the shine out of; throw into the shade, cast into the shade; overshadow; leave in the background, put in the background; push into a corner, put one's nose out of joint; put out, put out of countenance.

upset, throw off one's center; discompose, disconcert; put to the blush &c. (humble) 879.

Adj. disgraced &c. v.; blown upon; "shorn of its beams " [Milton], shorn of one's glory; overcome, downtrodden; loaded with shame &c. n.; in bad repute &c. n.; out of repute, out of favor, out of fashion, out of countenance; at a discount; under a cloud, under an eclipse; unable to show one's face; in the shade, in the background; out at elbows, down at the elbows, down in the world.

inglorious; nameless, renownless; obscure; unknown to fame; unnoticed, unnoted, unhonored, unglorified.

shameful; disgraceful, discreditable, disreputable; despicable; questionable; unbecoming, unworthy; derogatory; degrading, humiliating, infra dignitatem[Lat], dedecorous; scandalous, infamous, too bad, unmentionable; ribald, opprobrious; errant, shocking, outrageous, notorious.

ignominious, scrubby, dirty, abject, vile, beggarly, pitiful, low, mean, shabby base &c. (dishonorable) 940.

Adv. to one's shame be it spoken.

Int. fie! shame! for shame! proh pudor[Lat]! O tempora! O mores! ough! sic transit gloria mundi[Lat.]! -

875. Nobility[edit]

N. nobility, rank, condition, distinction, optimacy, blood, pur sang[Fr], birth, high descent, order; quality, gentility; blue blood of Castile; ancien regime[Fr].

high life, haute monde[Fr]; upper classes, upper ten thousand; the four hundred [U. S.]; elite, aristocracy, great folks; fashionable world &c. (fashion) 852.

peer, peerage; house of lords, house of peers; lords, lords temporal and spiritual; noblesse; noble, nobleman; lord, lordling; grandee, magnifico[Lat], hidalgo; daimio, daimyo, samurai, shizoku [all Japanese]; don, donship; aristocrat, swell, three-tailed bashaw; gentleman, squire, squireen, patrician, laureate.

gentry, gentlefolk; *squirarchy, better sort magnates, primates, optimates; pantisocracy.

king &c. (master) 745; atheling; prince, duke; marquis, marquisate; earl, viscount, baron, thane, banneret; baronet, baronetcy; knight, knighthood; count, armiger, laird; signior, seignior; esquire, boyar, margrave, vavasour; emir, ameer, scherif, sharif, effendi, wali; sahib; chevalier, maharaja, nawab, palsgrave, pasha, rajah, waldgrave.

princess, begum, duchess, marchioness; countess &c.; lady, dame; memsahib; Do$a, maharani, rani.

personage of distinction, man of distinction, personage of rank, man of rank, personage of mark, man of mark; notables, notabilities; celebrity, bigwig, magnate, great man, star, superstar; big bug; big gun, great gun; gilded rooster* [U. S.]; magni nominis umbra [Lat][Lucan]; " every inch a king " [Lear].

V. be noble &c. adj. hope &c. 858.

Adj. noble, exalted; of rank &c. n.; princely, titled, patrician, aristocratic; high-, well-born; of gentle blood; genteel, comme il faut[Fr], gentlemanlike, courtly &c. (fashionable) 852; highly respectable.

Adv. in high quarters.

Phr. Adel sitzt im Gemuthe nicht im Gebluete[Ger.]; adelig und edel sind zweierlei[Ger.]; noblesse oblige[Fr.].

876. Commonalty[edit]

N. commonalty, democracy; obscurity; low condition, low life, low society, low company; bourgeoisie; mass of the people, mass of society,; Brown Jones and Robinson; lower classes, humbler classes, humbler orders; vulgar herd, common herd; rank and file, hoc genus omne[Lat]; the many, the general,the crowd, the people, the populace, the multitude, the million, the masses, the mobility, the peasantry; king Mob; proletariat; fruges consumere nati[Lat], demos, hoi polloi [Grk][Grk][Grk], great unwashed; man in the street.

mob; rabble, rabble rout; chaff, rout, horde, canaille; scum of the people, residuum of the people, dregs of the people, dregs of society; swinish multitude, foex populi; trash; profanum vulgus[Lat], ignobile vulgus[Lat]; vermin, riffraff, ragtag and bobtail; small fry.

commoner, one of the people, democrat, plebeian, republican, proletary, proletaire, roturier, Mr. Snooks, bourgeois, epicier[Fr], Philistine, cockney; grisette, demimonde.

peasant, countryman, boor, carle, churl; villain, villein; terrae filius[Latin: son of the land]; serf, kern, tyke, tike, chuff, ryot, fellah; longshoreman; swain, clown, hind; clod, clodhopper; hobnail, yokel, bog-trotter, bumpkin; plowman, plowboy; rustic, hayseed*, lunkhead [U. S.], chaw-bacon*, tiller of the soil; hewers of wood and drawers of water, groundling; gaffer, loon, put, cub, Tony Lumpkin, looby, rube* [U. S.], lout, underling; gamin; rough; pot-wallopper, slubberdegullion|; vulgar fellow, low fellow; cad, curmudgeon.

upstart, parvenu, skipjack; nobody, nobody one knows; hesterni quirites[Lat], pessoribus orti[Lat]; bourgeois gentilhomme[Fr], novus homo[Lat], snob, gent, mushroom, no one knows who, adventurer; man of straw.

beggar, gaberlunzie, muckworm, mudlark, sans culotte, raff, tatterdemalion, caitiff, ragamuffin, Pariah, outcast of society, tramp, vagabond, bezonian, panhandler*, sundowner, chiffonnier, Cinderella, cinderwench, scrub, jade; gossoon.

Goth, Vandal, Hottentot, Zulu, savage, barbarian, Yahoo; unlicked cub, rough diamond|!.

barbarousness, barbarism; boeotia.

V. be ignoble &c. adj., be nobody &c. n.

Adj. ignoble, common, mean, low, base, vile, sorry, scrubby, beggarly; below par; no great shakes &c. (unimportant) 643; homely, homespun; vulgar, low-minded; snobbish.

plebeian, proletarian; of low parentage, of low origin, of low extraction, of mean parentage, of mean origin, of mean extraction; lowborn, baseborn, earthborn; mushroom, dunghill, risen from the ranks; unknown to fame, obscure, untitled.

rustic, uncivilized; loutish, boorish, clownish, churlish, brutish, raffish; rude, unlicked.

barbarous, barbarian, barbaric, barbaresque; cockney, born within sound of Bow bells.

underling, menial, subaltern.

Adv. below the salt.

Phr. dummodo sit dives barbarus ipse placet [Lat][Ovid]. hope &c. 858.

877. Title[edit]

N. title, honor; knighthood &c. (nobility) 875.

highness, excellency, grace; lordship, worship; reverence, reverend; esquire, sir, master, Mr., signor, se$or, Mein Herr[Ger], mynheer; your honor, his honor; serene highness; handle to one's name.

decoration, laurel, palm, wreath, garland, bays, medal, ribbon, riband, blue ribbon, cordon, cross, crown, coronet, star, garter; feather, feather in one,s cap; epaulet, epaulette, colors, cockade; livery; order, arms, shield, scutcheon; reward &c. 973.

878. Pride[edit]

N. dignity, self-respect, mens sibi conscia recti [Lat][Vergil].

pride; haughtiness &c. adj.; high notions, hauteur; vainglory, crest; arrogance &c. (assumption) 885.

proud man, highflier; fine gentleman, fine lady.

V. be proud &c. adj.; put a good face on; look one in the face; stalk abroad, perk oneself up; think no small beer of oneself; presume, swagger, strut; rear one's head, lift up one's head, hold up one's head; hold one's head high, look big, take the wall, " bear like the Turk no rival near the throne " [Pope], carry with a high hand; ride the high horse, mount on one's high horse; set one's back up, bridle, toss the head; give oneself airs &c. (assume) 885; boast &c. 884.

pride oneself on; glory in, take a pride in; pique oneself, plume oneself, hug oneself; stand upon, be proud of; put a good face on; not hide one's light under a bushel, not put one's talent in a napkin; not think small beer of oneself &c. (vanity) 880.

Adj. dignified; stately; proud, proud-crested; lordly, baronial; lofty-minded; highsouled, high-minded, high-mettled, high-handed, high-plumed, high-flown, high-toned.

haughty lofty, high, mighty, swollen, puffed up, flushed, blown; vainglorious; purse-proud, fine; proud as a peacock, proud as Lucifer; bloated with pride.

supercilious, disdainful, bumptious, magisterial, imperious, high and mighty, overweening, consequential; arrogant &c. 885; unblushing &c. 880.

stiff, stiff-necked; starch; perked stuck-up; in buckram, strait- laced; prim &c. (affected) 855.

on one's dignity, on one's high horses,on one's tight ropes, on one's high ropes; on stilts; en grand seigneur [Fr].

Adv. with head erect.

Phr. odi profanum vulgus et arceo [Lat][Horace].

" a duke's revenues on her back" [Henry VI]; " disdains the shadow which he treads on at noon" [Coriolanis]; "pride in their port, defiance in their eye" [Goldsmith].

879. Humility[edit]

N. humility, humbleness; meekness, lowness; lowliness, lowlihood; abasement, self-abasement; submission &c. 725; resignation.

condescension; affability &c. (courtesy) 894.

modesty &c. 881; verecundity|, blush, suffusion, confusion; sense of shame,sense of disgrace; humiliation, mortification; let down, set down.

V. be humble &c. adj.; deign, vouchsafe, condescend; humble oneself, demean oneself; stoop, stoop to conquer; carry coals; submit &c. 725; submit with a good grace &c. (brook) 826; yield the palm.

lower one's tone, lower one's note; sing small, draw in one's horns, sober down; hide one's face, hide one's diminished head; not dare to show one's face, take shame to oneself, not have a word to say for oneself; feel shame, be conscious of shame, feel disgrace, be conscious of disgrace; drink the cup of humiliation to the dregs. hope &c. 858.

blush for, blush up to the eves; redden, change color; color up; hang one's head, look foolish, feel small.

render humble; humble, humiliate; let down, set down, take down, tread down, frown down; snub, abash, abase, make one sing small, strike dumb; teach one his distance; put down, take down a peg, take down a peg lower; throw into the shade, cast into the shade &c. 874; stare out of countenance, put out of countenance; put to the blush; confuse, ashame, mortify, disgrace, crush; send away with a flea in one's ear.

get a setdown.

Adj. humble, lowly, meek;, modest &c. 881; humble minded, sober- minded; unoffended; submissive &c. 725; servile, &c. 886.

condescending; affable &c. (courteous) 891.

humbled &c. v.; bowed down, resigned; abashed, ashamed, dashed; out of countenance; down in the mouth; down on one's knees, down on one's marrowbones, down on one's uppers; humbled in the dust, browbeaten; chapfallen, crestfallen; dumfoundered. flabbergasted.

shorn of one's glory &c. (disrepute) 874.

Adv. with downcast eyes, with bated breath, with bended knee; on all fours, on one's feet.

under correction, with due deference.

Phr. I am your obedient servant, I am your very humble servant; my service to you; da locum melioribus [Lat][Terence]; parvum parva decent [Lat][Horace].

880. Vanity[edit]

N. vanity; conceit, conceitedness; self-conceit, self-complacency, self-confidence, self-sufficiency, self-esteem, self- love, self-approbation, self-praise, self-glorification, self-laudation, self-gratulation, self-applause, self-admiration; amour propre[Fr]; selfishness &c. 943.

airs, affected manner, pretensions, mannerism; egotism; priggism, priggishness; coxcombry, gaudery, vainglory, elation; pride &c. 878; ostentation &c. 882; assurance &c. 885.

vox et praeterea nihil[Lat]; cheval de bataille[Fr]. coxcomb &c. 854 Sir Oracle &c. 887.

V. be vain &c. adj., be vain of; pique oneself &c. (pride) 878; lay the flattering unction to one's soul.

have too high an opinion of oneself, have an overweening opinion of oneself, have too high an opinion of one's talents; blind oneself as to one's own merit; not think small beer of oneself, not think vin ordinaire of oneself[Fr]; put oneself forward; fish for compliments; give oneself airs &c. (assume) 885; boast &c. 884.

render vain &c. adj.; inspire with vanity &c. n.; inflate, puff up, turn up, turn one's head.

Adj. vain, vain as a peacock, proud as a peacock; conceited, overweening, pert, forward;, vainglorious, high-flown; ostentatious &c. 882; puffed up, inflated, flushed.

self-satisfied, self-confident, self-sufficient, self-flattering, self-admiring, self-applauding, self-glorious, self-opinionated; entente &c. (wrongheaded) 481; wise in one's own conceit, pragmatical, overwise, pretentious, priggish; egotistic, egotistical; soi-disant &c. (boastful) 884[Fr]; arrogant &c. 885. unabashed, unblushing; unconstrained, unceremonious; free and easy.

Adv. vainly &c. adj.

Phr. " how we apples swim! " [Swift]; " prouder than rustling in unpaid-for silk" [Cymbeline]. hope &c. 858.

881. Modesty[edit]

N. modesty; humility &c. 879; diffidence, timidity; retiring disposition; unobtrusiveness; bashfulness &c. adj.; mauvaise honte[Fr]; blush, blushing; verecundity|; self-knowledge.

reserve, constraint; demureness &c. adj.; " blushing honors " [Henry VIII].

V. be modest &c. adj.; retire, reserve oneself; give way to; draw in one's horns &c. 879; hide one's face.

keep private, keep in the background, keep one's distance; pursue the noiseless tenor of one's way, " do good by stealth and blush to find it fame " [Pope], hide one's light under a bushel, cast a sheep's eye.

Adj. modest, diffident; humble &c. 879; timid, timorous, bashful; shy, nervous, skittish, coy, sheepish, shamefaced, blushing, overmodest.

unpretending, unpretentious; unobtrusive, unassuming, unostentatious, unboastful, unaspiring; poor in spirit.

out of countenance &c. (humbled) 879. reserved, constrained, demure.

Adv. humbly &c. adj.; quietly, privately; without ceremony, without beat of drum; sans fa�on.

Phr. " not stepping o'er the bounds of modesty " [Romeo and Juliet]; " thy modesty's a candle to thy merit " [Fielding].

882. Ostentation[edit]

N. ostentation, display, show, flourish, parade, etalage[Fr], pomp, array, state, solemnity; dash, splash, splurge, glitter, strut, pomposity; pretense, pretensions; showing off; fuss.

magnificence, splendor; coup d'oeil[Fr]; grand doings.

coup de theatre; stage effect, stage trick; claptrap; mise en scene[Fr]; tour de force; chic.

demonstration, flying colors; tomfoolery; flourish of trumpets &c. (celebration) 883; pageant, pageantry; spectacle, exhibition, exposition, procession; turn out, set out; grand function; f�te, gala, field day, review, march past, promenade, insubstantial pageant.

dress; court dress, full dress, evening dress, ball dress, fancy dress; tailoring, millinery, man millinery, frippery, foppery, equipage.

ceremony, ceremonial; ritual; form, formality; etiquette; puncto[Lat], punctilio, punctiliousness; starched stateliness, stateliness.

mummery, solemn mockery, mouth honor.

attitudinarian; fop &c. 854.

V. be ostentatious &c. adj.; come forward, put oneself forward; attract attention, star it.

cut a figure, make a dash, make a splash, make a splurge, cut a dash, cut a splash, cut a splurge; figure, figure away; make a show, make a display; glitter.

show off, show off one's paces; parade, march past; display, exhibit, put forward, hold up; trot out, hand out; sport, brandish, blazon forth; dangle, dangle before the eyes.

cry up &c. (praise) 931; proner[Fr], flaunt, emblazon, prink, set off, mount, have framed and glazed.

put a good face upon, put a smiling face upon; clean the outside of the platter &c. (disguise) 544.

Adj. ostentatious, showy, dashing, pretentious; janty, jaunty; grand, pompous, palatial; high-sounding; turgid &c. (big-sounding) 577; gairish, garish; gaudy, gaudy as a peacock, gaudy as a butterfly, gaudy as a tulip; flaunting, flashing, flaming, glittering; gay &c. (ornate) 847.

splendid, magnificent, sumptuous.

theatrical, dramatic, spectacular; ceremonial, ritual.

solemn, stately, majestic, formal, stiff, ceremonious, punctilious, starched. hope &c. 858.

dressed to kill, dressed to the nines, decjed out, all decked out, en granite tenue[Fr], in best bib and tucker, in Sunday best, endimanch�, chic.

Adv. with flourish of trumpet, with beat of drum, with flying colors.

ad captandum vulgus[Lat.].

Phr. honores mutant mores[Lat].

883. Celebration[edit]

N. celebration, solemnization, jubilee, commemoration, ovation, paean, triumph, jubilation, ceremony (rite) 998; holiday, fiesta, zarabanda, revelry, feast (amusement) 840; china anniversary, diamond anniversary, golden anniversary, silver anniversary, tin anniversary, china jubilee, diamond jubilee, golden jubilee, silver jubilee, tin jubilee, china wedding, diamond wedding, golden wedding, silver wedding, tin wedding.

triumphal arch, bonfire, salute; salvo, salvo of artillery; feu de joie[Fr], flourish of trumpets, fanfare, colors flying, illuminations.

inauguration, installation, presentation; coronation; Lord Mayor's show; harvest-home, red-letter day; trophy &,:c. 733; Te Deum &c. (thanksgiving) 990[Lat]; fete &c. 882; holiday &c. 840; Forefathers' Day [U. S.].

V. celebrate keep, signalize, do honor to, commemorate, solemnize, hallow, mark with a red letter.

pledge, drink to, toast, hob and nob.

inaugurate, install, chair.

rejoice &c. 838; kill the fatted calf, hold jubilee, roast an ox.

Adj. celebrating &c. v.; commemorative, celebrated, immortal.

Adv. in honor of, in commemoration of.

Int. hail! all hail! io paean, io triumphe! " see the conquering hero comes!".

884. Boasting[edit]

N. boasting &c. v.; boast, vaunt, crake|; pretense, pretensions; puff, puffery; flourish, fanfaronade; gasconade; blague, bluff, gas*; highfalutin, highfaluting; hot air, spread-eagleism [U. S.]; brag, braggardism; bravado, bunkum, buncombe; jactitation, jactancy; bounce; venditation|, vaporing, rodomontade, bombast, fine talking, tall talk, magniloquence, teratology|, heroics; Chauvinism; exaggeration &c. 549.

vanity &c. 880; vox et praeterea nihil[Lat]; much cry and little wool, brutum fulmen[Lat].

exultation; gloriation|, glorification; flourish of trumpets; triumph &c. 883.

boaster; braggart, braggadocio; Gascon[Fr], fanfaron, pretender, soi-disant[Fr]; blower [U. S.], bluffer, Foxy Quiller; blusterer &c. 887; charlatan, jack-pudding, trumpeter; puppy &c. (fop) 854.

V. boast, make a boast of, brag, vaunt, Puff, show off, flourish, crake|, crack, trumpet, strut, swagger, vapor; blague, blow, four- flush *, bluff.

exult, crow, crow over, neigh, chuckle, triumph; throw up one's cap; talk big, se faire valoir[Fr], faire claquer son fouet[Fr], take merit to oneself, make a merit of, sing Io triumphe, holloa before one is out of the wood.

Adj. boasting &c. v.; magniloquent, flaming, Thrasonic, stilted, gasconading, braggart, boastful, pretentious, soi-disant[Fr]; vainglorious &c. (conceited) 880; highfalutin, highfaluting; spread-eagle [U. S.*].

elate, elated; jubilant, triumphant, exultant; in high feather; flushed, flushed with victory; cock-a-hoop; on stilts. vaunted &c. v.

Adv. vauntingly &c. adj. hope &c. 858.

Phr. " let the galled jade wince " [Hamlet]; facta non verba[Lat].

885. Insolence[edit]

[Undue assumption of superiority.]

N. insolence; haughtiness &c. adj.; arrogance, airs; overbearance; domineering &c. v.; tyranny &c. 739.

impertinence; sauciness &c. adj.; flippancy, dicacity|, petulance, procacity, bluster; swagger, swaggering &c. v.; bounce; terrorism.

assumption, presumption; beggar on horseback; usurpation.

impudence, assurance, audacity, hardihood, front, face, brass; shamelessness &c. adj.; effrontery, hardened front, face of brass.

assumption of infallibility.

saucebox &c. (blusterer) 887.

V. be insolent &c. adj.; bluster, vapor, swagger, swell, give oneself airs, snap one's fingers, kick up a dust; swear &c. (affirm) 535; rap out oaths; roister. arrogate; assume, presume; make bold, make free; take a liberty, give an inch and take an ell.

domineer, bully, dictate, hector; lord it over; traiter de haut en bas[Fr], regarder de haut en bas[Fr]; exact; snub, huff., beard, fly in the face of; put to the blush; bear down, beat down; browbeat, intimidate; trample down, tread down, trample under foot; dragoon, ride roughshod over.

out face, outlook, outstare, outbrazen, outbrave; stare out of countenance; brazen out; lay down the law; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; assume a lofty bearing; talk big, look big; put on big looks, act the grand seigneur[Fr]; mount the high horse, ride the high horse; toss the head, carry, with a high hand.

tempt Providence, want snuffing.

Adj. insolent, haughty, arrogant, imperious, magisterial, dictatorial, arbitrary; high-handed, high and mighty; contumelious, supercilious, overbearing, intolerant, domineering, overweening, high-flown.

flippant, pert, fresh [U. S.], cavalier, saucy, forward, impertinent, malapert.

precocious, assuming, would-be, bumptious.

bluff; brazen, shameless, aweless, unblushlng, unabashed; brazen, boldfaced-, barefaced-, brazen-faced; dead to shame, lost to shame.

impudent, audacious, presumptuous, free and easy, devil-may-care, rollicking; jaunty, janty; roistering, blustering, hectoring, swaggering, vaporing; thrasonic, fire eating, "full of sound and fury " [Macbeth].

Adv. with a high hand; ex cathedra[Lat].

Phr. one's bark being worse than his bite; " beggars mounted run their horse to death " [Henry VI]; quid times? Caesarem vehis [Lat][Plutarch]; wagahai wa [Jap: I (expressing superiority)].

886. Servility[edit]

N. servility; slavery &c. (subjection) 749; obsequiousness &c. adj.; subserviency; abasement; prostration, prosternation|; genuflection &c. (worship) 990; fawning &c. v.; tuft- hunting, timeserving, flunkeyism; sycophancy &c. (flattery) 933; humility &c. 879.

sycophant, parasite; toad, toady, toad-eater; tufthunter; snob, flunky, flunkey, yes-man, lapdog, spaniel, lickspittle, smell-feast, Graeculus esuriens[Lat], hanger on, cavaliere servente[It], led captain, carpet knight; timeserver, fortune hunter, Vicar of Bray, Sir-Pertinax, Max Sycophant, pickthank; flatterer &c. 935; doer of dirty work; ame damnee[Fr], tool; reptile; slave &c. (servant) 746; courtier; beat*, dead beat*, doughface * [U. S], heeler [U. S.], homme de cour[Fr], sponger, sucker*, tagtail, truckler. hope &c. 858.

V. cringe, bow, stoop, kneel, bend the knee; fall on one's knees, prostrate oneself; worship &c. 990.

sneak, crawl, crouch, cower, sponge, truckle to, grovel, fawn, lick the feet of, kiss the hem of one's garment, kiss one's ass[vulg.], suck up.

pay court to; feed on, fatten on, dance attendance on, pin oneself upon, hang on the sleeve of, avaler les couleuvres[Fr], keep time to, fetch and carry, do the dirty work of.

go with the stream, worship the rising sun, hold with the hare and run with the hounds.

Adj. servile, obsequious; supple,supple as a glove; soapy, oily, pliant, cringing, abased, dough-faced, fawning, slavish, groveling, sniveling, mealy-mouthed; beggarly, sycophantic, parasitical; abject, prostrate, down on ones marrowbones; base, mean, sneaking; crouching &c. v.

Adv. hat in hand, cap in hand.

887. Blusterer[edit]

N. blusterer, swaggerer, vaporer, roisterer, brawler; fanfaron; braggart &c. (boaster) 884; bully, terrorist, rough; bulldozer [U. S.], hoodlum, hooligan*, larrikin, roarer*; Mohock, Mohawk; drawcansir, swashbuckler, Captain Bobadil, Sir Lucius O'Trigger, Thraso, Pistol, Parolles, Bombastes Furioso, Hector, Chrononhotonthologos; jingo; desperado, dare-devil, fire eater; fury, &c. (violent person) 173; rowdy; slang-whanger*, tough [U. S.]. puppy &c. (fop) 854; prig; Sir Oracle, dogmatist, doctrinaire, jack- in-office; saucebox, malapert, jackanapes, minx; bantam-cock.

Section III. Sympathetic Affections[edit]

1. Social Affections[edit]

888. Friendship[edit]

N. friendship, amity; friendliness &c. adj.; brotherhood, fraternity, sodality, confraternity; harmony &c. (concord) 714; peace &c. 721.

firm friendship, staunch friendship, intimate friendship, familiar friendship, bosom friendship, cordial friendship, tried friendship, devoted friendship, lasting friendship, fast friendship, sincere friendship, warm friendship, ardent friendship.

cordiality, fraternization, entente cordiale[Fr], good understanding, rapprochement, sympathy, fellow-feeling, response, welcomeness.

affection &c. (love) 897; favoritism; good will &c. (benevolence) 906.

acquaintance, familiarity, intimacy, intercourse, fellowship, knowledge of; introduction.

V. be friendly &c. adj., be friends &c. 890, be acquainted with &c. adj.; know; have the ear of; keep company with &c.(sociality) 892; hold communication with, have dealings with, sympathize with; have a leaning to; bear good will &c. (benevolent) 906; love &c. 897; make much of; befriend &c. (aid) 707; introduce to. set one's horses together; have the latchstring out [U. S.]; hold out the right hand of friendship, extend the right hand of friendship, hold out the right hand of fellowship; become friendly &c. adj.; make friends &c. 890 with; break the lee, be introduced to; make acquaintance with, pick acquaintance with, scrape acquaintance with; get into favor, gain the friendship of.

shake hands with, fraternize, embrace; receive with open arms, throw oneself into the arms of; meet halfway, take in good part. hope &c. 858.

Adj. friendly; amicable, amical; well-affected, unhostile, neighborly, brotherly, fraternal, sympathetic, harmonious, hearty, cordial, warm-hearted.

friends with, well with, at home with, hand in hand with; on good terms, on friendly terms, on amicable terms, on cordial terms, on familiar terms, on intimate terms, on good footing; on speaking terms, on visiting terms; in one's good graces, in one's good books.

acquainted, familiar, intimate, thick, hand and glove, hail fellow well met, free and easy; welcome.

Adv. amicably &c. adj.; with open arms; sans ceremonie[Fr]; arm in arm.

Phr. amicitia semper prodest [Lat][Seneca]; " a mystic bond of brotherhood makes all men one " [Carlyle]; " friendship is love without either flowers or veil " [Hare]; trulgus amicitias utilitate probat [Lat][Ovid].

889. Enmity[edit]

N. enmity, hostility; unfriendliness &c. adj.; discord &c. 713; bitterness, rancor.

alienation, estrangement; dislike &c. 867; hate &c. 898.

heartburning; animosity &c. 900; malevolence &c. 907.

V. be inimical &c. adj.; keep at arm's length, hold at arm's length; be at loggerheads; bear malice &c. 907; fall out; take umbrage &c. 900; harden the heart, alienate, estrange.

[not friendly, but not hostile see indifference 866].

Adj. inimical, unfriendly, hostile; at enmity, at variance, at daggers drawn,at open war with; up in arms against; in bad odor with.

on bad terms, not on speaking terms; cool; cold, cold hearted; estranged, alienated, disaffected, irreconcilable. hope &c. 858.

890. Friend[edit]

N. friendship, amity; friendliness &c. adj.; brotherhood, fraternity, sodality, confraternity; harmony &c. (concord) 714; peace &c. 721.

firm friendship, staunch friendship, intimate friendship, familiar friendship, bosom friendship, cordial friendship, tried friendship, devoted friendship, lasting friendship, fast friendship, sincere friendship, warm friendship, ardent friendship.

cordiality, fraternization, entente cordiale[Fr], good understanding, rapprochement, sympathy, fellow-feeling, response, welcomeness.

affection &c. (love) 897; favoritism; good will &c. (benevolence) 906.

acquaintance, familiarity, intimacy, intercourse, fellowship, knowledge of; introduction.

V. be friendly &c. adj., be friends &c. 890, be acquainted with &c. adj.; know; have the ear of; keep company with &c.(sociality) 892; hold communication with, have dealings with, sympathize with; have a leaning to; bear good will &c. (benevolent) 906; love &c. 897; make much of; befriend &c. (aid) 707; introduce to. set one's horses together; have the latchstring out [U. S.]; hold out the right hand of friendship, extend the right hand of friendship, hold out the right hand of fellowship; become friendly &c. adj.; make friends &c. 890 with; break the lee, be introduced to; make acquaintance with, pick acquaintance with, scrape acquaintance with; get into favor, gain the friendship of.

shake hands with, fraternize, embrace; receive with open arms, throw oneself into the arms of; meet halfway, take in good part. hope &c. 858.

Adj. friendly; amicable, amical; well-affected, unhostile, neighborly, brotherly, fraternal, sympathetic, harmonious, hearty, cordial, warm-hearted.

friends with, well with, at home with, hand in hand with; on good terms, on friendly terms, on amicable terms, on cordial terms, on familiar terms, on intimate terms, on good footing; on speaking terms, on visiting terms; in one's good graces, in one's good books.

acquainted, familiar, intimate, thick, hand and glove, hail fellow well met, free and easy; welcome.

Adv. amicably &c. adj.; with open arms; sans ceremonie[Fr]; arm in arm.

Phr. amicitia semper prodest [Lat][Seneca]; " a mystic bond of brotherhood makes all men one " [Carlyle]; " friendship is love without either flowers or veil " [Hare]; trulgus amicitias utilitate probat [Lat][Ovid].

891. Enemy[edit]

N. enemy; antagonist; foe, foeman; open enemy, bitter enemy,; opponent &c. 710; back friend. public enemy, enemy to society.

Phr. every hand being against one; " he makes no friend who never made a foe " [Tennyson].

with friends like that, who needs enemies?; Lord protect me from my friends; I can protect myself from my enemies.

892. Sociality[edit]

N. sociality, sociability, sociableness &c. adj.; social intercourse; consociation; intercourse, intercommunity; consortship, companionship, comradeship; clubbism; esprit de corps.

conviviality; good fellowship, good company; joviality, jollity, savoir vivre[Fr], festivity, festive board, merrymaking; loving cup|!; hospitality, heartiness; cheer.

welcome, welcomeness; greeting; hearty welcome, hearty reception, warm reception; urbanity &c. (courtesy) 894; familiarity.

good fellow, jolly fellow; bon enfant[Fr], bawcock.

social circle, family circle; circle of acquaintance, coterie, society, company. social gathering, social reunion; assembly &c. (assemblage) 72; barbecue [U. S.], bee; corn-husking [U. S.], corn-shucking [U. S.]; house raising, barn raising; husking, husking-bee [U. S.]; infare.

party, entertainment, reception, levee, at, home, conversazione[It], soiree, matin�e; evening party, morning party, afternoon party, bridge party, garden party, surprise party; kettle, kettle drum; partie carr�e[Fr], dish of tea, ridotto, rout|!; housewarming; ball, festival &c; smoker, smoker-party;sociable [U.S.], stag party, hen party, tamasha|!; tea-party, tea-fight*. (amusement) 840; " the feast of reason and the flow of soul " [Pope]. hope &c. 858.

birthday party[parties for specific occasions], Christmas party, New Year's Eve party, Thanksgiving Day Dinner; bonenkai[Japan]; wedding reception.

visiting; round of visits; call, morning call; interview &c. (conversation) 588; assignation; tryst, trysting place; appointment.

club &c. (association) 712.

V. be sociable &c. adj.; know; be acquainted &c. adj.; associate with, sort with, keep company with, walk hand in hand with; eat off the same trencher, club together, consort, bear one company, join; make acquaintance with &c. (friendship) 888; make advances, fraternize, embrace.

be at home with, feel at home with, make oneself at home with; make free with; crack a bottle with; receive hospitality, live at free quarters; find the latchstring out [U.S.]. visit, pay a visit; interchange visits, interchange cards; call at, call upon; leave a card; drop in, look in; look one up, beat up one's quarters.

entertain; give a party &c. n.; be at home, see one's friends, hang out, keep open house, do the honors; receive, receive with open arms; welcome; give a warm reception &c. n. to kill the fatted calf.

Adj. sociable, companionable, clubbable, conversable, cosy, cosey, chatty,, conversational; homiletical.

convivial; festive, festal; jovial, jolly, hospitable.

welcome, welcome as the roses in May; f�ted, entertained.

free and easy, hall fellow well met, familiar, on visiting terms, acquainted.

social, neighborly; international; gregarious.

Adv. en famille[Fr], in the family circle; sans fa�on, sans ceremonie[Fr]; arm in arm.

Phr. " a crowd is not company " [Bacon]; " be bright and jovial among your guests tonight " [Macbeth]; " his worth is warrant for his welcome " [Two Gentlemen]; " let's be red with mirth " [Winter's Tale]; " welcome the coming speed the parting guest " [Pope].

893. Seclusion[edit]

N. seclusion, privacy; retirement; reclusion, recess; snugness &c. adj.; delitescence; rustication, rus in urbe[Lat]; solitude; solitariness &c. (singleness) 87; isolation; loneliness &c. adj.; estrangement from the world, voluntary exile; aloofness.

cell, hermitage; convent &c. 1000; sanctum sanctorum[Lat].

depopulation, desertion, desolation; wilderness &c. (unproductive) 169; howling wilderness; rotten borough, Old Sarum.

exclusion, excommunication, banishment, exile, ostracism, proscription; cut, cut direct; dead cut.

inhospitality, inhospitableness &c. adj.; dissociability; domesticity, Darby and Joan.

recluse, hermit, eremite, cenobite; anchoret, anchorite; Simon Stylites; troglodyte, Timon of Athens, Santon, solitaire, ruralist, disciple of Zimmermann, closet cynic, Diogenes; outcast, Pariah, castaway, pilgarlic; wastrel, foundling, wilding.

V. be secluded , live secluded &c. adj.; keep aloof, stand, hold oneself aloof, keep in the background, stand in the background; keep snug; shut oneself up; deny oneself, seclude oneself creep into a corner, rusticate, aller planter ses choux[Fr]; retire, retire from the world; take the veil; abandon &c. 624; sport one's oak*.

cut, cut dead; refuse to associate with, refuse to acknowledge; look cool upon, turn one's back upon, shut the door upon;, repel, blackball, excommunicate, exclude, exile, expatriate; banish, outlaw, maroon, ostracize, proscribe, cut off from, send to Coventry, keep at arm's length, draw a cordon round. hope &c. 858.

depopulate; dispeople, unpeople.

Adj. secluded, sequestered, retired, delitescent, private, bye; out of the world, out of the way; " the world forgetting by the world forgot " [Pope].

snug, domestic, stay-at-home.

unsociable; unsocial, dissocial; inhospitable, cynical, inconversable|, unclubbable, sauvage[Fr], troglodytic.

solitary; lonely, lonesome; isolated, single.

estranged; unfrequented; uninhabitable, uninhabited; tenantless; abandoned; deserted, deserted in one's utmost need; unfriended; kithless, friendless, homeless; lorn, forlorn, desolate.

unvisited, unintroduced, uninvited, unwelcome; under a cloud, left to shift for oneself, derelict, outcast.

banished &c. v.

Phr. noli me tangere[Lat].

" among them but not of them " [Byron]; " and homeless near a thousand homes I stood " [Wordsworth]; far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife [Gray]; " makes a solitude and calls it peace " [Byron]; magna civitas magna solitudo [Lat]; " never less alone than when alone " [Rogers]; " O sacred solitude! divine retreat! " [Young].

894. Courtesy[edit]

N. courtesy; respect &c. 928; good manners, good behavior, good breeding; manners; politeness &c. adj.; bienseance, urbanity, comity, gentility, breeding, polish, presence; civility, civilization; amenity, suavity; good temper, good humor; amiability, easy temper, complacency, soft tongue, mansuetude; condescension &c. (humility) 879; affability, complaisance, pr�venance, amability, gallantry; pink of politeness, pink of courtesy.

compliment; fair words, soft words, sweet words; honeyed phrases, ceremonial; ,salutation, reception, presentation, introduction, accueil, greeting, recognition; welcome, abord|, respects, devoir, regards, remembrances; kind regards, kind remembrances; love, best love, duty; empty encomium, flattering remark, hollow commendation; salaams.

obeisance &c. (reverence) 928; bow, courtesy, curtsy, scrape, salaam, kotow, kowtow, bowing and scraping; kneeling; genuflection &c. (worship) 990; obsequiousness &c. 886; capping, shaking hands, &c. v.; grip of the hand, embrace, hug, squeeze, accolade, loving cup, vin d'honneur[Fr], pledge; love token &c. (endearment) 902; kiss, buss, salute.

mark of recognition, nod; "nods and becks and wreathed smiles" [Milton]; valediction &c. 293; condolence &c. 915.

V. be courteous &c. adj.; show courtesy &c. n.

mind one's P's and Q's, behave oneself, be all things to all men, conciliate, speak one fair, take in good part; make the amiable, do the amiable; look as if butter would not melt in one's mouth; mend one's manners.

receive, do the honors, usher, greet, hail, bid welcome; welcome, welcome with open arms; shake hands; hold out the hand, press the hand, squeeze the hand, press the flesh; bid Godspeed; speed the parting guest; cheer, serenade.

salute; embrace &c. (endearment) 902; kiss, kiss hands; drink to, pledge, hob and nob; move to, nod to; smile upon.

uncover, cap; touch the hat, take off the hat; doff the cap; present arms; make way for; bow; make one's bow, make a leg; scrape, curtsy, courtesy; bob a curtsy, bob a courtesy; kneel; bow the knee, bend the knee.

visit, wait upon, present oneself, pay one's respects, pay a visit &c. (sociability) 892; dance attendance on &c. (servility) 886; pay attentions to; do homage to &c. (respect) 928.

prostrate oneself &c. (worship) 990. hope &c. 858.

give one's duty to, send one's duty to, &c. n.

render polite &c. adj.; polish, civilize, humanize.

Adj. courteous, polite, civil, mannerly, urbane; well-behaved, well- mannered, well-bred, well-brought up; good-mannered, polished, civilized, cultivated; refined &c. (taste) 850; gentlemanlike &c. (fashion) 852; gallant; on one's good behavior.

fine spoken, fair spoken, soft-spoken; honey-mouthed, honey-tongued; oily, bland; obliging, conciliatory, complaisant, complacent; obsequious &c. 886.

ingratiating, winning; gentle, mild; good-humored, cordial, gracious, affable, familiar; neighborly.

diplomatic, tactful, politic; artful &c. 702.

Adv. courteously &c. adj.; with a good grace; with open arms, with outstretched arms; a bras ouverts[Fr]; suaviter in modo[Fr], in good humor.

Int. hail! welcome! well met! ave! all hail! good day, good morrow! Godspeed! pax vobiscum[Lat]! may your shadow never be less!

Phr. Tien de plus estimable que la ceremonie[Fr]; " the very pink of courtesy " [Romeo and Juliet].

895. Discourtesy[edit]

N. discourtesy;ill breeding; ill manners, bad manners, ungainly manners; insuavity; uncourteousness &c.adj.; rusticity, inurbanity; illiberality, incivility displacency.

disrespect &c. 929; procacity, impudence: barbarism, barbarity; misbehavior, brutality, blackguardism, conduct unbecoming a gentleman, grossieret�, brusquerie; vulgarity, &c. 851.

churlishness &c. adj.; spinosity, perversity,; moroseness &c. (sullenness) 901a. sternness &c. adj.; austerity,; moodishness, captiousness &c. 901; cynicism; tartness &c. adj.; acrimony, acerbity, virulence, asperity.

scowl, black looks, frown; short answer, rebuff; hard words, contumely; unparliamentary language, personality.

bear, bruin, brute, blackguard, beast; unlicked cub; frump, crosspatch; saucebox &c. 887; crooked stick; grizzly.

V. be -rude &c. adj.; insult &c. 929; treat with discourtesy; take a name in vain; make bold with, make free with; take a liberty; stare out of countenance, ogle, point at, put to the blush.

cut; turn one's back upon, turn on one's heel; give the cold shoulder; keep at a distance, keep at arm's length; look cool upon, look coldly upon, look black upon; show the door to, send away with a flea in the ear.

lose one's temper &c. (resentment) 900; sulk &c. 90la; frown, scowl, glower, pout; snap, snarl, growl.

render rude &c. ad .; brutalize, brutify.

Adj. discourteous, uncourteous; uncourtly; ill-bred, ill- mannered, ill-behaved, ill-conditioned; unbred; unmannerly, unmannered; impolite, unpolite; unpolished, uncivilized, ungenteel; ungentleman- like, ungentlemanly; unladylike; blackguard; vulgar &c. 851; dedecorous; foul-mouthed foul-spoken; abusive.

uncivil, ungracious, unceremonious; cool; pert, forward, obtrusive, impudent, rude, saucy, precocious.

repulsive; uncomplaisant, unaccommodating, unneighborly, ungallant; inaffable; ungentle, ungainly; rough, rugged, bluff, blunt, gruff; churlish, boorish, bearish; brutal, brusque; stern, harsh, austere; cavalier.

taint, sour, crabbed, sharp, short, trenchant, sarcastic, biting, doggish, caustic, virulent, bitter, acrimonious, venomous, contumelious; snarling &c. v.; surly, surly as a bear; perverse; grim, sullen &c. 901a; peevish &c. (irascible) 901. hope &c. 858.

untactful, impolitic, undiplomatic; artless &c. 703;

Adv. discourteously &c. adj.; with discourtesy &c. n., with a bad grace.

896. Congratulation[edit]

N. congratulation, gratulation; felicitation; salute &c. 894; condolence &c. 915; compliments of the season.

V. congratulate, gratulate; felicitate; give one joy, wish one joy; compliment; tender one's congratulations, off