User:Dan Polansky/Roget MICRA/Class V. Words Relating to the Voluntary Powers
Class V. Words Relating to the Voluntary Powers
- 1 Division I. Individual Volition
- 1.1 Section I. Volition in General
- 1.1.1 1. Acts Of Volition
- 188.8.131.52 600. Will
- 184.108.40.206 601. Necessity
- 220.127.116.11 602. Willingness
- 18.104.22.168 603. Unwillingness
- 22.214.171.124 604. Resolution
- 126.96.36.199 604a. Perseverance
- 188.8.131.52 605. Irresolution
- 184.108.40.206 606. Obstinacy
- 220.127.116.11 607. Tergiversation
- 18.104.22.168 608. Caprice
- 22.214.171.124 609. Choice
- 126.96.36.199 609a. Absence of choice
- 188.8.131.52 610. Rejection
- 184.108.40.206 611. Predetermination
- 220.127.116.11 612. Impulse
- 18.104.22.168 613. Habit
- 22.214.171.124 614. Desuetude
- 1.1.2 2. Causes of Volition
- 1.1.3 3. Objects of Volition
- 1.1.1 1. Acts Of Volition
- 1.2 Section II. Prospective Volition
- 1.2.1 1. Conceptional Volition
- 1.2.2 2. Subservience to Ends
- 126.96.36.199 Actual Subservience
- 188.8.131.52 Degree of Subservience
- 184.108.40.206.1 642. Importance
- 220.127.116.11.2 643. Unimportance
- 18.104.22.168.3 644. Utility
- 22.214.171.124.4 645. Inutility
- 126.96.36.199.5 646. Expedience
- 188.8.131.52.6 647. Inexpedience
- 184.108.40.206.7 648. Goodness
- 220.127.116.11.8 649. Badness
- 18.104.22.168.9 650. Perfection
- 22.214.171.124.10 651. Imperfection
- 126.96.36.199.11 652. Cleanness
- 188.8.131.52.12 653. Uncleanness
- 184.108.40.206.13 654. Health
- 220.127.116.11.14 655. Disease
- 18.104.22.168.15 656. Salubrity
- 22.214.171.124.16 657. Insalubrity
- 126.96.36.199.17 658. Improvement
- 188.8.131.52.18 659. Deterioration
- 184.108.40.206.19 660. Restoration
- 220.127.116.11.20 661. Relapse
- 18.104.22.168.21 662. Remedy
- 22.214.171.124.22 663. Bane
- 126.96.36.199 Contingent Subservience
- 1.2.3 3. Precursory Measures
- 1.3 Section III. Voluntary Action
- 1.3.1 1. Simple Voluntary Action
- 1.3.2 2. Complex Voluntary Action
- 1.4 Section IV. Antagonism
- 1.4.1 1. Conditional Antagonism
- 1.4.2 2. Active Antagonism
- 188.8.131.52 706. Hindrance
- 184.108.40.206 707. Aid
- 220.127.116.11 708. Opposition
- 18.104.22.168 709. Cooperation
- 22.214.171.124 710. Opponent
- 126.96.36.199 711. Auxiliary
- 188.8.131.52 712. Party
- 184.108.40.206 713. Discord
- 220.127.116.11 714. Concord
- 18.104.22.168 715. Defiance
- 22.214.171.124 716. Attack
- 126.96.36.199 717. Defense
- 188.8.131.52 718. Retaliation
- 184.108.40.206 719. Resistance
- 220.127.116.11 720. Contention
- 18.104.22.168 721. Peace
- 22.214.171.124 722. Warfare
- 126.96.36.199 723. Pacification
- 188.8.131.52 724. Mediation
- 184.108.40.206 725. Submission
- 220.127.116.11 726. Combatant
- 18.104.22.168 727. Arms
- 22.214.171.124 728. Arena
- 1.5 Section V. Results of Voluntary Action
- 1.1 Section I. Volition in General
- 2 Division II. Intersocial Volition
- 2.1 Section I. General Intersocial Volition
- 2.1.1 737. Authority
- 2.1.2 737a. Government
- 2.1.3 737b. Politics
- 2.1.4 738. Laxity
- 2.1.5 739. Severity
- 2.1.6 740. Lenity
- 2.1.7 741. Command
- 2.1.8 742. Disobedience
- 2.1.9 743. Obedience
- 2.1.10 744. Compulsion
- 2.1.11 745. Master
- 2.1.12 746. Servant
- 2.1.13 747. Scepter
- 2.1.14 748. Freedom
- 2.1.15 749. Subjection
- 2.1.16 750. Liberation
- 2.1.17 751. Restraint
- 2.1.18 752. Prison
- 2.1.19 753. Keeper
- 2.1.20 754. Prisoner
- 2.1.21 755. Commission
- 2.1.22 756. Abrogation
- 2.1.23 757. Resignation
- 2.1.24 758. Consignee
- 2.1.25 759. Deputy
- 2.2 Section II. Special Intersocial Volition
- 2.3 Section III. Conditional Intersocial Volition
- 2.4 Section IV. Possessive Relations
- 2.4.1 1. Property In General
- 2.4.2 2. Transfer of Property
- 2.4.3 3. Interchange of Property
- 2.4.4 4. Monetary Relations
- 126.96.36.199 800. Money
- 188.8.131.52 801. Treasurer
- 184.108.40.206 802. Treasury
- 220.127.116.11 803. Wealth
- 18.104.22.168 804. Poverty
- 22.214.171.124 805. Credit
- 126.96.36.199 806. Debt
- 188.8.131.52 807. Payment
- 184.108.40.206 808. Nonpayment
- 220.127.116.11 809. Expenditure
- 18.104.22.168 810. Receipt
- 22.214.171.124 811. Accounts
- 126.96.36.199 812. Price
- 188.8.131.52 812a. Value
- 184.108.40.206 812b. Worthlessness
- 220.127.116.11 813. Discount
- 18.104.22.168 814. Dearness
- 22.214.171.124 815. Cheapness
- 126.96.36.199 816. Liberality
- 188.8.131.52 817. Economy
- 184.108.40.206 817a. Greed
- 220.127.116.11 818. Prodigality
- 18.104.22.168 819. Parsimony
- 2.1 Section I. General Intersocial Volition
Division I. Individual Volition
Section I. Volition in General
1. Acts Of Volition
N. will, volition, conation†, velleity; liberum arbitrium[Lat]; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c. 748; discretion; option &c. (choice) 609; voluntariness†; spontaneity, spontaneousness; originality.
have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c. (freedom) 748; have it all.one's own way; have one's will, have one's own way. use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon oneself, take one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do of one's own accord, do upon one;s own authority; originate &c. (cause) 153.
Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas[Lat]; sic volo sic jubeo[Lat]; a vostro beneplacito[It]; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere[Lat]; Deus vult[Lat]; was man nicht kann meiden muss man willig leiden[Ger].
necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c. 744; subjection &c. 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity, imperious necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse necessity; fate; what must be.
V. lie under a necessity; befated†, be doomed, be destined &c. in for, under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's fate &c. n. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be unable to help.
Adv. necessarily &c. adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate rei[Lat]; needs must; perforce &c. 744; nolens volens[Lat]; will he nil he, willy nilly, bon gre mal gre[Fr], willing or unwilling, coute que coute[Fr].
Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping it; it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its way; the die is cast; jacta est alea†[Lat]; che sara sara[French]; "it is written"; one's days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata obstant[Latin]; diis aliter visum†[Latin]; actum me invito factus[Latin], non est meus actus[Latin]; aujord'hui roi demain rien[French]; quisque suos patimur manes [Latin][Vergil];"The moving finger writes and having writ moves on. Nor all your piety and wit can bring it back to cancel half a line, nor all your tears wash out a word of it."[Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam].
V. be willing &c. adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief; lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half a mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c. 865.
Adv. willingly &c. adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with right will; de bonne volonte[Fr], ex animo[Lat]; con amore[It], heart in hand, nothing loth, without reluctance, of one's own accord, graciously, with a good grace.
N. unwillingness &c. adj.; indisposition, indisposedness†; disinclination, aversation†; nolleity†, nolition†; renitence†, renitency; reluctance; indifference &c. 866; backwardness &c. adj.; slowness &c. 275; want of alacrity,want of readiness; indocility &c. (obstinacy) 606†.
Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined, indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c. (opposed) 708; laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c. 866; scrupulous; squeamish &c. (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867; restiff|, restive; demurring &c. v.; unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; involuntary &c. 601.
Adv. unwillingly &c. adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad, with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against the grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore against one's grain; invita Minerva[Lat]; a contre caeur[Fr]; malgre soi[Fr]; in spite of one's teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens volens &c. (necessity) 601[Lat]; perforce &c. 744; under protest; no &c. 536; not for the world, far be it from me.
N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit, true grit, grit [U. S. &can.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will; resolve &c. (intent) 620; firmness &c. (stability) 150; energy, manliness, vigor; game, pluck; resoluteness &c. (courage) 861; zeal &c. 682; aplomb; desperation; devotion, devotedness.
mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession, self reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self denial; moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c. 604a; tenacity; obstinacy &c. 606; bulldog; British lion.
V. have determination &c. n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c. adj.; make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c. (judgment) 480; form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution, come to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring to a crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c. (choice) 609; take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676.
devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard, kick down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back against the wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's stand; stand firm &c. (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense, not listen to the voice of the charmer.
buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay one's shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's heart into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the horns; rush in medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist upon, make a point of; set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon.
stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c. (activity) 682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit *, go the whole hog; persist &c. (persevere) 604a,; go through fire and water, ride the tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the storm.
Adj. resolved &c. v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded; resolute &c. (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory, tranchant†; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking†; firm, iron, gritty [U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless, not to be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi[Lat]; inflexible &c. (hard) 323; obstinate &c. 606; steady &c. (persevering) 604a.
Adv. resolutely &c. adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously, joking apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c. (exertion) 686.
at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard at any price, at any cost, at any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a bis ou a blanc[Fr]†; cost what it may; coute[Fr]; a tort et a travers†; once for all; neck or nothing; rain or shine.
V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep on; keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course, maintain one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear up, keep up, hold up; plod; stick to work &c. (work) 686; continue &c. 143; follow up; die in harness, die at one's post.
Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating, unwavering, unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping†, unflagging, undrooping†; steady as time; unrelenting, unintermitting†, unremitting; plodding; industrious &c. 682; strenuous &c. 686; pertinacious; persisting, persistent.
N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose, indecision; indetermination, undetermination|!; unsettlement; uncertainty &c. 475; demur, suspense; hesitating &c. v., hesitation, hesitancy; vacillation; changeableness &c. 149; fluctuation; alternation &c. (oscillation) 314; caprice &c. 608.
V. be irresolute &c. adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave "ad referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c. (inactivity) 683; remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker†, hum and haw, demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with, coquet with; will and will not, chaser-balancer†; go halfway, compromise, make a compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger like a drunken man; be afraid &c. 860; let "I dare not" wait upon "I would" [Macbeth]; falter, waver
Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted; undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous; hesitating &c. v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c. (uncertain) 475.
Int. "how happy could I be with either!" [Gay].
N. obstinateness &c. adj.; obstinacy, tenacity; cussedness [U. S.]; perseverance &c. 604a; immovability; old school; inflexibility &c. (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration†; dogged resolution; resolution &c. 604; ruling passion; blind side.
V. be obstinate &c. adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a belief; have one's own way &c. (will) 600; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; have the last word, insist on having the last word.
Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened; inflexible &c. (hard) 323; balky; immovable, unshakable, not to be moved; inert &c. 172; unchangeable &c. 150; inexorable &c. (determined) 604; mulish, obstinate as a mule, pig-headed.
arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c. 481; creed- bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff hearted; hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious, impracticable, inpersuasible†; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable†; incorrigible, deaf to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c. 608.
Adv. obstinately &c. adj.
tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody†; renunciation; abjuration,abjurement†; defection &c. (relinquishment) 624; going over &c. v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation†; withdrawal; disavowal &c. (negation) 536; revocation, revokement†; reversal; repentance &c. 950- redintegratio amoris[Lat].
V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose, change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c. (relinquish) 624; waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a pirouette; go over from one side to another, pass from one side to another, change from one side to another, skip from one side to another; go to the rightabout; box the compass, shift one's ground, go upon another tack.
draw in one's horns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the leek; swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of it; come back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c. (repent) 950.
trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be on the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds; nager entre deux eaux[Fr]; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see how the wind blows.
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron].
N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsy, whimsey†, whimwham†; crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot, fad, vagary, prank, fit, flimflam, escapade, boutade[Fr], wild-goose chase; capriciousness &c. adj.; kink.
V. be capricious &c. adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold; play fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque[Fr].
Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims &c. n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical, crotchety, kinky [U. S.], particular, humorsome†, freakish, skittish, wanton, wayward; contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c. 83; penny wise and pound foolish; fickle &c. (irresolute) 605; frivolous, sleeveless, giddy, volatile.
use option, use discretion, exercise option, exercise discretion, one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect, opt for; take one's choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon.
select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean, winnow; sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's way; indulge one;s fancy.
609a. Absence of choice
coercion (compulsion) 744.
Adv. either &c. (choice) 609.
Phr. who cares? what difference does it make? "There's not a dime's worth of difference between them." [George Wallace].
repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the dogs, fling overboard, fling away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs, cast overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss overboard, toss away; send to the right about; disclaim &c. (deny) 536; discard &c. (eject) 297, (have done with) 678.
Phr. non haec in faedera[Lat].
N. predestination, preordination, premeditation, predeliberation†, predetermination; foregone conclusion, fait accompli[Fr]; parti pris[Fr]; resolve, propendency|; intention &c. 620; project &c. 626; fate, foredoom, necessity.
blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab; fillip; slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c. 972; squash, dowse, swap, whap†, punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce|, calcitration†; ruade†; arietation|; cut, thrust, lunge, yerk|; carom, carrom†, clip *, jab, plug*, sidewinder* [U.S.], sidewipe†, sideswipe [U.S.].
V. give an impetus &c. n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin[Fr]; cant; elbow, shoulder, jostle, justle†, hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter; run against, bump against, butt against; knock one's head against, run one's head against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip y; fan, fan out; jab, plug *.
strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap, batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow; poke at, pink, lunge, yerk†; kick, calcitrate†; butt, strike at &c. (attack) 716; whip *c. (punish) 972.
throw &c. (propel) 284.
[includes commonness due to frequency of occurrence]
common state of things, general state of things, natural state of things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary run of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten ground.
prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice; prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode, fashion, vogue; etiquette &c. (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry; conformity &c. 82; consuetude,.dustoor†.
V. be wont &c. adj.
fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c. (conform to) 82; tread the beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten path, follow the beaten; stare super antiquas vias[Lat]†; move in a rut, run on in a groove, go round like a horse in a mill, go on in the old jog trot way.
get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c. 539; cling to, adhere to; repeat &c. 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into a habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict oneself to, take to, get into.
Adj. habitual; accustomary†; prescriptive, accustomed &c. v.; of daily occurrence, of everyday occurrence; consuetudinary†; wonted, usual, general, ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, garden variety, jog, trot; well-trodden, well-known; familiar, vernacular, trite, commonplace, conventional, regular, set, stock, established, stereotyped; prevailing, prevalent; current, received, acknowledged, recognized, accredited; of course, admitted, understood.
Phr. cela s'entend[Fr]; abeunt studia in mores[Lat]; adeo in teneris consuescere multum est[Lat]; consuetudo quasi altera natura [Lat][Cicero]; hoc erat in more majorum[Lat]; "How use doth breed a habit in a man!" [Two Gentlemen]; magna est vis consuetudinis[Lat]; morent fecerat usus [Lat][Ovid].
infraction of usage &c. (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence†; "a custom more honored in the breach than the observance" [Hamlet].
V. be -unaccustomed &c. adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit, break off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through a habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break off a custom, wean oneself of a custom, violate a custom, break through a custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break off a usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a usage, infringe a usage; disuse &c. 678; wear off.
2. Causes of Volition
reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring, primum mobile[Lat], keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con, reason why; secret motive, arriere pensee[Fr]; intention &c. 620.
inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet, magnetism, magnetic force; allectation|, allective|; temptation, enticement, agacerie†, allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery; charm; spell &c. 993; fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction, seducement; honeyed words, voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens forbidden fruit, golden apple.
persuasibility†, persuasibleness†; attractability†; impressibility, susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness; tantalization†. influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse, impulsion; incitement, incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c. (excitation of feeling) 824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion; encouragement, advocacy; exhortation; advice &c. 695; solicitation &c. (request) 765; lobbyism; pull*.
stimulate &c. (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse; animate, incite, foment, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate;.act upon, work upon, operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the shoulder, clap on the back, clap on the shoulder.
influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose, turn the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have influence over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise influence over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn the head, magnetize; lobby.
persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round to one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over, come over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court.
enforce, force; impel &c. (push) 276; propel &c. 284; whip, lash, goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound , hurry on; drag &c. 285; exhort; advise &c. 695; call upon &c. press &c. (request) 765; advocate.
Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory†, persuasive, persuasory†, hortative, hortatory; protreptical|; inviting, tempting, &c. v.; suasive, suasory†; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c. (pleasing) 829; provocative &c. (exciting) 824.
615a. Absence of motive
Adv. out of mere caprice.
disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage, dishearten; deter; repress, hold back, keep back &c. (restrain) 751; render averse &c. 603; repel; turn aside &c. (deviation) 279; wean from; act as a drag &c. (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill, blunt, calm, quiet, quench; deprecate &c. 766.
[Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.]
N. pretext, pretense, pretension, plea|; allegation, advocation; ostensible motive, ostensible ground, ostensible reason, phony reason; excuse &c. (vindication) 937; subterfuge; color; gloss, guise, cover.
pretense &c. (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes; blind; moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame apology; tub to a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift, white lie; special pleading &c. (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c. (flattery) 933†.
V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse &c. (vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c. n.; make a pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c. n.; take one's stand upon, make capital out of , pretend &c. (lie) 544.
3. Objects of Volition
N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c. 658; greatest good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main chance, summum bonum[Lat], common weal; "consummation devoutly to be wished"; gain, boot; profit, harvest.
V. be in trouble &c. (adversity) 735.
Phr. "moving accidents by flood and field" [Othello].
Section II. Prospective Volition
1. Conceptional Volition
final cause; raison d'etre[Fr]; cui bono[Lat]; object, aim, end; "the be all and the end all"; drift &c. (meaning) 516; tendency &c. 176; destination, mark, point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye, quintain†[medeival]; prey, quarry, game.
[Study of final causes] teleology.
Adj. intended &c. v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate; prepense &c. 611†; bound for; intending &c. v.; minded; bent upon &c. (earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis†; in view, in prospect, in the breast of; in petto; teleological
Adv. intentionally &c. adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly, designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly; with intent &c. n.; deliberately &c. (with premeditation) 611; with one's eyes open, in cold blood.
[Absence of purpose in the succession of events]
drawing lots; sortilegy†, sortition|; sortes†, sortes Virgilianae†; rouge et noir[Fr], hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo †[U.S.], craps, faro, roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup tossing, heads or tails cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting; gambling; the turf.
toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance, leave to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chapter of accidents; tempt fortune; chance it, take one's chance, take a shot at it (attempt) 675; run the risk, run the chance, incur the risk, incur the chance, encounter the risk, encounter the chance; stand the hazard of the die.
possible &c. 470.
Phr. acierta errando[Lat]; dextro tempore[Lat]; "fearful concatenation of circumstances" [D. Webster]; "fortuitous combination of circumstances" [Dickens]; le jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoir[Fr]; "the happy combination of fortuitous circumstances" [Scott]; "the fortuitous or casual concourse of atoms" [Bentley]; "God does not play dice with the universe" [A. Einstein].
[Purpose in action.]
N. pursuit; pursuing &c. v.; prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c. (undertaking) 676; business &c. 625; adventure &c. (essay) 675; quest &c. (search) 461; scramble, hue and cry, game; hobby; still-hunt.
V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c. (do) 680; engage in &c. (undertake) 676; set about &c. (begin) 66; endeavor &c. 675; court &c. (request) 765 seek &c. (search) 461; aim at &c. (intention) 620; follow the trail &c. (trace) 461; fish for &c. (experiment) 463; press on &c. (haste) 684; run a race &c. (velocity) 274.
tread a path; take a course, hold- a course; shape one's steps, direct one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's way, elbow one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride one's hobby.
[Absence of pursuit.]
avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep one's distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get out of the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c. (oppose) 708; deny oneself.
beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels; runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly, flee; fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight; desert, elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer off; break away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away, make away from, scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from, sheer away from; slip cable, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out of, play truant, give one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave, slope, decamp, flit, bolt, abscond, levant, skedaddle, absquatulate †[U.S.], cut one's stick, walk one's chalks, show a light pair of heels, make oneself scarce; escape &c. 671; go away &c. (depart) 293; abandon &c. 624; reject &c. 610.
Phr. "things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme" [Paradise Lost].
V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch; go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of; leave, quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c. (resign) 757.
Int. avast! &c. (stop) 142.
V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in; employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern oneself with; make it one's business &c. n.; undertake &c. 676; enter a profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c. (do) 680.
drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade, carry on business, do business, transact business &c. n.; keep a shop; ply one's task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the even tenor of one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work.
officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty; serve the office of, discharge the office of, perform the office of, perform the duties of, perform the functions of; hold an office, fill an office, fill a place, fill a situation; hold a portfolio, hold a place, hold a situation.
be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied with, be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's hands, have on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full &c. (activity) 682.
forecast, program(me), prospectus; carte du pays[Fr]; card; bill, protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c. (food) 298; base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U. S.], ticket [U. S.].
contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice, device; pipelaying [U. S.]; stratagem &c. (cunning) 702; trick &c. (deception) 545; alternative, loophole; shift &c. (substitute) 147; last shift &c. (necessity) 601.
measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump card, court card; cheval de bataille[Fr], great gun; coup, coup d'etat[Fr]; clever stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good stroke; bright thought, bright idea.
V. plan,,scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch; devise, invent &c. (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c. 515; spring a project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay out, map out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course; predetermine &c. 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c. 673; hatch, hatch a plot concoct; take steps, take measures.
roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway; turnpike , freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's highway, Queen's highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle road, bridle track, bridle path; walk, trottoir†, footpath, pavement, flags, sidewalk; crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c. (mid-course) 628; carrefour†; private road, occupation road; highways and byways; railroad, railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway; canal &c. (conduit) 350; street &c. (abode) 189; speedway. adv. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this way, after this fashion.
Phr. hae tibi erunt artes[Lat].
Adj. straight &c. (direct) 278.
Phr. medium tenuere beati[Lat]. </gr>
Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; necessitas non habet legem[Lat]; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te [Lat][Martial].
2. Subservience to Ends
Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c. 170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c. n.; along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c. 632; by the aid of, with the aid of &c. (assistance) 707.
N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means; capital &c. (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c. 636; provision &c. 637; a shot in the locker; appliances &c. (machinery) 633; means and appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c. (measures) 626; two strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c. (safety) 666; aid &c. 707; medium &c. 631.
instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine, lathe, gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine. gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances; plant, materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde†; equipment, equipmentage†; appointments, furniture, upholstery; chattels; paraphernalia &c. (belongings) 780.
mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow, crowbar; handspike†, gavelock†, jemmy†, jimmy, arm, limb, wing; oar, paddle; pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels within wheels; pinion, crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c. (lift) 307; wheel &c. (rotation) 312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring; can hook, glut, heald†, heddle†, jenny, parbuckle†, sprag†, water wheel.
hammer &c. (impulse) 276; edge tool &c. (cut) 253; borer &c. 262; vice, teeth, &c. (hold) 781; nail, rope &c. (join) 45; peg &c. (hang) 214; support &c. 215; spoon &c. (vehicle) 272; arms &c. 727; oar &c. (navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper†, snowplow, tenpenny†, votograph†.
N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple; adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake; shingle, bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c. 384; compo, composition; concrete; reinforced concrete, cement; wood, ore, timber.
materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff pabulum &c. (food) 298; ammunition &c. (arms) 727; contingents; relay, reinforcement, reenforcement†; baggage &c. (personal property) 780; means &c. 632; calico, cambric, cashmere.
storehouse, storeroom, storecloset†; depository, depot, cache, repository, reservatory†, repertory; repertorium†; promptuary†, warehouse, entrepot[Fr], magazine; buttery, larder, spence†; garner, granary; cannery, safe-deposit vault, stillroom†; thesaurus; bank &c. (treasury) 802; armory; arsenal; dock; gallery, museum, conservatory; menagery†, menagerie.
V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart; store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up, save up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit[Lat].
N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion &c. 73; ebb; leakage &c. (exudation) 295; loss &c. 776; wear and tear; waste; prodigality &c. 818; misuse &c. 679; wasting &c. v.; rubbish &c. (useless) 645. mountain in labor.
" waste its sweetness on the desert air " [Gray]; cast one's bread upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to crack a nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a wheel; labor in vain &c. (useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a sieve.
mediocrity &c. (average) 29.
fill; fullness &c. (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance; copiousness &c. Adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure; " good measure pressed down and running, over." luxuriance &c. (fertility) 168; affluence &c. (wealth) 803; fat of the land; "a land flowing with milk and honey"; cornucopia; horn of plenty, horn of Amalthaea; mine &c. (stock) 636.
V. be sufficient &c. Adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster; have enough &c. n.; eat. one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill; roll in, swim in; wallow in &c. (superabundance) 641 ; wanton.
full.&c. (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous; plenty as blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c. v.; replete, enough and to spare, flush; choke-full, chock-full; well-stocked, well-provided; liberal; unstinted, unstinting; stintless†; without stint; unsparing, unmeasured; lavish &c. 641; wholesale.
N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness; incompetence &c. (impotence) 158; deficiency &c. (incompleteness) 53; imperfection &c. 651; shortcoming &c. 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c. (smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence.
Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c. 32; not enough &c. 639; unequal to; incompetent &c. (impotent) 158; " weighed in the balance and found wanting "; perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460; deficient &c. (incomplete) 53; wanting, &c. v.; imperfect &c. 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill- stored, ill-off.
scant &c. (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love or money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c. 819; at the end of one's tether; without resources &c. 632; in want &c. (poor) 804; in debt &c. 806.
Phr. semper avarus eget [Lat][Horace].
N. redundancy, redundance†; too much, too many; superabundance, superfluity, superfluence|, saturation; nimiety†, transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c. (plenty) 639; repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque[Lat], lion's share; more than enough &c. 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion, load, surfeit, sickener†; turgescence &c. (expansion) 194†; overdose, overmeasure†, oversupply, overflow; inundation &c. (water) 348; avalanche.
V. superabound, overabound†; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at every turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow over, well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay, overcharge, overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo, overwhelm, overshoot the mark &c. (go beyond) 303; surcharge, supersaturate, gorge, glut, load, drench, whelm, inundate, deluge, flood; drug, drug the market; hepatize†.
send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to Athens†; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare docere[Lat];.kill the slain, " gild refined gold", "gild the lily", butter one's bread on both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to crack a nut &c. (waste) 638.
Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate, superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal &c. 818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c. v.; supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running over, running to waste, running down.
superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous|, uncalled for, to spare, in excess; over and above &c. (remainder) 40; de trop[Fr]; adscititious &c. (additional) 37; supernumerary &c. (reserve) 636; on one's hands, spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort[Fr].
Adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch, too much; too far; without measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with . . . to spare; over head and ears; up to one's eyes, up to one's ears; extra; beyond the mark &c. (transcursion) 303; acervatim [Lat].
Degree of Subservience
great thing, great point; main chance, "the be all and the end all " [Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c. (essence) 5; sum and substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part, prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath of one's nostrils &c. (life) 359;cream, salt, core, kernel, heart, nucleus; keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c. (device) 626; salient points.
V. be important &c. adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify, matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c. (influence) 175; make a figure &c. (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead the way, take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the shade; lie at the root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of notice, be worthy of regard, be worthy of consideration.
attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c. n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c. 550; mark with a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print in italics, print in capitals,print in large letters, put in large type, put in letters. of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on.
Adj. important; of importance &c. n.; momentous, material; to the point; not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at; egregious; weighty &c. (influential) 175; of note &c. (repute) 873; notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable; unforgettable; worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be forgotten; stirring, eventful.
Phr. expende Hannibalem![Lat] [Juvenal]. </gr>
nothing, nothing to signify,, nothing worth speaking of, nothing particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no great matter, trifling matter &c. Adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great shakes, peu de chose[Fr]; child's play, kinderspiel.
subordinate &c. (inferior) 34; mediocre &c. (average) 29; passable, fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common; ordinary &c. (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant, inappreciable.
trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle; puerile &c. (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c. 160; powerless &c. 158; frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble†, inane, ridiculous, farcical; finical, finikin†; fiddle-faddle, fingle- fangle†, namby-pamby, wishy-washy, milk and water.
poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c. (contempt) 930; sorry, mean, meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel†, weedy, niggardly, scurvy, putid†, beggarly, worthless, twopennyhalfpenny, cheap, trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-horse [U. S.]. not worth the pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not worth speaking of, not worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a straw &c. n.;1 beneath notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard, unworthy of regard, beneath consideration, unworthy of consideration; de lana caprina[It]†; vain &c. (useless) 645.
Int. no matter! pish! tush! tut! pshaw! pugh! pooh,pooh-pooh! fudge! bosh! humbug! fiddlestick†, fiddlestick end†! fiddlededee! never mind! n'importe[Fr]! what signifies it, what boots it, what of it, what of that, what matter, what's the odds, a fig for' stuff and nonsense, stuff! nonsense!
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle[Fr]; it matters not, it does not signify; it is of no consequence, it is of no importance; elephantus non capit murem[Lat]; tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].
N. utility; usefulness &c. adj.; efficacy, efficiency, adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c. (aid) 707; applicability &c. adj.; subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631; function &c. (business) 625; value; worth &c. (goodness) 648; money's worth; productiveness &c. 168; cui bono &c. (intention) 620[Lat]; utilization &c. (use) 677 step in the right direction.
act a part &c. (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a function &c.; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's service; bestead†, stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c. 707.
N. inutility; uselessness &c. adj.; inefficacy†, futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience†; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; inefficiency.&c. (incompetence) 158; unskillfulness &c. 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c.(unproductiveness). 169; labor in vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus; lost trouble, lost labor; work of Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild goose chase, mere farce.
litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes; button top; shoddy; rags, orts†, trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings, offscourings†, waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings; broken meat; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust hole; rudera†, deads†.
fruges consumere natus &c. (drone) 683[Lat][Horace].
seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash the waves, battre l'eau avec un baton[Fr], donner un coup d'epee dans l'eau[Fr], fish in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty well, sow the sand; bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the winds; whistle jigs to a milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre contre des moulins[Fr]; lock the stable door when the steed is stolen, lock the barn door after the horse is stolen &c. (too late) 135; hold a farthing candle to the sun; cast pearls before swine &c. (waste) 638; carry coals to Newcastle &c. (redundancy) 641; wash a blackamoor white &c. (impossible) 471.
Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless; inoperative &c. 158; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; inservient|, unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c. (impotent) 158; of no avail &c. (use) 644; ineffectual &c. (failure) 732; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; " stale, flat and unprofitable"; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641; dispensable; thrown away &c. (wasted) 638; abortive &c. (immature) 674.
vain, empty, inane; gainless†, profitless, fruitless; unserviceable, unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c. 169; hors de combat[Fr]; effete, past work &c. (impaired) 659; obsolete &c. (old) 124; fit for the dust hole; good for nothing; of no earthly use; not worth having, not worth powder and shot; leading to no end, uncalled for; unnecessary, unneeded.
high time &c. (occasion) 134.
Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming; befitting &c. v.; opportune &c. (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c. (accordant) 23; applicable &c. (useful) 644.
Phr. operae pretium est[Lat].
Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable; objectionable; inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious, discommodious†; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c. (inconsonant) 24.
unnecessary &c. (redundant) 641.
Phr. it will never do.
[Capability of producing good. Good qualities.]
super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c. 33; perfection &c. 650; coup de maitre[Fr]; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre[Fr], prime, flower, cream, elite, pick, A1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la creme, flower of the flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth; champion; prodigy.
best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless; unparagoned†, unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superlatively &c. 33; good; bully* , crackajack*†, giltedged; superfine, superexcellent†; of the first water; first-rate, first-class; high- wrought, exquisite, very best, crack, prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal; standard &c. (perfect) 650; inimitable.
admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c. (approve) 931; pleasing &c. 829; couleur de rose[Fr], precious, of great price; costly &c. (dear) 814; worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless, invaluable, inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye.
[Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.]
Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful†, baneful, baleful; injurious, deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome; prejudicial; disserviceable†, disadvantageous; wide-wasting.
vile, base, villainous; mean &c. (paltry) 643; injured &c. deteriorated &c. 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable indifferent; below par &c. (imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad, grievous, deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c. (painful) 830.
evil, wrong; depraved &c. 945; shocking; reprehensible &c. (disapprove) 932. hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable, execrable, cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal; diabolic &c. (malevolent) 907.
Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective†, indeficient†, indefectible; immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c. 651; unblemished, uninjured &c. 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect condition; scathless†, intact, harmless; seaworthy &c. (safe) 644; right as a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Lat][Horace]; consummate &c. (complete) 52; finished &c. 729.
fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c. (break) 70; gap &c. 198; twist &c. 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat; blemish &c. 848; weakness &c. 160; half blood; shortcoming &c. 304; drawback; seamy side.
Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c. 650; deficient, defective; faulty, unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung; warped &c. (distort) 243; lame; injured &c. (deteriorated) 659; peccant &c. (bad) 649; frail &c. (weak) 160; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; crude &c. (unprepared) 674; incomplete &c. 53; found wanting,; below par; short- handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below its full complement.
indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c. 29; so-so; coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well, pretty good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well enough, adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable†, unobjectionable, admissible, bearable, only better than nothing.
Phr. surgit amari aliquid[Lat].
N. cleanness, cleanliness &c. adj.; purity; cleaning &c. v.; purification, defecation &c. v.; purgation, lustration†; detersion†, abstersion†; epuration†, mundation|; ablution, lavation†, colature|; disinfection &c. v.; drainage, sewerage.
wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge|, deterge†; decrassify†; clear, purify; depurate†, despumate†, defecate; purge, expurgate, elutriate[Chem], lixiviate†, edulcorate†, clarify, refine, rack; filter, filtrate; drain, strain.
defilement, contamination &c. v.; defoedation|; soilure†, soiliness|; abomination; leaven; taint, tainture|; fetor &c. 401†. decay; putrescence, putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew, dry rot, mucor, rubigo|.
hogwash; ditchwater†, dishwater, bilgewater†; rinsings, cheeseparings; sweepings &c. (useless refuse) 645; offscourings†, outscourings†; off scum; caput mortuum[Lat]†, residuum, sprue, fecula[Lat], clinker, draff†; scurf, scurfiness†; exuviae[Lat], morphea; fur, furfur†; dandruff, tartar.
spawn, offal, gurry †[U. S.]; lientery†; garbage, carrion; excreta &c. 299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration, lienteria†; faeces, feces, , excrement, ordure, dung, crap[vulgar], shit[vulgar]; sewage, sewerage; muck; coprolite; guano, manure, compost.
render unclean &c. adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge, smutch†, soil, smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch; begrease†;.dabble, drabble†, draggle, daggle†; spatter, slubber; besmear &c., bemire, beslime†, begrime, befoul; splash, stain, distain†, maculate, sully, pollute, defile, debase, contaminate, taint, leaven;, corrupt &c. (injure) 659; cover with dust &c. n.; drabble in the mud†; roil.
[of rotting living matter] decayed, moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty, moth-eaten, mucid†, rancid, weak, bad, gone bad, etercoral†, lentiginous†, touched, fusty, effete, reasty†, rotten, corrupt, tainted, high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive, putrescent, putrefied; saprogenic, saprogenous†; purulent, carious, peccant; fecal, feculent; stercoraceous†, excrementitious†; scurfy, scurvy, impetiginous†; gory, bloody; rotting &c. v.; rotten as a pear, rotten as cheese.
Phr. " they that touch pitch will be defiled " [Much Ado About Nothing].
N. health, sanity; soundness &c. adj.; vigor; good health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health; bloom. mens sana in corpore sano[Lat]; Hygeia†; incorruption, incorruptibility; good state of health, clean bill of health; eupepsia†; euphoria, euphory†; St. Anthony's fire†.
on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a daisy, fresh as a rose, fresh as April†; hearty as a buck; in fine feather, in high feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish†, tolerably well, as well as can be expected.
N. disease; illness, sickness &c. adj.; ailing &c. " all the ills that flesh is heir to " [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity|; infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady; distemper, distemperature†.
sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple, wen &c. (swelling) 250; carbuncle, gathering, imposthume†, peccant humor, issue; rot, canker, cold sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease, malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene, sphacelus†, sphacelation†, leprosy; eruption, rash, breaking out.
ague, angina pectoris[Lat], appendicitis; Asiatic cholera†, spasmodic cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic plague, pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia†, blennorrhoea†; blood poisoning, bloodstroke†, bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever†, dengue fever, malarial fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest, cardiomyopathy[Med]; hardening of the arteries, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis; bronchocele[Med], canker rash, cardialgia[Med], carditis[Med], endocarditis[Med]; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis, chorea, cynanche†, dartre[Fr]; enanthem†, enanthema†; erysipelas; exanthem†, exanthema; gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness; grip, grippe, influenza, flu; hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture, hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes, itch, king's evil, lockjaw; measles, mumps†, polio; necrosis, pertussis, phthisis†, pneumonia, psora†, pyaemia†, pyrosis[Med], quinsy, rachitis†, ringworm, rubeola, St. Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula, seasickness, struma†, syntexis†, tetanus, tetter†, tonsillitis, tonsilitis†, tracheocele[Med], trachoma, trismus[Med], varicella[Med], varicosis[Med], variola[Med], water qualm, whooping cough; yellow fever, yellow jack.
Adj. diseased; ailing &c. v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with; indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with illness, afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden, invalided, in hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts; under the weather [U. S.]; valetudinary†.
morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned, tabid†, mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten at the core; withered, palsied, paralytic;dyspeptic; luetic†, pneumonic, pulmonic[Med], phthisic†, rachitic; syntectic†, syntectical†; tabetic†, varicose.
Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome; morbific†, morbiferous†; mephitic, septic, azotic†, deleterious; pestilent, pestiferous, pestilential; virulent, venomous, envenomed; poisonous, toxic, toxiferous†, teratogenic; narcotic.
deadly &c. (killing) 361.
N. improvement; amelioration, melioration; betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c. v.; advancement; advance &c. (progress) 282; ascent &c. 305; promotion, preferment; elevation &c. 307; increase &c. 35; cultivation, civilization; culture, march of intellect; menticulture†; race-culture, eugenics.
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascend &c. 305; increase &c. 35; fructify, ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable turn; turn over a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow one's wild oats; recover &c. 660.
touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up, brighten up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to advantage; prune; repair &c. (restore) 660; put in order &c. (arrange) 60.
phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit[Lat].
impairment, inquination|, injury, damage, loss, detriment, delaceration|, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath†; perversion, prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution, defoedation|, poisoning, venenation|, leaven, contamination, canker, corruption, adulteration, alloy.
decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion, erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight, marasmus†, atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c. (destruction)[Fr]. 162; aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron†; vinefretter†, vinegrub†.
V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c. Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c. (decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c. 283- decline, droop; go down &c. (sink) 306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare worse; jump out of the frying pan into the fire.
run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale|, sweal|; lapse, be the worse for; sphacelate: break†, break down; spring a leak, crack, start; shrivel &c. (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot, rankle, decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; " fall into the sear and yellow leaf", rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish &c. 162; die &c. 360.
[Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c. 160; put back, set back; taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison†, envenom, canker, corrupt, exulcerate|, pollute, vitiate, inquinate|; debase, embase|; denaturalize, denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave, degrade; ulcerate; stain &c. (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate, sophisticate, tamper with, prejudice.
damnify &c. (aggrieve) 649†; do one's worst; knock down; deal a blow to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief with, play the deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among, play sad havoc among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among, play the very devil among; decimate.
Adj. unimproved &c. (improve &c. 658); deteriorated &c. v.; altered, altered for the worse; injured &c. v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c. v.; on the wane, on the decline; tabid†; degenerate; marescent†; worse; the worse for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune; imperfect &c. 651; the worse for wear; battered; weathered, weather-beaten; stale, passe, shaken, dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby, secondhand, threadbare; worn, worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to the stump, worn to rags; reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky [U. S.*].
decayed &c. v.; moth-eaten, worm-eaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy, spotted, seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted, crumbling, moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c. (vicious) 945; decrepid†, decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of commission, hors de combat[Fr], out of action, broken down; done, done for, done up; worn out, used up, finished; beyond saving, fit for the dust hole, fit for the wastepaper basket, past work &c. (useless) 645.
at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined, deciduous; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162; tottering &c,. (dangerous) 665: past cure &c. (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c. 688; retrograde &c. (retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c. 649.
N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement, replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution, reconstruction; reproduction &c. 163; renovation, renewal; revival, revivessence†, reviviscence†; refreshment &c. 689; resuscitation, reanimation, revivification, reviction|; Phenix; reorganization.
V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to, come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be oneself again; get well,get round, get the better of, get over, get about; rise from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c. (outlive) 110; resume, reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise again.
make whole, redintegrate†; recoup &c. 790; make good, make all square; rectify, correct; put right, put to rights, set right, set to rights, set straight; set up; put in order &c. (arrange) 60; refit, recruit; fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce.
repair; put in repair, remanufacture, put in thorough repair, put in complete repair; retouch, refashion, botch|, vamp, tinker, cobble; do up, patch up, touch up, plaster up, vamp up; darn, finedraw†, heelpiece†; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk, careen, splice, bind up wounds.
anthelmintic[Med]; antidote, antifebrile[Med], antipoison†, counterpoison†, antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer, faith cure, placebo; helminthagogue†, lithagogue†, pick-meup, stimulant, tonic; vermifuge, prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c. 174; palliative; febrifuge; alterant†, alterative; specific; antiseptic, emetic, analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive[Med], antiinflammatory[Med], antibiotic, antiviral[Med], antifungal[Med], carminative; Nepenthe, Mithridate.
medicine, physic, Galenicals†, simples, drug, pharmaceutical, prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion, drip, suppository, electuary†; linctus†, lincture†; medicament; pharmacon†.
agueweed†, arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset†, calomel, catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts[Chem]; feverroot†, feverwort; friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac, ipecacuanha; jonquil, mercurous chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine, quinquina†; sassafras, yarrow.
salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster; epithem†, embrocation†, liniment, cataplasm†, sinapism†, arquebusade†, traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic†, poultice, collyrium†, depilatory; emplastrum†; eyewater†, vesicant, vesicatory[Med].
treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis medicatrix†, vis medicatrix naturae[Lat]†; medecine expectante[Fr]; bloodletting, bleeding, venesection[Med], phlebotomy, cupping, sanguisae, leeches; operation, surgical operation; transfusion, infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter, feeding tube;
pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary; acology†, Materia Medica[Lat], therapeutics, posology†; homeopathy, allopathy†, heteropathy[Med], osteopathy, hydropathy[Med]; cold water cure; dietetics; surgery, chirurgery[Med], chirurgy†; healing art, leechcraft†;
doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general practitioner, specialist ; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist; leech; osteopath, osteopathist†; optometrist, ophthalmologist; internist, oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist[Med], public health specialist; dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor, shaman, faith healer, quack, exorcist; Aesculapius†, Hippocrates, Galen; accoucheur[Fr], accoucheuse[Fr], midwife, oculist, aurist†; operator; nurse, registered nurse, practical nurse, monthly nurse, sister; nurse's aide, candystriper; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist†, pharmacist, druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist†.
V. apply a remedy &c. n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to, attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c. 706; relieve &c. 834; palliate &c. 658; restore &c. 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup, let blood; manicure.
Adj. remedial; restorative &c. 660; corrective, palliative, healing; sanatory†, sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing; salutiferous &c. (salutary) 656†; medical, medicinal; therapeutic, chirurgical[Med], epulotic|, paregoric, tonic, corroborant, analeptic†, balsamic, anodyne, hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative, lenitive, demulcent|, emollient; depuratory†; detersive†, detergent; abstersive†, disinfectant, febrifugal†, alterative; traumatic, vulnerary.
phr. aux grands maux les grands remedes[Fr]; Dios que da la llaga da la medicina[Sp]; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte[Sp]; temporis ars medicina fere est [Lat][Ovid]; " the remedy is worse than the disease " [Dryden]; " throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it " [Macbeth].
[poisonous substances, examples] Albany hemp†, arsenious oxide, arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury; carbonic acid, carbonic gas; choke damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp; hydrocyanic acid, cyanide, Prussic acid[ISA:chemsubcfp], hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux vomica[Lat], ratsbane†.
[list of poisonous substances(on-line)] Toxline.
[Science of poisons] toxicology.
phr. bibere venenum in auro[Lat].
N. safety, security, surety, impregnability; invulnerability, invulnerableness &c. Adj.; danger past, danger over; storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c. 671; means of escape; blow valve, safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard, palladium.
make safe , render safe &c. Adj.; protect; take care of &c. (care) 459; preserve &c. 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward; guard &c. (defend) 717; secure &c. (restrain) 751; entrench, intrench†, fence round &c. (circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge of.
Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side; under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger, out of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed, unscathed; on sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water; unthreatened†, unmolested; protected &c. v.; cavendo tutus[Lat]; panoplied &c. (defended) 717†.
N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard, venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c. 149; defenselessness &c. Adj. exposure &c. (liability) 177; vulnerability; vulnerable point, heel of Achilles†; forlorn hope &c. (hopelessness) 859.
[Sense of danger] apprehension &c. 860.
V. be in danger &c. Adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur danger, encounter danger &c. n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c. (liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel the ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances against one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep trouble, be between a rock and a hard place.
bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger , place in jeopardy, put in jeopardy &c. n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil; jeopard†, jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c. (rash) 863.
Adj. in danger &c. n.; endangered &c. v.; fraught with danger; dangerous, hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous|; unsafe, unprotected &c. (safe, protect &c. 664);insecure, . untrustworthy; built upon.sand, on a sandy basis; wildcat.
at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery, slippy; hanging by a thread &c. v.; with a halter round one's neck; between the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between a rock and a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea, between two fires; on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a precipice, on the verge of a precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in the lion's den, on slippery ground, under fire; not out of the wood.
tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown, ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless†; in a bad way; reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the balance; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162. threatening &c. 909; ominous, illomened; alarming &c. (fear) 860; explosive.
adventurous &c. (rash) 863, (bold) 861.
[Means of safety.]
N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat, fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c. 752; asylum, ark, home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse†; hiding place &c. (ambush) 530; sanctum sanctorum &c. (privacy) 893[Lat].
anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick†; mainstay; support &c. 215; cheek &c. 706; ballast. jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp; lightning rod, lightning conductor; safety belt, airbag, seat belt; antilock brakes, antiskid tires, snow tires.
safeguard &c. (protection) 664.
[Source of danger.]
N. rocks, reefs, coral reef, sunken rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt|, syrtis|; Goodwin sands, sandy foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf, flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead.
handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag, yellow flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice, Cassandra†, signs of the times, Mother Cary's chickens†, stormy petrel, bird of ill omen, gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch.
watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c. (indication of locality) 550. sentinel, sentry,; watch, watchman; watch and ward; watchdog, bandog†, housedog†; patrol, patrolman, vedette†, picket, bivouac, scout, spy, spial|; undercover agent, mole, plainclothesman; advanced guard, rear guard; lookout.
cautiousness &c. 864.
Adv. in terrorem[Lat] &c. (threat) 909.
Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort [French: don't wake a sleeping cat]; foenum habet in cornu[Lat]; caveat actor; le silence du people est la legon des rois[Fr]; verbum sat sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; un averti en vaut deux[Fr].
[Indication of danger.]
N. alarm; alarum, larum†, alarm bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm, hue and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war- whoop; warning &c. 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal; red light, red flag; fire bell; police whistle.
V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the alarm, beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn in an alarm, beat an alarm &c. n.; alarm; warn &c. 668; ring the tocsin; battre la generale[Fr]; cry wolf.
Adj. alarming &c. v.
[Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative, additive; antibiotics, antifungals[Med], biocide; hygiastics†, hygiantics†; cover, drugget†; cordon sanitaire[Fr]; canning; ensilage; tinned goods, canned goods.
V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep alive; refrigerate, keep on ice;not willingly let die; bank up; nurse; save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c. 664; take care of &c. (care) 459; guard &c. (defend) 717.
embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize|, bottle, pot, tin, can; sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize[Chem], freeze-dry, concentrate, evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband &c. (store) 636.
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat]†.
V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of; echapper belle[Fr], save one's bacon, save one's skin; weather the storm &c. (safe) 664; escape scot-free.
elude &c., make off &c. (avoid) 623;. march off &c. (go away) 293; give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers; slip the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break loose from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a hole to creep out of.
V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring off,bring through; tirer d'affaire[Fr], get the wheel out of the rut, snatch from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve &c. (restore) 660; be rid of, get rid of.
Int. to the rescue!
3. Precursory Measures
[Preparation of men] training &c. (education) 537; inurement &c. (habit) 613; novitiate; cooking[ Preparation of food], cookery; brewing, culinary art; tilling[ Preparation of the soil], plowing, sowing; semination†, cultivation.
V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation. set in order, put in order &c. (arrange) 60; forecast &c. (plan) 626 prepare the ground, plow the ground, dress the ground; till the soil, cultivate the soil; predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a mine; lay the groundwork, fix the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the basis, lay the foundations, fix the foundations; dig the foundations, erect the scaffolding; lay the first stone &c. (begin) 66.
elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity; nurture &c. (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt; barbecue; infumate|; maturate. equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress, garnish, betrim†, accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish up, brush up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils, set, prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up; adjust &c. (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in working order, put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack.
train &c. (teach) 537; inure &c. (habituate) 613; breed; prepare &c. for; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the door to &c. (facilitate) 705.
prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c. (learn) 539; lay oneself out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's armor, reculer pour mieux sauter[Fr], prime and load, shoulder arms, get the steam up, put the horses to.
guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for the evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day, feather one's nest; lay in provisions &c. 637; make investments; keep on foot.
be prepared, be ready &c. Adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep one's powder dry; lie in wait for &c. (expect) 507; anticipate &c. (foresee) 510; principiis obstare[Lat]; veniente occurrere morbo[Lat].
Adj. preparing &c. v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c. (plan) 626; brewing, batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve.
in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness; in the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms; armed at all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in hand; booted and spurred.
improvisation &c. (impulse) 612.
Adj. unprepared &c. [prepare &c. 673]; without preparation &c. 673; incomplete &c. 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe, kachcha†, raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the rough; unhewn†, unformed, unfashioned†, unwrought, unlabored†, unblown, uncooked, unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished.
unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured†, unlicked†, untaught, uneducated, uncultivated,. untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised; deckle-edged†; precocious, premature; undigested, indigested†; unmellowed†, unseasoned, unleavened.
Adv. extempore &c. 612.
V. try, essay; experiment &c. 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt, make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance, tempt fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use one's endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way.
V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into; volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c. (promise) 768; contract &c. 769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c. (determination) 604.
take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall to, set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in execution; set forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put one's hand to, put one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to, go to do; begin &c. 66; broach, institute &c. one's (originate) 153; put one's hand to the plow, lay one's hand to the plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel.
Int. here goes!
N. use; employ, employment; exercise, exercitation†; application, appliance; adhibition†, disposal; consumption; agency &c. (physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c. 644; benefit; recourse, resort, avail.
[Way of using] usage.
ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert, exercise, practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have recourse to, recur to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take advantage of; lay one's hands on, try.
render useful &c. 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert to use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into the service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply, adhibit†, dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of.
V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear, abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve. lay up, lay by, lay on the shelf, keep on the shelf,lay up in ordinary; lay up in a napkin; shelve; set aside, put aside, lay aside; disuse, leave off, have done with; supersede; discard &c. (eject) 297; dismiss, give warning.
Adj. misused &c. v.
Phr. ludere cum sacris[Lat].
Section III. Voluntary Action
1. Simple Voluntary Action
N. action, performance; doing, &c. v.; perpetration; exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c. (exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c. (conduct) 692; handicraft; business &c. 625; agency &c. (power at work) 170.
deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction†, job, doings, dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage, move, stroke, blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat[Fr]; tour de force &c. (display) 882; feat, exploit; achievement &c. (completion) 729; handiwork, workmanship; manufacture; stroke of policy &c. (plan) 626.
actor &c. (doer) 690.
act, operate; take action, take steps; strike a blow, lift a finger, stretch forth one's hand; take in hand &c. (undertake) 676; put oneself in motion; put in practice; carry into execution &c. (complete) 729; act upon.
be an actor &c. 690; take a part in, act a part in, play a part in, perform a part in; participate in; have a hand in, have a finger in the pie; have to do with; be a party to, be a participator in; bear a hand, lend a hand; pull an oar, run in a race; mix oneself up with &c. (meddle) 682.
Phr. "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; actions speak louder than words; actum aiunt ne agas †[Lat][Terence]; "awake, arise, or be forever fall'n" [Paradise Lost]; dii pia facta vident [Lat][Ovid]; faire sans dire[Fr]; fare fac[It]; fronte capillata post est occasio calva[Lat]; " our deeds are sometimes better than our thoughts" [Bailey]; "the great end of life is not knowledge but action " [Huxley]; "thought is the soul of act" [R. Browning]; vivre-ce nest pas respirer c'est agir[Fr]†; "we live in deeds not years" [Bailey].
inactivity &c. 683; rest &c. (repose) 687; quiescence &c. 265; want of occupation, inoccupation†; idle hours, time hanging on one's hands, dolce far niente[It]; sinecure, featherbed, featherbedding, cushy job, no- show job; soft snap, soft thing.
V. not do, not act, not attempt; be inactive &c. 683; abstain from doing, do nothing, hold, spare; not stir, not move, not lift a finger, not lift a foot, not lift a peg; fold one's arms, fold one's hands; leave alone, let alone; let be, let pass, let things take their course, let it have its way, let well alone, let well enough alone; quieta non movere[Lat]; stare super antiquas vias[Lat]†; rest and be thankful, live and let live; lie rest upon one's oars; laisser aller[Fr], faire[Fr]; stand aloof; refrain &c. (avoid) 623 keep oneself from doing; remit one's efforts, relax one's efforts; desist &c. (relinquish) 624; stop &c. (cease) 142; pause &c. (be quiet) 265.
cool one's heels, kick one's heels; while away the time, while away tedious hours; pass the time, fill up the time, beguile the time; talk against time; let the grass grow under one's feet; waste time &c. (inactive) 683.
V. be active &c. adj.; busy oneself in; stir, stir about, stir one's stumps; bestir oneself, rouse oneself; speed, hasten, peg away, lay about one, bustle, fuss; raise up, kick up a dust; push; make a push, make a fuss, make a stir; go ahead, push forward; fight one's way, elbow one's way; make progress &c. 282; toll &c. (labor) 686; plod, persist &c. (persevere) 604a; keep up the ball, keep the pot boiling.
look sharp; have all one's eyes about one &c. (vigilance) 459; rise, arouse oneself, hustle, get up early, be about, keep moving, steal a march, kill two birds with one stone; seize the opportunity &c. 134 lose no time, not lose a moment, make the most of one's time, not suffer the grass to grow under one's feet, improve the shining hour, make short work of; dash off; make haste &c. 684; do one's best take pains &c. (exert oneself) 686; do wonders, work wonders.
have many irons in the fire, have one's hands full, have much on one's hands; have other things to do, have other fish to fry; be busy; not have a moment to spare, not have a moment that one can call one's own.
industrious, assiduous, diligent, sedulous, notable, painstaking; intent &c. (attention) 457; indefatigable &c. (persevering) 604a; unwearied; unsleeping†, never tired; plodding, hard-working &c. 686; businesslike, workaday.
Phr. carpe diem &c. (opportunity) 134[Latin: seize the day]; nulla dies sine linea [Latin][Pliny]; nec mora nec requies [Latin][Vergil]; the plot thickens; No sooner said than done &c. (early) 132; "veni vidi vici" [Lat][Suetonius]; catch a weasel asleep; abends wird der Faule fleissig †[German]; dictum ac factum [Lat][Terence]; schwere Arbeit in der Jugend ist sanfte Ruhe im Alter[German: hard work in youth means soft rest in age]; "the busy hum of men " [Milton].
dullness &c. adj.; languor; segnity|, segnitude|; lentor†; sluggishness &c. (slowness) 275; procrastination &c. (delay) 133; torpor, torpidity, torpescence†; stupor &c. (insensibility) 823; somnolence; drowsiness &c. adj.; nodding &c. v.; oscitation†, oscitancy†; pandiculation†, hypnotism, lethargy; statuvolence heaviness†, heavy eyelids.
[person who is inactive] idler, drone, droil†, dawdle, mopus†; do-little faineant[Fr], dummy, sleeping partner; afternoon farmer; truant &c. (runaway) 623: bummer|!, loafer, goldbrick, goldbicker, lounger, lazzarone[It]; lubber, lubbard†; slow coach &c. (slow.) 275; opium eater, lotus eater; slug; lag|!, sluggard, slugabed; slumberer, dormouse, marmot; waiter on Providence, fruges consumere natus[Lat].
V. be inactive &c. adj.; do nothing &c. 681; move slowly &c. 275; let the grass grow under one's feet; take one's time, dawdle, drawl, droil†, lag, hang back, slouch; loll, lollop†; lounge, poke, loaf, loiter; go to sleep over; sleep at one's post, ne battre que d'une aile[Fr]†.
take it easy, take things as they come; lead an easy life, vegetate, swim with the stream, eat the bread of idleness; loll in the lap of luxury, loll in the lap of indolence; waste time, consume time, kill time, lose time; burn daylight, waste the precious hours.
sleep, slumber, be asleep; hibernate; oversleep; sleep like a top, sleep like a log, sleep like a dormouse; sleep soundly, heavily; doze, drowze†, snooze, nap; take a nap &c. n.; dream; snore one's best; settle to sleep, go to sleep, go off to sleep; doze off, drop off; fall asleep; drop asleep; close the eyes, seal up the eyes, seal up eyelids; weigh down the eyelids; get sleep, nod, yawn; go to bed, turn; get some z's, stack z's [coll.].
indolent, lazy, slothful, idle, lusk†, remiss, slack, inert, torpid, sluggish, otiose, languid, supine, heavy, dull, leaden, lumpish†; exanimate†, soulless; listless; drony†, dronish†; lazy as Ludlam's dog.
sleepy, sleepful†; dozy†, drowsy, somnolent, torpescent†, lethargic, lethargical†; somnifacient†; statuvolent†, statuvolic†; heavy, heavy with sleep; napping; somnific†, somniferous; soporous†, soporific, soporiferous†; hypnotic; balmy, dreamy; unawakened, unawakened.
sedative &c. 174.
Phr. the eyes begin to draw straws; "bankrupt of life yet prodigal of ease" [Dryden]; " better 50 years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay" [Tennyson]; "idly busy rolls their world away " [Goldsmith]; "the mystery of folded sleep" [Tennyson]; "the timely dew of sleep" [Milton]; "thou driftest gently down the tides of sleep" [Longfellow]; "tired Nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep" [Young].
N. haste, urgency,; despatch, dispatch; acceleration, spurt, spirt†, forced march, rush, dash; speed, velocity &c. 274; precipitancy, precipitation, precipitousness &c. adj.; impetuosity; brusquerie†; hurry, drive, scramble, bustle, fuss, fidget, flurry, flutter, splutter.
V. haste, hasten; make haste, make a dash &c. n.; hurry on, dash on, whip on, push on, press on, press forward; hurry, skurry†, scuttle along, barrel along, bundle on, dart to and fro, bustle, flutter, scramble; plunge, plunge headlong; dash off; rush &c. (violence) 173; express.
Adv. with haste, with all haste, with breathless speed; in haste &c. adj.; apace &c. (swiftly) 274; amain†; all at once &c. (instantaneously) 113; at short notice &c., immediately &c. (early) 132; posthaste; by cable, by express, by telegraph, by forced marches.
Phr. sauve qui peut[French: every man for himself][panic], devil take the hindmost, no time to be lost; no sooner said than done &c. (early) 132; a word and a blow; haste makes waste, maggiore fretta minore atto [Italian]; ohne Hast aber ohne Rast [German][Goethe's motto]; "stand not upon the order of your going but go at once" [Macbeth]; "swift, swift, you dragons of the night" [Cymbeline].
work hard; rough it; put forth one's strength, put forth a strong arm; fall to work, bend the bow; buckle to, set one's shoulder to the wheel &c. (resolution) 604; work like a horse, work like a cart horse, work like a galley slave, work like a coal heaver; labor day and night, work day and night; redouble one's efforts; do double duty; work double hours, work double tides; sit up, burn the candle at both ends; stick to &c. (persevere) 604a; work one's way, fight one's way,; lay about one, hammer at.
take pains; do one's best, do one's level best, do one's utmost; give one hundred percent, do the best one can, do all one can, do all in one's power, do as much as in one lies, do what lies in one's power; use one's best endeavor, use one's utmost endeavor; try one's best, try one's utmost; play one's best card; put one's best leg foremost, put one's right leg foremost; have one's whole soul in his work, put all one's strength into, strain every nerve; spare no efforts, spare no pains; go all lengths; go through fire and water &c. (resolution) 604; move heaven and earth, leave no stone unturned.
Adj. laboring &c. v.
Adv. laboriously &c. adj.; lustily; pugnis et calcibus[Lat]; with might and main, with all one's might, with a strong hand, with a sledge hammer, with much ado; to the best of one's abilities, totis viribus[Lat], vi et armis[Lat], manibus pedibusque[Lat], tooth and nail, unguibus et rostro[Lat], hammer and tongs, heart and soul; through thick and thin &c. (perseverance) 604a.
Phr. aide-toi le ciel t'aidera[Fr];" and still be doing, never done" [Butler]; buen principio la mitad es hecha [Sp]; cosa ben fatta e' fatta due volie [It];" it is better to wear out than to rust out" [Bp. Hornel]; labor omnia vincit "labor, wide as the earth, has its summit in Heaven" [Lat][Vergil][Carlyle]; le travail du corps delivre des peines de l'esprit [Fr][fr]; manu forti[Lat]; ora et labora[Lat].
[of materials and people] unstressed.
Adv. at rest.
Adj. fatigued, tired &c. v.; weary &c. 841; drowsy &c. 683; drooping &c. v.; haggard; toilworn†, wayworn:, footsore, surbated|, weather- beaten; faint; done up, used up, knocked up; bushed * [U.S.]; exhausted, prostrate, spent; overtired, overspent, overfatigued; unrefreshed†, unrestored.