User:Dan Polansky/Roget MICRA/Class V. Words Relating to the Voluntary Powers

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Class V. Words Relating to the Voluntary Powers


Division I. Individual Volition[edit]

Section I. Volition in General[edit]

1. Acts Of Volition[edit]

600. Will[edit]

N. will, volition, conation, velleity; liberum arbitrium[Lat]; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c. 748; discretion; option &c. (choice) 609; voluntariness; spontaneity, spontaneousness; originality.

pleasure, wish, mind; desire; frame of mind &c. (inclination) 602; intention &c. 620; predetermination &c. 611; selfcontrol &c. determination &c. (resolution) 604; force of will.

V. will, list; see fit, think fit; determine &c. (resolve) 604; enjoin; settle &c. (choose) 609; volunteer.

have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c. (freedom) 748; have it's own way; have one's will, have one's own way. use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon oneself, take one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do of one's own accord, do upon one;s own authority; originate &c. (cause) 153.

Adj. voluntary, volitional, willful; free &c. 748; optional; discretional, discretionary; volitient, volitive.

minded &c. (willing) 602; prepense &c. (predetermined) 611; intended &c. 620; autocratic; unbidden &c. (bid &c. 741); spontaneous; original &c. (casual) 153; unconstrained.

Adv. voluntarily &c. adj.; at will, at pleasure; a volonte[Fr], a discretion; al piacere[It]; ad libitum, ad arbitrium[Lat]; as one thinks proper, as it seems good to; a beneplacito[It].

of one's won accord, of one's own free will; proprio motu[Lat], suo motu[Lat], ex meromotu[Lat]; out of one's won head; by choice &c. 609; purposely &c. (intentionally) 620; deliberately &c. 611.

Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas[Lat]; sic volo sic jubeo[Lat]; a vostro beneplacito[It]; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere[Lat]; Deus vult[Lat]; was man nicht kann meiden muss man willig leiden[Ger].

601. Necessity[edit]

N. involuntariness; instinct, blind impulse; inborn proclivity, innate proclivity; native tendency, natural tendency; natural impulse, predetermination.

necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c. 744; subjection &c. 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity, imperious necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse necessity; fate; what must be.

destiny, destination; fatality, fate, kismet, doom, foredoom, election, predestination; preordination, foreordination; lot fortune; fatalism; inevitableness &c. adj.; spell &c. 993.

star, stars; planet, planets; astral influence; sky, Fates, Parcae, Sisters three, book of fate; God's will, will of Heaven; wheel of Fortune, Ides of March, Hobson's choice.

last shift, last resort; dernier ressort[Fr]; pis aller &c. (substitute) 147[Fr]; necessaries &c. (requirement) 630.

necessarian, necessitarian; fatalist; automaton.

V. lie under a necessity; befated, be doomed, be destined &c. in for, under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's fate &c. n. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be unable to help.

destine, doom, foredoom, devote; predestine, preordain; cast a spell &c. 992; necessitate; compel &c. 744.

Adj. necessary, needful &c (requisite) 630.

fated; destined &c. v.; elect; spellbound

compulsory &c. (compel) 744; uncontrollable, inevitable, unavoidable, irresistible, irrevocable, inexorable; avoidless, resistless.

involuntary, instinctive, automatic, blind, mechanical; unconscious, unwitting, unthinking; unintentional &c. (undesigned) 621; impulsive &c. 612.

Adv. necessarily &c. adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate rei[Lat]; needs must; perforce &c. 744; nolens volens[Lat]; will he nil he, willy nilly, bon gre mal gre[Fr], willing or unwilling, coute que coute[Fr].

faute de mieux[Fr]; by stress of; if need be.

Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping it; it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its way; the die is cast; jacta est alea[Lat]; che sara sara[French]; "it is written"; one's days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata obstant[Latin]; diis aliter visum[Latin]; actum me invito factus[Latin], non est meus actus[Latin]; aujord'hui roi demain rien[French]; quisque suos patimur manes [Latin][Vergil];"The moving finger writes and having writ moves on. Nor all your piety and wit can bring it back to cancel half a line, nor all your tears wash out a word of it."[Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam].

602. Willingness[edit]

N. willingness, voluntariness &c. adj.; willing mind, heart.

disposition, inclination, leaning, animus; frame of mind, humor, mood, vein; bent &c. (turn of mind) 820; penchant &c. (desire) 865; aptitude &c. 698.

docility, docibleness; persuasibleness, persuasibility; pliability &c. (softness) 324.

geniality, cordiality; goodwill; alacrity, readiness, earnestness, forwardness; eagerness &c. (desire) 865.

asset &c. 488; compliance &c. 762; pleasure &c. (will) 600; gratuitous service.

labor of love; volunteer, volunteering.

V. be willing &c. adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief; lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half a mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c. 865.

see fit, think good, think proper; acquiesce &c (assent) 488; comply with &c. 762.

swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; gorge the hook; have no scruple of, make no scruple of; make no bones of; jump at, catch at; meet halfway; volunteer.

Adj. willing, minded, fain, disposed, inclined, favorable; favorably- minded, favorably inclined, favorably disposed; nothing loth; in the vein, in the mood, in the humor, in the mind.

ready, forward, earnest, eager; bent upon &c. (desirous) 865; predisposed, propense.

docile; persuadable, persuasible; suasible, easily persuaded, facile, easy-going; tractable &c. (pliant) 324; genial, gracious, cordial, cheering, hearty; content &c. (assenting) 488.

voluntary, gratuitous, spontaneous; unasked &c. (ask &c. 765); unforced &c. (free) 748.

Adv. willingly &c. adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with right will; de bonne volonte[Fr], ex animo[Lat]; con amore[It], heart in hand, nothing loth, without reluctance, of one's own accord, graciously, with a good grace.

a la bonne heure[Fr]; by all means, by all manner of means; to one's heart's content; yes &c. (assent) 488.

603. Unwillingness[edit]

N. unwillingness &c. adj.; indisposition, indisposedness; disinclination, aversation; nolleity, nolition; renitence, renitency; reluctance; indifference &c. 866; backwardness &c. adj.; slowness &c. 275; want of alacrity,want of readiness; indocility &c. (obstinacy) 606.

scrupulousness, scrupulosity; qualms of conscience, twinge of conscience; delicacy, demur, scruple, qualm, shrinking, recoil; hesitation &c. (irresolution) 605; fastidiousness &c. 868.

averseness &c. (dislike) 867; dissent &c. 489; refusal &c. 764.

V. be unwilling &c. adj.; nill; dislike &c. 867; grudge, begrudge; not be able to find it in one's heart to, not have the stomach to.

demur, stick at, scruple, stickle; hang fire, run rusty; recoil, shrink, swerve; hesitate &c. 605; avoid &c. 623.

oppose &c. 708; dissent &c. 489; refuse &c. 764.

Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined, indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c. (opposed) 708; laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c. 866; scrupulous; squeamish &c. (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867; restiff|, restive; demurring &c. v.; unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; involuntary &c. 601.

Adv. unwillingly &c. adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad, with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against the grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore against one's grain; invita Minerva[Lat]; a contre caeur[Fr]; malgre soi[Fr]; in spite of one's teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens volens &c. (necessity) 601[Lat]; perforce &c. 744; under protest; no &c. 536; not for the world, far be it from me.

604. Resolution[edit]

N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit, true grit, grit [U. S. &can.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will; resolve &c. (intent) 620; firmness &c. (stability) 150; energy, manliness, vigor; game, pluck; resoluteness &c. (courage) 861; zeal &c. 682; aplomb; desperation; devotion, devotedness.

mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession, self reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self denial; moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c. 604a; tenacity; obstinacy &c. 606; bulldog; British lion.

V. have determination &c. n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c. adj.; make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c. (judgment) 480; form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution, come to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring to a crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c. (choice) 609; take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676.

devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard, kick down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back against the wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's stand; stand firm &c. (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense, not listen to the voice of the charmer.

buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay one's shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's heart into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the horns; rush in medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist upon, make a point of; set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon.

stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c. (activity) 682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit *, go the whole hog; persist &c. (persevere) 604a,; go through fire and water, ride the tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the storm.

Adj. resolved &c. v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded; resolute &c. (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory, tranchant; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking; firm, iron, gritty [U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless, not to be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi[Lat]; inflexible &c. (hard) 323; obstinate &c. 606; steady &c. (persevering) 604a.

earnest, serious; set upon, bent upon, intent upon.

steel against, proof against; in utrumque paratus[Lat].

Adv. resolutely &c. adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously, joking apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c. (exertion) 686.

at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard at any price, at any cost, at any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a bis ou a blanc[Fr]; cost what it may; coute[Fr]; a tort et a travers; once for all; neck or nothing; rain or shine.

Phr. spes sibi quisque[Lat]; celui qui veut celui-la peut[Fr]; chi non s'arrischia non guadagna[Fr]; frangas non flectes[Lat]; manu forti[Lat]; tentanda via est[Lat].

604a. Perseverance[edit]

N. perseverance; continuance &c. (inaction) 143; permanence &c. (absence of change) 141; firmness &c. (stability) 150.

constancy, steadiness; singleness of purpose, tenacity of purpose; persistence, plodding, patience; sedulity &c. (industry) 682; pertinacy|, pertinacity, pertinaciousness; iteration &c. 104

bottom, game, pluck, stamina, backbone, grit; indefatigability, indefatigableness; bulldog courage.

V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep on; keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course, maintain one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear up, keep up, hold up; plod; stick to work &c. (work) 686; continue &c. 143; follow up; die in harness, die at one's post.

Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating, unwavering, unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping, unflagging, undrooping; steady as time; unrelenting, unintermitting, unremitting; plodding; industrious &c. 682; strenuous &c. 686; pertinacious; persisting, persistent.

solid, sturdy, staunch, stanch, true to oneself; unchangeable &c. 150; unconquerable &c. (strong) 159; indomitable, game to the last, indefatigable, untiring, unwearied, never tiring.

Adv. through evil report and good report, through thick and thin, through fire and water; per fas et nefas[Lat]; without fail, sink or swim, at any price, vogue la galere[Fr]..

Phr. never say die; give it the old college try; vestigia nulla retrorsum[Lat]; aut vincer aut mori[Lat]; la garde meurt et ne se rend pas[Fr]; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre[Fr].

605. Irresolution[edit]

N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose, indecision; indetermination, undetermination|!; unsettlement; uncertainty &c. 475; demur, suspense; hesitating &c. v., hesitation, hesitancy; vacillation; changeableness &c. 149; fluctuation; alternation &c. (oscillation) 314; caprice &c. 608.

fickleness, levity, legerete[Fr]; pliancy &c. (softness) 324; weakness; timidity &c. 860; cowardice &c. 862; half measures.

waverer, ass between two bundles of hay; shuttlecock, butterfly; wimp; doughface [U. S.].

V. be irresolute &c. adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave "ad referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c. (inactivity) 683; remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker, hum and haw, demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with, coquet with; will and will not, chaser-balancer; go halfway, compromise, make a compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger like a drunken man; be afraid &c. 860; let "I dare not" wait upon "I would" [Macbeth]; falter, waver

vacillate &c. 149; change &c. 140; retract &c. 607; fluctuate; pendulate; alternate &c. (oscillate) 314; keep off and on, play fast and loose; blow hot and cold &c. (caprice) 608.

shuffle, palter, blink; trim.

Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted; undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous; hesitating &c. v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c. (uncertain) 475.

vacillating &c. v.; unsteady &c. (changeable) 149; unsteadfast, fickle, without ballast; capricious &c. 608; volatile, frothy; light, lightsome, light-minded; giddy; fast and loose.

weak, feeble-minded, frail; timid, wimpish, wimpy &c. 860; cowardly &c. 862; dough-faced [U.S.]; facile; pliant &c. (soft) 324; unable to say "no", easy-going

revocable, reversible.

Adv. irresolutely &c. adj.; irresolved, irresolvedly; in faltering accents; off and on; from pillar to post; seesaw &c. 314.

Int. "how happy could I be with either!" [Gay].

606. Obstinacy[edit]

N. obstinateness &c. adj.; obstinacy, tenacity; cussedness [U. S.]; perseverance &c. 604a; immovability; old school; inflexibility &c. (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration; dogged resolution; resolution &c. 604; ruling passion; blind side.

self-will, contumacy, perversity; pervicacy|, pervicacity; indocility.

bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism; opiniatry|, opiniativeness; fixed idea &c. (prejudgment) 481; fanaticism, zealotry, infatuation, monomania; opinionatedness opinionativeness.

mule; opinionist|, opinionatist, opiniator|, opinator|; stickler, dogmatist; bigot; zealot, enthusiast, fanatic.

V. be obstinate &c. adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a belief; have one's own way &c. (will) 600; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; have the last word, insist on having the last word.

die hard, fight against destiny, not yield an inch, stand out.

Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened; inflexible &c. (hard) 323; balky; immovable, unshakable, not to be moved; inert &c. 172; unchangeable &c. 150; inexorable &c. (determined) 604; mulish, obstinate as a mule, pig-headed.

dogged; sullen, sulky; unmoved, uninfluenced unaffected.

willful, self-willed, perverse; resty, restive, restiff|; pervicacious, wayward, refractory, unruly; heady, headstrong; entete[Fr]; contumacious; crossgrained.

arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c. 481; creed- bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff hearted; hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious, impracticable, inpersuasible; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable; incorrigible, deaf to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c. 608.

Adv. obstinately &c. adj.

Phr. non possumus[Lat]; no surrender; ils n'ont rien appris ne rien oublie[Fr].

607. Tergiversation[edit]

N. change of mind, change of intention, change of purpose; afterthought.

tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody; renunciation; abjuration,abjurement; defection &c. (relinquishment) 624; going over &c. v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation; withdrawal; disavowal &c. (negation) 536; revocation, revokement; reversal; repentance &c. 950- redintegratio amoris[Lat].

coquetry; vacillation &c. 605; backsliding; volte-face[Fr].

turn coat, turn tippet|; rat, apostate, renegade; convert, pervert; proselyte, deserter; backslider; blackleg, crawfish [U. S.], scab*, mugwump [U. S.], recidivist.

time server, time pleaser; timist|, Vicar of Bray, trimmer, ambidexter; weathercock &c. (changeable) 149; Janus.

V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose, change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c. (relinquish) 624; waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a pirouette; go over from one side to another, pass from one side to another, change from one side to another, skip from one side to another; go to the rightabout; box the compass, shift one's ground, go upon another tack.

apostatize, change sides, go over, rat; recant, retract; revoke; rescind &c. (abrogate) 756; recall; forswear, unsay; come over, come round to an opinion; crawfish *[U. S.], crawl* [U. S.].

draw in one's horns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the leek; swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of it; come back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c. (repent) 950.

trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be on the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds; nager entre deux eaux[Fr]; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see how the wind blows.

Adj. changeful &c. 149; irresolute &c. 605; ductile, slippery as an eel, trimming, ambidextrous, timeserving;. coquetting &c. v.

revocatory, reactionary.

Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron].

608. Caprice[edit]

N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsy, whimsey, whimwham; crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot, fad, vagary, prank, fit, flimflam, escapade, boutade[Fr], wild-goose chase; capriciousness &c. adj.; kink.

V. be capricious &c. adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold; play fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque[Fr].

Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims &c. n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical, crotchety, kinky [U. S.], particular, humorsome, freakish, skittish, wanton, wayward; contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c. 83; penny wise and pound foolish; fickle &c. (irresolute) 605; frivolous, sleeveless, giddy, volatile.

Adv. by fits and starts, without rhyme or reason.

Phr. nil fuit unquain sic inipar sibi[Lat]; the deuce is in him.

609. Choice[edit]

N. choice, option;. discretion &c. (volition) 600; preoption; alternative; dilemma, embarras de choix[Fr]; adoption, cooptation; novation; decision &c. (judgment) 480.

election; political election (politics) 737a.

selection, excerption, gleaning, eclecticism; excerpta, gleanings, cuttings, scissors and paste; pick &c. (best) 650.

preference, prelation, opinion poll, survey; predilection &c. (desire) 865.

V. offers one's choice, set before; hold out the alternative, present the alternative, offer the alternative; put to the vote.

use option, use discretion, exercise option, exercise discretion, one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect, opt for; take one's choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon.

vote, poll, hold up one's hand; divide.

settle; decide &c. (adjudge) 480; list &c. (will) 600; make up one's mind &c. (resolve) 604.

select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean, winnow; sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's way; indulge one;s fancy.

set apart, mark out for; mark &c. 550.

prefer; have rather, have as lief; fancy &c. (desire) 865; be persuaded &c. 615.

take a decided step, take a decisive step; commit oneself to a course; pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; cast in one's lot with; take for better or for worse.

Adj. optional; discretional &c. (voluntary) 600.

eclectic; choosing &c. v.; preferential; chosen &c. v.; choice &c. (good) 648.

Adv. optionally &c. adj.; at pleasure &c. (will) 600; either the one or the other; or at the option of; whether or not; once and for all; for one's money.

by choice, by preference; in preference; rather, before.

609a. Absence of choice[edit]

N. no choice, Hobson's choice; first come first served, random selection; necessity &c. 601; not a pin to choose &c. (equality) 27; any, the first that comes; that or nothing.

neutrality, indifference; indecision &c. (irresolution) 605; arbitrariness.

coercion (compulsion) 744.

V. be neutral &c. adj.; have no choice, have no election; waive, not vote; abstain from voting, refrain from voting; leave undecided; "make a virtue of necessity" [Two Gentlemen].

Adj. neutral, neuter; indifferent, uninterested; undecided &c. (irresolute) 605.

Adv. either &c. (choice) 609.

Phr. who cares? what difference does it make? "There's not a dime's worth of difference between them." [George Wallace].

610. Rejection[edit]

N. rejection, repudiation, exclusion; refusal &c. 764; declination

V. reject; set aside, lay aside; give up; decline &c. (refuse) 764; exclude, except; pluck, spin; cast.

repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the dogs, fling overboard, fling away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs, cast overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss overboard, toss away; send to the right about; disclaim &c. (deny) 536; discard &c. (eject) 297, (have done with) 678.

Adj. rejected &c. v.; reject, rejectaneous|, rejectious|; not chosen &c. 609, to be thought of, out of the question

Adv. neither, neither the one nor the other; no &c 536.

Phr. non haec in faedera[Lat].

611. Predetermination[edit]

N. predestination, preordination, premeditation, predeliberation, predetermination; foregone conclusion, fait accompli[Fr]; parti pris[Fr]; resolve, propendency|; intention &c. 620; project &c. 626; fate, foredoom, necessity.

V. predestine, preordain, predetermine, premeditate, resolve, concert; resolve beforehand, predesignate.

Adj. prepense, premeditated &c. v., predesignated, predesigned; advised, studied, designed, calculated; aforethought; intended &c. 620; foregone.

well-laid, well-devised, well-weighed; maturely considered; cunning.

Adv. advisedly &c. adj.; with premeditation, deliberately, all things considered, with eyes open, in cold blood; intentionally &c. 620.

612. Impulse[edit]

N. impulse, impulsion, impetus; momentum; push, pulsion, thrust, shove, jog, jolt, brunt, booming, boost [U.S.], throw; explosion &c. (violence) 173; propulsion &c. 284.

percussion, concussion, collision, occursion|, clash, encounter, cannon, carambole, appulse, shock, crash, bump; impact; elan; charge &c. (attack) 716; beating &c. (punishment) 972.

blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab; fillip; slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c. 972; squash, dowse, swap, whap, punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce|, calcitration; ruade; arietation|; cut, thrust, lunge, yerk|; carom, carrom, clip *, jab, plug*, sidewinder* [U.S.], sidewipe, sideswipe [U.S.].

hammer, sledge hammer, mall, maul, mallet, flail; ram, rammer; battering ram, monkey, pile-driving engine, punch, bat; cant hook; cudgel &c. (weapon) 727; ax &c. (sharp) 253.

[Science of mechanical forces] dynamics; seismometer, accelerometer, earthquake detector.

V. give an impetus &c. n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin[Fr]; cant; elbow, shoulder, jostle, justle, hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter; run against, bump against, butt against; knock one's head against, run one's head against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip y; fan, fan out; jab, plug *.

strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap, batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow; poke at, pink, lunge, yerk; kick, calcitrate; butt, strike at &c. (attack) 716; whip *c. (punish) 972.

come into a collision, enter into collision; collide; sideswipe; foul; fall foul of, run foul of; telescope.

throw &c. (propel) 284.

Adj. impelling &c. v.; impulsive, impellent; booming; dynamic, dynamical; impelled &c. v.

Phr. "a hit, a very palpable hit" [Hamlet].

613. Habit[edit]

[includes commonness due to frequency of occurrence]

N. habit, habitude; assuetude|, assuefaction|, wont; run, way.

common state of things, general state of things, natural state of things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary run of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten ground.

prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice; prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode, fashion, vogue; etiquette &c. (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry; conformity &c. 82; consuetude,.dustoor.

one's old way, old school, veteris vestigia flammae[Lat]; laudator temporis acti[Lat].

rule, standing order, precedent, routine; red-tape, red-tapism; pipe clay; rut, groove.

cacoethes[Lat]; bad habit, confirmed habit, inveterate habit, intrinsic habit &c.; addiction, trick.

training &c. (education) 537; seasoning, second nature, acclimatization; knack &c.

V. be wont &c. adj.

fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c. (conform to) 82; tread the beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten path, follow the beaten; stare super antiquas vias[Lat]; move in a rut, run on in a groove, go round like a horse in a mill, go on in the old jog trot way.

habituate, inure, harden, season, caseharden; accustom, familiarize; naturalize, acclimatize; keep one's hand in; train &c. (educate) 537.

get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c. 539; cling to, adhere to; repeat &c. 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into a habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict oneself to, take to, get into.

be habitual &c. adj.; prevail; come into use, become a habit, take root; gain upon one, grow upon one.

Adj. habitual; accustomary; prescriptive, accustomed &c. v.; of daily occurrence, of everyday occurrence; consuetudinary; wonted, usual, general, ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, garden variety, jog, trot; well-trodden, well-known; familiar, vernacular, trite, commonplace, conventional, regular, set, stock, established, stereotyped; prevailing, prevalent; current, received, acknowledged, recognized, accredited; of course, admitted, understood.

conformable. &c. 82; according to use, according to custom, according to routine; in vogue, in fashion, in, with it; fashionable &c. (genteel) 852.

wont; used to, given to, addicted to, attuned to, habituated &c. v.; in the habit of; habitue; at home in &c. (skillful) 698; seasoned; imbued with; devoted to, wedded to.

hackneyed, fixed, rooted, deep-rooted, ingrafted, permanent, inveterate, besetting; naturalized; ingrained &c. (intrinsic) 5.

Adv. habitually &c. adj.; always &c. (uniformly) 16.

as usual, as is one's wont, as things go, as the world goes, as the sparks fly upwards; more suo, more solito[Lat]; ex more.

as a rule, for the most part; usually, generally, typically &c. adj.; most often, most frequently.

Phr. cela s'entend[Fr]; abeunt studia in mores[Lat]; adeo in teneris consuescere multum est[Lat]; consuetudo quasi altera natura [Lat][Cicero]; hoc erat in more majorum[Lat]; "How use doth breed a habit in a man!" [Two Gentlemen]; magna est vis consuetudinis[Lat]; morent fecerat usus [Lat][Ovid].

614. Desuetude[edit]

N. desuetude, disusage; obsolescence, disuse &c. 678; want of habit, want of practice; inusitation; newness to; new brooms.

infraction of usage &c. (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence; "a custom more honored in the breach than the observance" [Hamlet].

V. be -unaccustomed &c. adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit, break off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through a habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break off a custom, wean oneself of a custom, violate a custom, break through a custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break off a usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a usage, infringe a usage; disuse &c. 678; wear off.

Adj. unaccustomed, unused, unwonted, unseasoned, uninured, unhabituated, untrained; new; green &c. (unskilled) 699; unhackneyed.

unusual &c. (unconformable) 83; nonobservant; disused &c. 678.

2. Causes of Volition[edit]

615. Motive[edit]

N. motive, springs of action, wellsprings of action.

reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring, primum mobile[Lat], keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con, reason why; secret motive, arriere pensee[Fr]; intention &c. 620.

inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet, magnetism, magnetic force; allectation|, allective|; temptation, enticement, agacerie, allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery; charm; spell &c. 993; fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction, seducement; honeyed words, voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens forbidden fruit, golden apple.

persuasibility, persuasibleness; attractability; impressibility, susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness; tantalization. influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse, impulsion; incitement, incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c. (excitation of feeling) 824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion; encouragement, advocacy; exhortation; advice &c. 695; solicitation &c. (request) 765; lobbyism; pull*.

incentive, stimulus, spur, fillip, whip, goad, ankus, rowel, provocative, whet, dram.

bribe, lure; decoy, decoy duck; bait, trail of a red herring; bribery and corruption; sop, sop for Cerberus.

prompter, tempter; seducer, seductor; instigator, firebrand, incendiary; Siren, Circe; agent provocateur; lobbyist.

V. induce, move; draw, draw on; bring in its train, give an impulse &c. n.; to; inspire; put up to, prompt, call up; attract, beckon.

stimulate &c. (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse; animate, incite, foment, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate;.act upon, work upon, operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the shoulder, clap on the back, clap on the shoulder.

influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose, turn the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have influence over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise influence over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn the head, magnetize; lobby.

persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round to one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over, come over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court.

tempt, seduce, overpersuade, entice, allure, captivate, fascinate, bewitch, carry away, charm, conciliate, wheedle, coax, lure; inveigle; tantalize; cajole &c. (deceive) 545.

tamper with, bribe, suborn, grease the palm, bait with a silver hook, gild the pill, make things pleasant, put a sop into the pan, throw a sop to, bait the hook.

enforce, force; impel &c. (push) 276; propel &c. 284; whip, lash, goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound , hurry on; drag &c. 285; exhort; advise &c. 695; call upon &c. press &c. (request) 765; advocate.

set an example, set the fashion; keep in countenance.

be persuaded &c.; yield to temptation, come round; concede &c. (consent) 762; obey a call; follow advice, follow the bent,.follow the dictates of; act on principle.

Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory, persuasive, persuasory, hortative, hortatory; protreptical|; inviting, tempting, &c. v.; suasive, suasory; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c. (pleasing) 829; provocative &c. (exciting) 824.

induced &c. v.; disposed; persuadable &c. (docile) 602; spellbound; instinct with, smitten with, infatuated; inspired &c. v.; by.

Adv. because, therefore &c. (cause) 155; from this motive, from that motive; for this reason, for that reason; for; by reason of, for the sake of, count of; out of, from, as, forasmuch as.

for all the world; on principle.

Phr. fax mentis incendium gloriae[Lat]; "temptation hath a music for all ears" "to beguile many and be beguiled by one" [Willis][Othello].

615a. Absence of motive[edit]

N. absence of motive, aimlessness; caprice &c. 608; chance &c. (absence of design) 621.

V. have no motive; scruple &c. (be unwilling) 603.

Adj. without rhyme or reason; aimless, capricious, whimsical &c. (chance) 621.

Adv. out of mere caprice.

616. Dissuasion[edit]

N. dissuasion, dehortation, expostulation, remonstrance; deprecation &c. 766.

discouragement, damper, wet blanket; disillusionment, disenchantment.

cohibition &c. (restraint) 751; curb &c. (means of restraint) 752; check &c. (hindrance) 706.

reluctance &c. (unwillingness) 603; contraindication.

V. dissuade, dehort, cry out against, remonstrate, expostulate, warn, contraindicate.

disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage, dishearten; deter; repress, hold back, keep back &c. (restrain) 751; render averse &c. 603; repel; turn aside &c. (deviation) 279; wean from; act as a drag &c. (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill, blunt, calm, quiet, quench; deprecate &c. 766.

disenchant, ,disillusion, deflate, take down a peg, pop one's balloon, prick one's balloon, burst one's bubble; disabuse (correction) 527a.

Adj. dissuading &c. v.; dissuasive; dehortatory, expostulatory; monitive|, monitory.

dissuaded &c. v.; admonitory; uninduced &c. (induce &c. 615); unpersuadable &c. (obstinate) 606; averse &c. (unwilling) 603; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867.


617. Pretext[edit]

 [Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.]

N. pretext, pretense, pretension, plea|; allegation, advocation; ostensible motive, ostensible ground, ostensible reason, phony reason; excuse &c. (vindication) 937; subterfuge; color; gloss, guise, cover.

loop hole, starting hole; how to creep out of, salvo, come off; way of escape.

handle, peg to hang on, room locus standi[Lat]; stalking-horse, cheval de bataille[Fr], cue.

pretense &c. (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes; blind; moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame apology; tub to a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift, white lie; special pleading &c. (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c. (flattery) 933.

V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse &c. (vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c. n.; make a pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c. n.; take one's stand upon, make capital out of , pretend &c. (lie) 544.

Adj. ostensibly &c. (manifest) 525; alleged, apologetic; pretended &c. 545.

Adv. ostensibly; under color; under the plea, under the pretense of, under the guise of.

3. Objects of Volition[edit]

618. Good[edit]

N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c. 658; greatest good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main chance, summum bonum[Lat], common weal; "consummation devoutly to be wished"; gain, boot; profit, harvest.

boon &c. (gift) 784; good turn; blessing; world of good; piece of good luck[Fr], piece of good fortune[Fr]; nuts, prize, windfall, godsend, waif, treasure-trove.

good fortune &c. (prosperity) 734; happiness &c. 827.

[Source of good] goodness &c. 648; utility &c. 644; remedy &c. 662; pleasure giving &c. 829.

Adj. commendable &c. 931; useful &c. 644; good &c., beneficial &c. 648.

Adv. well, aright, satisfactorily, favorably, not amis[Fr]; all for the best; to one's advantage &c. n.; in one's favor, in one's interest &c. n.

Phr. so far so good; magnum bonum[Lat].

619. Evil[edit]

N. evil, ill, harm, hurt., mischief, nuisance; machinations of the devil, Pandora's box, ills that flesh is heir to.

blow, buffet, stroke, scratch, bruise, wound, gash, mutilation; mortal blow, wound; immedicabile vulnus[Lat]; damage, loss &c. (deterioration) 659.

disadvantage, prejudice, drawback.

disaster, accident, casualty; mishap &c. (misfortune) 735; bad job, devil to pay; calamity, bale, catastrophe, tragedy; ruin &c. (destruction) 162; adversity &c. 735.

mental suffering &c. 828. * demon &v[Evil spirit]. 980. bane &c. 663[Cause of evil]. badness &c. 649[Production of evil]; painfulness &c. 830; evil doer &c. 913.

outrage, wrong, injury, foul play; bad turn, ill turn; disservice, spoliation &c. 791; grievance, crying evil.

V. be in trouble &c. (adversity) 735.

Adj. disastrous, bad &c. 649; awry, out of joint; disadvantageous.

Adv. amis[Fr], wrong, ill, to one's cost

Phr. "moving accidents by flood and field" [Othello].

Section II. Prospective Volition[edit]

1. Conceptional Volition[edit]

620. Intention[edit]

N. intent, intention, intentionality; purpose; quo animo[Lat]; project &c. 626; undertaking &c. 676; predetermination &c. 611; design, ambition.

contemplation, mind, animus, view, purview, proposal; study; look out.

final cause; raison d'etre[Fr]; cui bono[Lat]; object, aim, end; "the be all and the end all"; drift &c. (meaning) 516; tendency &c. 176; destination, mark, point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye, quintain[medeival]; prey, quarry, game.

decision, determination, resolve; fixed set purpose, settled purpose; ultimatum; resolution &c. 604; wish &c. 865; arriere pensee[Fr]; motive &c. 615.

[Study of final causes] teleology.

V. intend, purpose, design, mean; have to; propose to oneself; harbor a design; have in view, have in contemplation, have in one's eye, have in- petto; have an eye to.

bid for, labor for; be after, aspire after, endeavor after; be at, aim at, drive at, point at, level at, aspire at; take aim; set before oneself; study to.

take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676; take into one's head; meditate, contemplate of, think of, dream of, talk of; premeditate &c. 611; compass, calculate; destine, destinate; propose.

project &c. (plan) 626; have a mind to &c. (be willing) 602; desire &c. 865; pursue &c. 622.

Adj. intended &c. v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate; prepense &c. 611; bound for; intending &c. v.; minded; bent upon &c. (earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis; in view, in prospect, in the breast of; in petto; teleological

Adv. intentionally &c. adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly, designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly; with intent &c. n.; deliberately &c. (with premeditation) 611; with one's eyes open, in cold blood.

for; with a view, with an eye to; in order to, in order that; to the end that, with the intent that; for the purpose of, with the view of, in contemplation of, on account of.

in pursuance of, pursuant to; quo animo[Lat]; to all intents and purposes.

Phr. "The road to hell is paved with good intentions" [Johnson]; sublimi feriam sidera vertice [Lat][Horace].

621. Chance[edit]

[Absence of purpose in the succession of events]

N. chance &c. 156; lot, fate &c. (necessity) 601; luck; good luck &c. (good) 618; mascot.

speculation, venture, stake, game of chance; mere shot, random shot; blind bargain, leap in the dark; pig in a poke &c. (uncertainty) 475; fluke, potluck; faro bank; flyer*; limit.

uncertainty; uncertainty principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

drawing lots; sortilegy, sortition|; sortes, sortes Virgilianae; rouge et noir[Fr], hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo [U.S.], craps, faro, roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup tossing, heads or tails cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting; gambling; the turf.

gaming house, gambling house, betting house; bucket shop; gambling joint; totalizator, totalizer; hell; betting ring; dice, dice box.

[person who takes chances] gambler, gamester; man of the turf; adventurer; dicer|!.

V. chance &c. (hap) 156; stand a chance &c. (be possible) 470.

toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance, leave to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chapter of accidents; tempt fortune; chance it, take one's chance, take a shot at it (attempt) 675; run the risk, run the chance, incur the risk, incur the chance, encounter the risk, encounter the chance; stand the hazard of the die.

speculate, try one's luck, set on a cast, raffle, put into a lottery, buy a pig in a poke, shuffle the cards.

risk, venture, hazard, stake; ante; lay, lay a wager; make a bet, wager, bet, gamble, game, play for; play at chuck farthing.

Adj. fortuitous &c. 156; unintentional, unintended; accidental; not meant; undesigned, purposed; unpremeditated &c. 612; unforeseen, uncontemplated, never thought of.

random, indiscriminate, promiscuous; undirected; aimless, driftless, designless, purposeless, causeless; without purpose.

possible &c. 470.

unforeseeable, unpredictable, chancy, risky, speculative, dicey.

Adv. randomly, by chance, fortuitously; unpredictably, unforeseeably; casually &c. 156; unintentionally &c. adj.; unwittingly.

en passant[Fr], by the way, incidentally; as it may happen; at random, at a venture, at haphazard.

Phr. acierta errando[Lat]; dextro tempore[Lat]; "fearful concatenation of circumstances" [D. Webster]; "fortuitous combination of circumstances" [Dickens]; le jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoir[Fr]; "the happy combination of fortuitous circumstances" [Scott]; "the fortuitous or casual concourse of atoms" [Bentley]; "God does not play dice with the universe" [A. Einstein].

622. Pursuit[edit]

 [Purpose in action.] 

N. pursuit; pursuing &c. v.; prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c. (undertaking) 676; business &c. 625; adventure &c. (essay) 675; quest &c. (search) 461; scramble, hue and cry, game; hobby; still-hunt.

chase, hunt, battue, race, steeple chase, hunting, coursing; venation, venery; fox chase; sport, sporting; shooting, angling, fishing, hawking; shikar[Geogloc:India].

pursuer; hunter, huntsman; shikari[Geogloc:India], sportsman, Nimrod; hound &c. 366.

V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c. (do) 680; engage in &c. (undertake) 676; set about &c. (begin) 66; endeavor &c. 675; court &c. (request) 765 seek &c. (search) 461; aim at &c. (intention) 620; follow the trail &c. (trace) 461; fish for &c. (experiment) 463; press on &c. (haste) 684; run a race &c. (velocity) 274.

chase, give chase, course, dog, hunt, hound; tread on the heels, follow on the heels of, &c. (sequence) 281.

rush upon; rush headlong &c. (violence) 173 ride full tilt at, run full tilt at; make a leap at, jump at, snatch at run down; start game.

tread a path; take a course, hold- a course; shape one's steps, direct one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's way, elbow one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride one's hobby.

Adj. pursuing &c. v.; in quest of &c. (inquiry) 461 in pursuit, in full cry, in hot pursuit; on the scent.

Adv. in pursuance of &c. (intention) 620; after.

Int. tallyho! yoicks! soho!

623. Avoidance[edit]

[Absence of pursuit.]

N. abstention, abstinence; for bearance; refraining &c. v.; inaction &c. 681; neutrality.

avoidance, evasion, elusion; seclusion &c. 893.

avolation|, flight; escape &c. 671; retreat &c. 287; recoil &c. 277; departure &c. 293; rejection &c. 610.

shirker &c. v.; truant; fugitive, refugee; runaway, runagate; maroon.

V. abstain, refrain, spare, not attempt; not do &c. 681; maintain the even tenor of one's way.

eschew, keep from, let alone, have nothing to do with; keep aloof keep off, stand aloof, stand off, hold aloof, hold off; take no part in, have no hand in.

avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep one's distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get out of the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c. (oppose) 708; deny oneself.

shrink back; hang back, hold back, draw back; recoil &c. 277; retire &c. (recede) 287; flinch, blink, blench, shy, shirk, dodge, parry, make way for, give place to.

beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels; runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly, flee; fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight; desert, elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer off; break away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away, make away from, scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from, sheer away from; slip cable, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out of, play truant, give one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave, slope, decamp, flit, bolt, abscond, levant, skedaddle, absquatulate [U.S.], cut one's stick, walk one's chalks, show a light pair of heels, make oneself scarce; escape &c. 671; go away &c. (depart) 293; abandon &c. 624; reject &c. 610.

lead one a dance, lead one a pretty dance; throw off the scent, play at hide and seek.

Adj. unsought, unattempted; avoiding &c. v.; neutral, shy of &c. (unwilling) 603; elusive, evasive; fugitive, runaway; shy, wild.

Adj. lest, in order to avoid.

Int. forbear! keep off, hands off! sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every man for himself]; devil take the hindmost!

Phr. "things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme" [Paradise Lost].

624. Relinquishment[edit]

N. relinquishment, abandonment; desertion, defection, secession, withdrawal; cave of Adullam; nolle prosequi[Lat].

discontinuance &c. (cessation) 142; renunciation &c. (recantation) 607; abrogation &c. 756; resignation &c. (retirement) 757; desuetude &c. 614; cession &c. (of property) 782.

V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch; go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of; leave, quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c. (resign) 757.

renounce &c (abjure) 607; forego, have done with, drop; disuse &c. 678; discard &c. 782; wash one's hands of; drop all idea of.

break off, leave off; desist; stop &c. (cease) 142; hold one's hand, stay one's hand; quit one's hold; give over, shut up shop.

throw up the game, throw up the cards; give up the point, give up the argument; pass to the order of the day, move to the previous question.

Adj. unpursued; relinquished &c. v.; relinquishing &c. v.

Int. avast! &c. (stop) 142.

Phr. aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben[Ger]; entbehre gern was du nicht hast[Ger].

625. Business[edit]

N. business, occupation, employment; pursuit &c. 622; what one is doing, what one is about; affair, concern, matter, case.

matter in hand, irons in the fire; thing to do, agendum, task, work, job, chore [U.S.], errand, commission, mission, charge, care; duty &c. 926.

part, role, cue; province, function, lookout, department, capacity, sphere, orb, field, line; walk, walk of life; beat, round, routine; race, career.

office, place, post, chargeship, incumbency, living; situation, berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c. 676.

vocation, calling, profession, cloth, faculty; industry, art; industrial arts; craft, mystery, handicraft; trade &c. (commerce) 794.

exercise; work &c. (action) 680; avocation; press of business &c. (activity) 682.

V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in; employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern oneself with; make it one's business &c. n.; undertake &c. 676; enter a profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c. (do) 680.

office, place, post, chargeship, incumbency, living; situation, berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c. 676.

drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade, carry on business, do business, transact business &c. n.; keep a shop; ply one's task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the even tenor of one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work.

officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty; serve the office of, discharge the office of, perform the office of, perform the duties of, perform the functions of; hold an office, fill an office, fill a place, fill a situation; hold a portfolio, hold a place, hold a situation.

be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied with, be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's hands, have on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full &c. (activity) 682.

be in the hands of, be on the stocks, be on the anvil; pass through one's hands.

Adj. businesslike; workaday; professional; official, functional; busy &c. (actively employed) 682; on hand, in hand, in one's hands; afoot; on foot, on the anvil; going on; acting.

Adv. in the course of business, all in one's day's work; professionally &c. Adj.

Phr. "a business with an income at its heels" [Cowper]; amoto quaeramus seria ludo [Lat][Horace]; par negotiis neque supra [Lat][Tacitus].

626. Plan[edit]

N. plan, scheme, design, project; proposal, proposition, suggestion; resolution, motion; precaution &c. (provision) 673; deep-laid plan &c. (premeditated) 611;

system &c. (order) 58; organization &c. (arrangement) 60; germ &c. (cause) 153.

sketch, skeleton, outline, draught, draft, ebauche[Fr], brouillon[Fr]; rough cast, rough draft, draught copy; copy; proof, revise.

drawing, scheme, schematic, graphic, chart, flow chart (representation) 554.

forecast, program(me), prospectus; carte du pays[Fr]; card; bill, protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c. (food) 298; base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U. S.], ticket [U. S.].

role; policy &c. (line of conduct) 692.

contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice, device; pipelaying [U. S.]; stratagem &c. (cunning) 702; trick &c. (deception) 545; alternative, loophole; shift &c. (substitute) 147; last shift &c. (necessity) 601.

measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump card, court card; cheval de bataille[Fr], great gun; coup, coup d'etat[Fr]; clever stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good stroke; bright thought, bright idea.

intrigue, cabal, plot, conspiracy, complot, machination; subplot, underplot, counterplot.

schemer, schemist, schematist|; strategist, machinator; projector, artist, promoter, designer &c. v.; conspirator; intrigant &c. (cunning) 702.

V. plan,,scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch; devise, invent &c. (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c. 515; spring a project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay out, map out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course; predetermine &c. 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c. 673; hatch, hatch a plot concoct; take steps, take measures.

cast, recast, systematize, organize; arrange &c. 60; digest, mature.

plot; counter-plot, counter-mine; dig a mine; lay a train; intrigue &c. (cunning) 702.

Adj. planned &c. v.; strategic, strategical; planning &c. v.; prepared, in course of preparation &c. 673; under consideration; on the tapis, on the carpet, on the floor.

627. Method[edit]


N. method, way, manner, wise, gait, form, mode, fashion, tone, guise; , modus operandi, MO; procedure &c. (line of conduct) 692.

path, road, route, course; line of way, line of road; trajectory, orbit, track, beat, tack.

steps; stair, staircase; flight of stairs, ladder, stile; perron.

bridge, footbridge, viaduct, pontoon, steppingstone, plank, gangway; drawbridge; pass, ford, ferry, tunnel; pipe &c. 260.

door; gateway &c. (opening) 260; channel, passage, avenue, means of access, approach, adit; artery, lane, alley, aisle, lobby, corridor; back-door, back-stairs; secret passage; covert way; vennel.

roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway; turnpike , freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's highway, Queen's highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle road, bridle track, bridle path; walk, trottoir, footpath, pavement, flags, sidewalk; crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c. (mid-course) 628; carrefour; private road, occupation road; highways and byways; railroad, railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway; canal &c. (conduit) 350; street &c. (abode) 189; speedway. adv. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this way, after this fashion.

one way or another, anyhow; somehow or other &c. (instrumentality) 631; by way of; via; in transitu &c. 270[Lat]; on the high road to.

Phr. hae tibi erunt artes[Lat].

628. Mid-course[edit]

N. middle course, midcourse; mean &c. 29 middle &c. 68; juste milieu[Fr], mezzo termine[It], golden mean, <gr ariston="" metron="" gr="">[Grk], aurea mediocritas[Lat].

straight &c. (direct) 278 straight course, straight path; short cut, cross cut; great circle sailing.

neutrality; half measure, half and half measures; compromise.

V. keep in a middle course, preserve a middle course, preserve an even course, go straight &c. (direct) 278.

go halfway, compromise, make a compromise.

Adj. straight &c. (direct) 278.

Phr. medium tenuere beati[Lat]. </gr>

629. Circuit[edit]

N. circuit, roundabout way, digression, detour, circumbendibus, ambages, loop; winding &c. (circuition) 311; zigzag &c. (deviation) 279.

V. perform a circuit; go round about, go out of one's way; make a detour; meander &c. (deviate) 279.

lead a pretty dance; beat about the bush; make two bites of a cherry.

Adj. circuitous, indirect, roundabout; zigzag &c. (deviating) 279; backhanded.

Adv. by a side wind, by an indirect course; in a roundabout way; from pillar to post.

630. Requirement[edit]

N. requirement, need, wants, necessities; necessaries, necessaries of life; stress, exigency,pinch, sine qua non, matter of necessity; case of need, case of life or death.

needfulness, essentiality, necessity, indispensability, urgency.

requisition &c. (request) 765, (exaction) 741; run upon; demand, call for.

charge, claim, command, injunction, mandate, order, precept.

desideratum &c. (desire) 865; want &c. (deficiency) 640.

V. require, need, want, have occasion for; not be able to do without, not be able to dispense with; prerequire.

render necessary, necessitate, create a, necessity for, call for, put in requisition; make a requisition &c. (ask for) 765, (demand) 741.

stand in need of; lack &c. 640; desiderate; desire &c. 865; be necessary &c. Adj.

Adj. required &c. v.; requisite, needful, necessary, imperative, essential, indispensable, prerequisite; called for; in demand, in request.

urgent, exigent, pressing, instant, crying, absorbing.

in want of; destitute of &c. 640.

Adv. ex necessitate rei &c. (necessarily) 601[Lat]; of necessity.

Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; necessitas non habet legem[Lat]; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te [Lat][Martial].

2. Subservience to Ends[edit]

Actual Subservience[edit]

631. Instrumentality[edit]

N. instrumentality; aid &c. 707; subservience, subserviency; mediation, intervention, medium, intermedium, vehicle, hand; agency &c. 170.

minister, handmaid; midwife, accoucheur[Fr], accoucheuse[Fr], obstetrician; gobetween; cat's-paw; stepping-stone.

opener &c. 260; key; master key, passkey, latchkey; " open sesame "; passport, passe-partout, safe-conduct, password.

instrument &c. 633; expedient &c. (plan) 626; means &c. 632.

V. subserve, minister, mediate, intervene; be instrumental &c. adj.; pander to; officiate; tend.

Adj. instrumental; useful &c. 644; ministerial, subservient, mediatorial; intermediate, intervening; conducive.

Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c. 170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c. n.; along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c. 632; by the aid of, with the aid of &c. (assistance) 707.

per fas et nefas[Lat], by fair means or foul; somehow, somehow or other; by hook or by crook.

632. Means[edit]

N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means; capital &c. (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c. 636; provision &c. 637; a shot in the locker; appliances &c. (machinery) 633; means and appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c. (measures) 626; two strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c. (safety) 666; aid &c. 707; medium &c. 631.

V. find means, have means, possess means &c. n.

Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical &c. 633.

Adv. by means of, with; by what means, by all means, by any means, by some means; wherewith, herewith, therewith; wherewithal.

how &c. (in what manner) 627; through &c. (by the instrumentality of) 631; with the aid of, by the aid of &c. (assistance) 707; by the agency of &c. 170

633. Instrument[edit]

N. machinery, mechanism, engineering.

instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine, lathe, gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine. gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances; plant, materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde; equipment, equipmentage; appointments, furniture, upholstery; chattels; paraphernalia &c. (belongings) 780.

mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow, crowbar; handspike, gavelock, jemmy, jimmy, arm, limb, wing; oar, paddle; pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels within wheels; pinion, crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c. (lift) 307; wheel &c. (rotation) 312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring; can hook, glut, heald, heddle, jenny, parbuckle, sprag, water wheel.

handle, hilt, haft, shaft, heft, shank, blade, trigger, tiller, helm, treadle, key; turnscrew, screwdriver; knocker.

hammer &c. (impulse) 276; edge tool &c. (cut) 253; borer &c. 262; vice, teeth, &c. (hold) 781; nail, rope &c. (join) 45; peg &c. (hang) 214; support &c. 215; spoon &c. (vehicle) 272; arms &c. 727; oar &c. (navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper, snowplow, tenpenny, votograph.

Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical, machinal; brachial[Med].

634. Substitute[edit]

N. substitute &c. 147; deputy &c. 759; badli.

635. Materials[edit]

N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple; adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake; shingle, bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c. 384; compo, composition; concrete; reinforced concrete, cement; wood, ore, timber.

materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff pabulum &c. (food) 298; ammunition &c. (arms) 727; contingents; relay, reinforcement, reenforcement; baggage &c. (personal property) 780; means &c. 632; calico, cambric, cashmere.

Adj. raw &c. (unprepared) 674; wooden &c. n.; adobe.

636. Store[edit]

N. stock, fund, mine, vein, lode, quarry; spring; fount, fountain; well, wellspring; milch cow.

stock in trade, supply; heap &c. (collection) 72; treasure; reserve, corps de reserve, reserved fund, nest egg, savings, bonne bouche[Fr].

crop, harvest, mow, vintage.

store, accumulation, hoard, rick, stack; lumber; relay &c. (provision) 637.

storehouse, storeroom, storecloset; depository, depot, cache, repository, reservatory, repertory; repertorium; promptuary, warehouse, entrepot[Fr], magazine; buttery, larder, spence; garner, granary; cannery, safe-deposit vault, stillroom; thesaurus; bank &c. (treasury) 802; armory; arsenal; dock; gallery, museum, conservatory; menagery, menagerie.

reservoir, cistern, aljibar, tank, pond, mill pond; gasometer.

budget, quiver, bandolier, portfolio; coffer &c. (receptacle) 191.

conservation; storing &c. v.; storage.

V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart; store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up, save up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.

reserve; keep back, hold back; husband, husband one's resources.

deposit; stow, stack, load; harvest; heap, collect &c. 72; lay in store &c.

Adj.; keep, file [papers]; lay in &c. (provide) 637; preserve &c. 670.

Adj. stored &c. v. ; in store, in reserve, in ordinary; spare, supernumerary.

Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit[Lat].

637. Provision[edit]

N. provision, supply; grist, grist for the mill; subvention &c. (aid) 707; resources &c. (means) 632; groceries, grocery.

providing &c. v.; purveyance; reinforcement, reenforcement; commissariat.

provender &c. (food) 298; ensilage; viaticum.

caterer, purveyor, commissary, quartermaster, manciple, feeder, batman, victualer, grocer, comprador[Sp], restaurateur; jackal, pelican; sutler &c. (merchant) 797.

grocery shop [U. S.], grocery store.

V. provide; make provision, make due provision for; lay in, lay in a stock, lay in a store.

supply, suppeditate|; furnish; find, find one in; arm.

cater, victual, provision, purvey, forage; beat up for; stock, stock with; make good, replenish; fill, fill up; recruit, feed.

have in store, have in reserve; keep, keep by one, keep on foot, keep on hand; have to fall back upon; store &c. 636; provide against a rainy day &c. (economy) 817.

638. Waste[edit]

N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion &c. 73; ebb; leakage &c. (exudation) 295; loss &c. 776; wear and tear; waste; prodigality &c. 818; misuse &c. 679; wasting &c. v.; rubbish &c. (useless) 645. mountain in labor.

V. spend, expend, use, consume, swallow up, exhaust; impoverish; spill, drain, empty; disperse &c. 73.

cast away, fool away, muddle away, throw away, fling away, fritter away,; burn the candle at both ends, waste; squander &c. 818.

" waste its sweetness on the desert air " [Gray]; cast one's bread upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to crack a nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a wheel; labor in vain &c. (useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a sieve.

leak &c. (run out) 295; run to waste; ebb; melt away, run dry, dry up.

Adj. wasted &c. v.; at a low ebb.

wasteful &c. (prodigal) 818; penny wise and pound foolish.

Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle[Fr]; " idly busy rolls their world away " [Goldsmith].

639. Sufficiency[edit]

N. sufficiency, adequacy, enough, withal, satisfaction, competence; no less; quantum sufficit[Lat], Q.S..

mediocrity &c. (average) 29.

fill; fullness &c. (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance; copiousness &c. Adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure; " good measure pressed down and running, over." luxuriance &c. (fertility) 168; affluence &c. (wealth) 803; fat of the land; "a land flowing with milk and honey"; cornucopia; horn of plenty, horn of Amalthaea; mine &c. (stock) 636.

outpouring; flood &c. (great quantity) 31; tide &c. (river) 348; repletion &c. (redundancy) 641; satiety &c. 869.

V. be sufficient &c. Adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster; have enough &c. n.; eat. one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill; roll in, swim in; wallow in &c. (superabundance) 641 ; wanton.

abound, exuberate, teem, flow, stream, rain, shower down; pour, pour in; swarm; bristle with; superabound.

render sufficient &c. Adj.; replenish &c .(fill) 52.

Adj. sufficient, enough, adequate, up to the mark, commensurate, competent, satisfactory, valid, tangible.

measured; moderate &c. (temperate) 953.

full.&c. (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous; plenty as blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c. v.; replete, enough and to spare, flush; choke-full, chock-full; well-stocked, well-provided; liberal; unstinted, unstinting; stintless; without stint; unsparing, unmeasured; lavish &c. 641; wholesale.

rich; luxuriant &c. (fertile) 168; affluent &c. (wealthy) 803; wantless; big with &c. (pregnant) 161.

unexhausted, unwasted; exhaustless, inexhaustible.

Adv. sufficiently, amply &c. Adj.; full; in abundance &c. n. with no sparing hand; to one's heart's content, ad libitum, without stint.

Phr. " cut and come again " [Crabbe]; das Beste ist gut genug[Ger].

640. Insufficiency[edit]

N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness; incompetence &c. (impotence) 158; deficiency &c. (incompleteness) 53; imperfection &c. 651; shortcoming &c. 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c. (smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence.

scarcity, dearth; want, need, lack, poverty, exigency; inanition, starvation, famine, drought.

dole, mite, pittance; short allowance, short commons; half rations; banyan day.

emptiness, poorness &c. Adj.; depletion, vacancy, flaccidity; ebb tide; low water; " a beggarly account of empty boxes " [Romeo and Jul.]; indigence &c. 804; insolvency &c. (nonpayment) 808.

V. be insufficient &c. Adj.; not suffice &c. 639; come short of &c. 304 run dry.

want, lack, need, require; caret; be in want &c. (poor) 804, live from hand to mouth.

render insufficient &c. Adj.; drain of resources, impoverish &c. (waste) 638; stint &c. (begrudge) 819; put on short allowance.

do insufficiently &c. adv.; scotch the snake.

Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c. 32; not enough &c. 639; unequal to; incompetent &c. (impotent) 158; " weighed in the balance and found wanting "; perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460; deficient &c. (incomplete) 53; wanting, &c. v.; imperfect &c. 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill- stored, ill-off.

slack, at a low ebb; empty, vacant, bare; short of, out of, destitute of, devoid of , bereft of &c. 789; denuded of; dry, drained.

unprovided, unsupplied, unfurnished; unreplenished, unfed; unstored, untreasured; empty-handed.

meager, poor, thin, scrimp, sparing, spare, stinted; starved, starving; halfstarved, famine-stricken, famished; jejune.

scant &c. (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love or money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c. 819; at the end of one's tether; without resources &c. 632; in want &c. (poor) 804; in debt &c. 806.

Adv. insufficiently &c. Adj.; in default of, for want of; failing.

Phr. semper avarus eget [Lat][Horace].

641. Redundancy[edit]

N. redundancy, redundance; too much, too many; superabundance, superfluity, superfluence|, saturation; nimiety, transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c. (plenty) 639; repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque[Lat], lion's share; more than enough &c. 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion, load, surfeit, sickener; turgescence &c. (expansion) 194; overdose, overmeasure, oversupply, overflow; inundation &c. (water) 348; avalanche.

accumulation &c. (store) 636; heap &c. 72; drug, drug in the market; glut; crowd; burden.

excess; surplus, overplus; epact; margin; remainder &c. 40; duplicate; surplusage, expletive; work of supererogation; bonus, bonanza.

luxury; intemperance &c. 954; extravagance &c. (prodigality) 818; exorbitance, lavishment.

pleonasm &c. (diffuseness) 573; too many irons in the fire; embarras de richesses[Fr].

V. superabound, overabound; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at every turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow over, well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay, overcharge, overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo, overwhelm, overshoot the mark &c. (go beyond) 303; surcharge, supersaturate, gorge, glut, load, drench, whelm, inundate, deluge, flood; drug, drug the market; hepatize.

choke, cloy, accloy, suffocate; pile up, lay on thick; impregnate with; lavish &c. (squander) 818.

send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to Athens; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare docere[Lat];.kill the slain, " gild refined gold", "gild the lily", butter one's bread on both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to crack a nut &c. (waste) 638.

exaggerate &c. 549; wallow in roll in &c. (plenty) 639 remain on one's hands, hang heavy on hand, go a begging.

Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate, superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal &c. 818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c. v.; supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running over, running to waste, running down.

crammed to overflowing, filled to overflowing; gorged, ready to burst; dropsical, turgid, plethoric; obese &c. 194.

superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous|, uncalled for, to spare, in excess; over and above &c. (remainder) 40; de trop[Fr]; adscititious &c. (additional) 37; supernumerary &c. (reserve) 636; on one's hands, spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort[Fr].

Adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch, too much; too far; without measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with . . . to spare; over head and ears; up to one's eyes, up to one's ears; extra; beyond the mark &c. (transcursion) 303; acervatim [Lat].

Phr. it never rains but it pours; fortuna multis dat nimium nulli satis [Lat].

Degree of Subservience[edit]

642. Importance[edit]

N. importance, consequence, moment, prominence, consideration, mark, materialness.

import, significance, concern; emphasis, interest.

greatness &c. 31; superiority &c. 33; notability &c. (repute) 873; weight &c. (influence) 175; value &c. (goodness) 648; usefulness &c. 644.

gravity, seriousness, solemnity; no joke, no laughing matter; pressure, urgency, stress; matter of life and death.

memorabilia, notabilia, great doings; red-letter day.

great thing, great point; main chance, "the be all and the end all " [Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c. (essence) 5; sum and substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part, prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath of one's nostrils &c. (life) 359;cream, salt, core, kernel, heart, nucleus; keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c. (device) 626; salient points.

top sawyer, first fiddle, prima donna[Sp], chief; triton among the minnows; " it" [U.S.].

V. be important &c. adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify, matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c. (influence) 175; make a figure &c. (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead the way, take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the shade; lie at the root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of notice, be worthy of regard, be worthy of consideration.

attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c. n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c. 550; mark with a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print in italics, print in capitals,print in large letters, put in large type, put in letters. of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on.

make a fuss about, make a fuss over, make a stir about, make a piece of work about[Fr], make much ado about; make much ado of,make much of.

Adj. important; of importance &c. n.; momentous, material; to the point; not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at; egregious; weighty &c. (influential) 175; of note &c. (repute) 873; notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable; unforgettable; worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be forgotten; stirring, eventful.

grave, serious, earnest, noble, grand, solemn, impressive, commanding, imposing.

urgent, pressing, critical, instant.

paramount, essential, vital, all-absorbing, radical, cardinal, chief, main, prime, primary, principal, leading, capital, foremost, overruling; of vital &c. importance.

in the front rank, first-rate; superior &c. 33; considerable &c. (great) 31; marked &c. v.; rare &c. 137.

significant, telling, trenchant, emphatic, pregnant; tanti[Lat].

Adv. materially &c. adj.; in the main; above all, <gr kat="" exochin="" gr="">, par excellence, to crown all, to beat all.

Phr. expende Hannibalem![Lat] [Juvenal]. </gr>

643. Unimportance[edit]

N. unimportance, insignificance, nothingness, immateriality.

triviality, levity, frivolity; paltriness &c. Adj.; poverty; smallness &c. 32; vanity &c. (uselessness) 645; matter of indifference &c. 866; no object.

nothing, nothing to signify,, nothing worth speaking of, nothing particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no great matter, trifling matter &c. Adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great shakes, peu de chose[Fr]; child's play, kinderspiel.

toy, plaything, popgun, paper pellet, gimcrack, gewgaw, bauble, trinket, bagatelle, Rickshaw, knickknack, whim-wham, trifle, " trifles light as air "; yankee notions [U. S.].

trumpery, trash, rubbish, stuff, fatras, frippery; " leather or prunello "; chaff, drug, froth bubble smoke, cobweb; weed; refuse &c. (inutility) 645; scum &c. (dirt) 653.

joke, jest, snap of the fingers; fudge &c. (unmeaning) 517; fiddlestick, fiddlestick end; pack of nonsense, mere farce.

straw, pin, fig, button, rush; bulrush, feather, halfpenny, farthing, brass farthing, doit, peppercorn, jot, rap, pinch of snuff, old son,; cent, mill, picayune, pistareen, red cent [U.S.].

minutiae, details, minor details, small fry; dust in the balance, feather in the scale, drop in the ocean, flea-bite, molehill.

nine days' wonder, ridiculus mus[Lat]; flash in the pan &c. (impotence) 158; much ado about nothing &c. (overestimation) 482.

V. be unimportant &c. Adj.; not matter &c. 642; go for nothing, matter nothing, signify nothing, matter little, matter little or nothing; not matter a straw &c. n.

make light of &c. (underestimate) 483; catch at straws &c. (overestimate) 482.

Adj. unimportant; of little account, of small account, of no account, of little importance, of no importance &c. 642; immaterial; unessential, nonessential; indifferent.

subordinate &c. (inferior) 34; mediocre &c. (average) 29; passable, fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common; ordinary &c. (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant, inappreciable.

trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle; puerile &c. (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c. 160; powerless &c. 158; frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble, inane, ridiculous, farcical; finical, finikin; fiddle-faddle, fingle- fangle, namby-pamby, wishy-washy, milk and water.

poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c. (contempt) 930; sorry, mean, meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel, weedy, niggardly, scurvy, putid, beggarly, worthless, twopennyhalfpenny, cheap, trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-horse [U. S.]. not worth the pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not worth speaking of, not worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a straw &c. n.;1 beneath notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard, unworthy of regard, beneath consideration, unworthy of consideration; de lana caprina[It]; vain &c. (useless) 645.

Adv. slightly &c. adj.; rather, somewhat, pretty well, tolerably. for aught one cares.

Int. no matter! pish! tush! tut! pshaw! pugh! pooh,pooh-pooh! fudge! bosh! humbug! fiddlestick, fiddlestick end! fiddlededee! never mind! n'importe[Fr]! what signifies it, what boots it, what of it, what of that, what matter, what's the odds, a fig for' stuff and nonsense, stuff! nonsense!

Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle[Fr]; it matters not, it does not signify; it is of no consequence, it is of no importance; elephantus non capit murem[Lat]; tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].

644. Utility[edit]

N. utility; usefulness &c. adj.; efficacy, efficiency, adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c. (aid) 707; applicability &c. adj.; subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631; function &c. (business) 625; value; worth &c. (goodness) 648; money's worth; productiveness &c. 168; cui bono &c. (intention) 620[Lat]; utilization &c. (use) 677 step in the right direction.

common weal; commonwealth public good, public interest; utilitarianism &c. (philanthropy) 910.

V. be useful &c. adj.; avail, serve; subserve &c. (be instrumental to) 631; conduce &c. (tend) 176; answer , serve one's turn, answer a purpose, serve a purpose.

act a part &c. (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a function &c.; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's service; bestead, stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c. 707.

bear fruit &c. (produce) 161; bring grist to the mill; profit, remunerate; benefit &c. (do good) 648.

find one's account in, find one's advantage in; reap the benefit of &c. (be better for) 658. render useful &c. (use) 677.

Adj. useful; of use &c. n.; serviceable, proficuous|, good for; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.; conducive &c. (tending) 176; subsidiary &c. (helping) 707.

advantageous &c. (beneficial) 648; profitable, gainful, remunerative, worth one's salt; valuable; prolific &c. (productive) 168.

adequate; efficient, efficacious; effective, effectual; expedient &c. 646.

applicable, available, ready, handy, at hand, tangible; commodious, adaptable; of all work.

Adv. usefully &c. adj.; pro bono publico[Lat].

645. Inutility[edit]

N. inutility; uselessness &c. adj.; inefficacy, futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; inefficiency.&c. (incompetence) 158; unskillfulness &c. 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c.(unproductiveness). 169; labor in vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus; lost trouble, lost labor; work of Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild goose chase, mere farce.

tautology &c. (repetition) 104; supererogation &c. (redundancy) 641.

vanitas vanitatum[Lat], vanity, inanity, worthlessness, nugacity; triviality &c. (unimportance) 643.

caput mortuum[Lat], waste paper, dead letter; blunt tool.

litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes; button top; shoddy; rags, orts, trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings, offscourings, waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings; broken meat; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust hole; rudera, deads.

fruges consumere natus &c. (drone) 683[Lat][Horace].

V. be useless &c. Adj.; go a begging &c. (redundant) 641; fail &c. 732.

seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash the waves, battre l'eau avec un baton[Fr], donner un coup d'epee dans l'eau[Fr], fish in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty well, sow the sand; bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the winds; whistle jigs to a milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre contre des moulins[Fr]; lock the stable door when the steed is stolen, lock the barn door after the horse is stolen &c. (too late) 135; hold a farthing candle to the sun; cast pearls before swine &c. (waste) 638; carry coals to Newcastle &c. (redundancy) 641; wash a blackamoor white &c. (impossible) 471.

render useless &c. adj.; dismantle, dismast, dismount, disqualify, disable; unrig; cripple, lame &c. (injure) 659; spike guns, clip the wings; put out of gear.

Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless; inoperative &c. 158; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; inservient|, unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c. (impotent) 158; of no avail &c. (use) 644; ineffectual &c. (failure) 732; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; " stale, flat and unprofitable"; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641; dispensable; thrown away &c. (wasted) 638; abortive &c. (immature) 674.

worthless, valueless, priceless; unsalable; not worth a straw &c. (trifling) 643 dear at any price.

vain, empty, inane; gainless, profitless, fruitless; unserviceable, unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c. 169; hors de combat[Fr]; effete, past work &c. (impaired) 659; obsolete &c. (old) 124; fit for the dust hole; good for nothing; of no earthly use; not worth having, not worth powder and shot; leading to no end, uncalled for; unnecessary, unneeded.

Adv. uselessly &c. adj.; to little purpose, to no purpose, to little or no purpose.

Int. cui bono?[Lat]; what's the good!

Phr. actum ne agas[Lat]; chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin[Fr]; tanto buon che val niente[It].

646. Expedience[edit]

[Specific subservience.]

N. expedience, expediency; desirableness, desirability &c. adj.; fitness &c. (agreement) 23; utility &c. 644; propriety; opportunism; advantage.

high time &c. (occasion) 134.

V. be expedient &c. Adj.; suit &c. (agree) 23; befit; suit the time, befit the time, suit the season, befit the season, suit the occasion, befit the occasion. conform &c. 82.

Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming; befitting &c. v.; opportune &c. (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c. (accordant) 23; applicable &c. (useful) 644.

Adv. in the right place; conveniently &c. adj.

Phr. operae pretium est[Lat].

647. Inexpedience[edit]

N. inexpedience, inexpediency; undesirableness, undesirability &c. Adj.; discommodity, impropriety; unfitness &c. (disagreement) 24; inutility &c. 645; disadvantage.

V. be inexpedient &c. Adj.; come amiss &c. (disagree) 24; embarrass &c. (hinder) 706; put to inconvenience; pay too dear for one's whistle.

Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable; objectionable; inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious, discommodious; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c. (inconsonant) 24.

ill-contrived, ill-advised; unsatisfactory; unprofitable &c., unsubservient &c. (useless) 645; inopportune &c. (unseasonable) 135; out of place, in the wrong place; improper, unseemly.

clumsy, awkward; cumbrous, cumbersome; lumbering, unwieldy, hulky; unmanageable &c. (impracticable) 704; impedient &c. (in the way) 706.

unnecessary &c. (redundant) 641.

Phr. it will never do.

648. Goodness[edit]

 [Capability of producing good. Good qualities.]

N. goodness &c. adj.; excellence, merit; virtue &c. 944; value, worth, price.

super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c. 33; perfection &c. 650; coup de maitre[Fr]; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre[Fr], prime, flower, cream, elite, pick, A1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la creme, flower of the flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth; champion; prodigy.

tidbit; gem, gem of the first water; bijou, precious stone, jewel, pearl, diamond, ruby, brilliant, treasure; good thing; rara avis[Lat], one in a thousand.

beneficence &c. 906; good man &c. 948.

V. be beneficial &c. Adj.; produce good, do good &c. 618; profit &c. (be of use) 644; benefit; confer a benefit &c. 618.

be the making of, do a world of good, make a man of.

produce a good effect; do a good turn, confer an obligation; improve &c. 658.

do no harm, break no bones.

be good &c. adj.; excel, transcend &c. (be superior) 33; bear away the bell.

stand the proof, stand the test; pass muster, pass an examination.

challenge comparison, vie, emulate, rival.

Adj. harmless, hurtless; unobnoxious, innocuous, innocent, inoffensive.

beneficial, valuable, of value; serviceable &c. (useful) 644; advantageous, edifying, profitable; salutary &c. (healthful) 656.

favorable; propitious &c. (hope-giving) 858; fair.

good, good as gold; excellent; better; superior &c. 33; above par; nice, fine; genuine &c. (true) 494.

best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless; unparagoned, unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superlatively &c. 33; good; bully* , crackajack*, giltedged; superfine, superexcellent; of the first water; first-rate, first-class; high- wrought, exquisite, very best, crack, prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal; standard &c. (perfect) 650; inimitable.

admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c. (approve) 931; pleasing &c. 829; couleur de rose[Fr], precious, of great price; costly &c. (dear) 814; worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless, invaluable, inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye.

tolerable &c. (not very good) 651; up to the mark, unexceptionable, unobjectionable; satisfactory, tidy.

in good condition, in fair condition; fresh; sound &c. (perfect) 650.

Adv. beneficially &c. adj.; well &c. 618.

Phr. " Jewels five words long " [Tennyson]; " long may such goodness live! " [Rogers]; "the luxury of doing good " [Goldsmith].

649. Badness[edit]

 [Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.]

N. hurtfulness &c. Adj.; virulence.

evil doer &c. 913; bane &c. 663; plague spot &c. (insalubrity) 657; evil star, ill wind; hoodoo; Jonah; snake in the grass, skeleton in the closet; amari aliquid[Lat], thorn in the side.

malignity; malevolence &c. 907; tender mercies [ironically].

ill-treatment, annoyance, molestation, abuse, oppression, persecution, outrage; misusage &c. 679; injury &c. (damage) 659; knockout drops [U. S.].

badness &c. adj.; peccancy, abomination; painfulness &c. 830; pestilence &c. (disease) 655; guilt &c. 947; depravity &c. 945.

V. be hurtful &c. adj.; cause evil, produce evil, inflict evil, work evil, do evil &c. 619; damnify, endamage, hurt, harm; injure &c. (damage) 659; pain &c. 830.

wrong, aggrieve, oppress, persecute; trample upon, tread upon, bear hard upon, put upon; overburden; weigh down, weigh heavy on; victimize; run down; molest &c. 830.

maltreat, abuse; ill-use, ill-treat; buffet, bruise, scratch, maul; smite &c. (scourge) 972; do violence, do harm, do a mischief; stab, pierce, outrage.

do mischief, make mischief; bring into trouble. destroy &c. 162.

Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful, baneful, baleful; injurious, deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome; prejudicial; disserviceable, disadvantageous; wide-wasting.

unlucky, sinister; obnoxious; untoward, disastrous.

oppressive, burdensome, onerous; malign &c. (malevolent) 907.

corrupting &c. (corrupt &c. 659); virulent, venomous, envenomed, corrosive; poisonous &c. (morbific) 657; deadly &c. (killing) 361; destructive &c. (destroying) 162; inauspicious &c. 859.

bad, ill, arrant, as bad as bad can be, dreadful; horrid, horrible; dire; rank, peccant, foul, fulsome; rotten, rotten at the core.

vile, base, villainous; mean &c. (paltry) 643; injured &c. deteriorated &c. 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable indifferent; below par &c. (imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad, grievous, deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c. (painful) 830.

evil, wrong; depraved &c. 945; shocking; reprehensible &c. (disapprove) 932. hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable, execrable, cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal; diabolic &c. (malevolent) 907.

unadvisable &c. (inexpedient) 647; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; irremediable &c. (hopeless) 859.

Adv. badly &c. Adj. ; wrong, ill; to one's cost; where the shoe pinches.

Phr. bad is the best: the worst come to the worst; herba mala presto cresco [Lat]; "wrongs unredressed or insults unavenged " [Wordsworth].

650. Perfection[edit]

N. perfection; perfectness &c. adj.; indefectibility; impeccancy, impeccability.

pink, beau ideal, phenix, paragon; pink of perfection, acme of perfection; ne plus ultra[Lat]; summit &c. 210.

cygne noir[Fr]; philosopher's stone; chrysolite, Koh-i-noor.

model, standard, pattern, mirror, admirable Crichton; trump, very prince of.

masterpiece, superexcellence &c. (goodness) 648; transcendence &c. (superiority) 33.

V. be perfect &c. adj.; transcend &c. (be supreme) 33.

bring to perfection, perfect, ripen, mature; complete &,,c. 729; put in trim &c. (prepare) 673; maturate.

Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective, indeficient, indefectible; immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c. 651; unblemished, uninjured &c. 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect condition; scathless, intact, harmless; seaworthy &c. (safe) 644; right as a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Lat][Horace]; consummate &c. (complete) 52; finished &c. 729.

best &c. (good) 648; model, standard; inimitable, unparagoned, unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superhuman, divine; beyond all praise &c. (approbation) 931; sans peur et sans reproche[Fr].

adv. to perfection; perfectly &c. adj.; ad unguem[Lat]; clean, - as a whistle.

phr. " let us go on unto perfection " [ Hebrews vi, 1]; " the perfection of art is to conceal art " [Quintilian].

651. Imperfection[edit]

N. imperfection; imperfectness &c. Adj.; deficiency; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; peccancy &c. (badness) 649; immaturity &c. 674.

fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c. (break) 70; gap &c. 198; twist &c. 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat; blemish &c. 848; weakness &c. 160; half blood; shortcoming &c. 304; drawback; seamy side.

mediocrity; no great shakes, no great catch; not much to boast of; one-horse shay.

V. be imperfect &c. adj.; have a defect &c. n.; lie under a disadvantage; spring a leak.

not pass muster, barely pass muster; fall short &c. 304.

Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c. 650; deficient, defective; faulty, unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung; warped &c. (distort) 243; lame; injured &c. (deteriorated) 659; peccant &c. (bad) 649; frail &c. (weak) 160; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; crude &c. (unprepared) 674; incomplete &c. 53; found wanting,; below par; short- handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below its full complement.

indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c. 29; so-so; coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well, pretty good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well enough, adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable, unobjectionable, admissible, bearable, only better than nothing.

secondary, inferior; second-rate, second-best; one-horse [U.S.].

Adv. almost &c.; to a limited extent, rather &c. 32; pretty, moderately, passing; only, considering, all things considered, enough.

Phr. surgit amari aliquid[Lat].

652. Cleanness[edit]

N. cleanness, cleanliness &c. adj.; purity; cleaning &c. v.; purification, defecation &c. v.; purgation, lustration; detersion, abstersion; epuration, mundation|; ablution, lavation, colature|; disinfection &c. v.; drainage, sewerage.

lavatory, laundry, washhouse; washerwoman, laundress, dhobi, laundryman, washerman; scavenger, dustman, sweep; white wings

brush[Local U. S.]; broom, besom, mop, rake, shovel, sieve, riddle, screen, filter; blotter.

napkin, cloth, maukin|, malkin|, handkerchief, towel, sudary; doyley, doily, duster, sponge, mop, swab.

cover, drugget.

wash, lotion, detergent, cathartic, purgative; purifier &c. v.; disinfectant; aperient; benzene, benzine benzol, benolin; bleaching powder, chloride of lime, dentifrice, deobstruent, laxative.

V. be clean, render clean &c. Adj.

clean, cleanse; mundify|, rinse, wring, flush, full, wipe, mop, sponge, scour, swab, scrub, brush up.

wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge|, deterge; decrassify; clear, purify; depurate, despumate, defecate; purge, expurgate, elutriate[Chem], lixiviate, edulcorate, clarify, refine, rack; filter, filtrate; drain, strain.

disinfect, fumigate, ventilate, deodorize; whitewash; castrate, emasculate.

sift, winnow, pick, weed, comb, rake, brush, sweep.

rout out, clear out, sweep out &c.; make a clean sweep of.

Adj. clean, cleanly; pure; immaculate; spotless, stainless, taintless; trig; without a stain, unstained, unspotted, unsoiled, unsullied, untainted, uninfected; sweet, sweet as a nut.

neat, spruce, tidy, trim, gimp, clean as a new penny, like a cat in pattens; cleaned &c. v.; kempt.

abstergent, cathartic, cleansing, purifying.

Adv. neatly &c. adj.; clean as a whistle.

653. Uncleanness[edit]

N. uncleanness &c. Adj.; impurity; immundity, immundicity; impurity &c. 961[of mind].

defilement, contamination &c. v.; defoedation|; soilure, soiliness|; abomination; leaven; taint, tainture|; fetor &c. 401. decay; putrescence, putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew, dry rot, mucor, rubigo|.

slovenry; slovenliness &c. Adj. squalor.

dowdy, drab, slut, malkin, slattern, sloven, slammerkin|, slammock, slummock, scrub, draggle-tail, mudlark, dust- man, sweep; beast.

dirt, filth, soil, slop; dust, cobweb, flue; smoke, soot, smudge, smut, grit, grime, raff; sossle, sozzle.

sordes, dregs, grounds, lees; argol; sediment, settlement heeltap; dross, drossiness; mother|, precipitate, scoriae, ashes, cinders. recrement, slag; scum, froth.

hogwash; ditchwater, dishwater, bilgewater; rinsings, cheeseparings; sweepings &c. (useless refuse) 645; offscourings, outscourings; off scum; caput mortuum[Lat], residuum, sprue, fecula[Lat], clinker, draff; scurf, scurfiness; exuviae[Lat], morphea; fur, furfur; dandruff, tartar.

riffraff; vermin, louse, flea, bug, chinch.

mud, mire, quagmire, alluvium, silt, sludge, slime, slush, slosh, sposh [U. S.].

spawn, offal, gurry [U. S.]; lientery; garbage, carrion; excreta &c. 299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration, lienteria; faeces, feces, , excrement, ordure, dung, crap[vulgar], shit[vulgar]; sewage, sewerage; muck; coprolite; guano, manure, compost.

dunghill, colluvies, mixen, midden, bog, laystall, sink, privy, jakes; toilet, john, head; cess, cesspool; sump, sough, cloaca, latrines, drain, sewer, common sewer; Cloacina; dust hole.

sty, pigsty, lair, den, Augean stable, sink of corruption; slum, rookery.

V. be unclean, become unclean &c. Adj.; rot, putrefy, ferment, fester, rankle, reek; stink &c. 401; mold, molder; go bad &c. adj.

render unclean &c. adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge, smutch, soil, smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch; begrease;.dabble, drabble, draggle, daggle; spatter, slubber; besmear &c., bemire, beslime, begrime, befoul; splash, stain, distain, maculate, sully, pollute, defile, debase, contaminate, taint, leaven;, corrupt &c. (injure) 659; cover with dust &c. n.; drabble in the mud; roil.

wallow in the mire; slobber, slabber.

Adj. dirty, filthy, grimy; unclean, impure; soiled &c. v.; not to be handled with kid gloves; dusty, snuffy, smutty, sooty, smoky; thick, turbid, dreggy; slimy; mussy [U.S.].

slovenly, untidy, messy, uncleanly.

[of people] unkempt, sluttish, dowdy, draggle-tailed; uncombed.

unscoured, unswept, unwiped, unwashed, unstrained, unpurified; squalid; lutose, slammocky, slummocky, sozzly.

nasty, coarse, foul, offensive, abominable, beastly, reeky, reechy; fetid &c. 401.

[of rotting living matter] decayed, moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty, moth-eaten, mucid, rancid, weak, bad, gone bad, etercoral, lentiginous, touched, fusty, effete, reasty, rotten, corrupt, tainted, high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive, putrescent, putrefied; saprogenic, saprogenous; purulent, carious, peccant; fecal, feculent; stercoraceous, excrementitious; scurfy, scurvy, impetiginous; gory, bloody; rotting &c. v.; rotten as a pear, rotten as cheese.

crapulous &c. (intemperate) 954; gross &c. (impure in mind) 961; fimetarious, fimicolous.

Phr. " they that touch pitch will be defiled " [Much Ado About Nothing].

654. Health[edit]

N. health, sanity; soundness &c. adj.; vigor; good health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health; bloom. mens sana in corpore sano[Lat]; Hygeia; incorruption, incorruptibility; good state of health, clean bill of health; eupepsia; euphoria, euphory; St. Anthony's fire.

V. be in health &c. adj. bloom, flourish.

keep body and soul together, keep on one's legs; enjoy good health, enjoy a good state of health; have a clean bill of health.

return to health; recover &c. 660; get better &c. (improve) 658; take a new lease of life, fresh lease of life; recruit; restore to health; cure &c. (restore) 660; tinker.

Adj. healthy, healthful; in health &c. n.; well, sound, hearty, hale, fresh, green, whole; florid, flush, hardy, stanch, staunch, brave, robust, vigorous, weatherproof.

unscathed, uninjured, unmaimed, unmarred, untainted; sound of wind and limb, safe and sound.

on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a daisy, fresh as a rose, fresh as April; hearty as a buck; in fine feather, in high feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish, tolerably well, as well as can be expected.

sanitary &c. (health-giving) 656; sanatory &c. (remedial) 662.

Phr. " health that snuffs the morning air" [Grainger]; non est vivere sed valere vita [Lat][Martial].

655. Disease[edit]

N. disease; illness, sickness &c. adj.; ailing &c. " all the ills that flesh is heir to " [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity|; infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady; distemper, distemperature.

visitation, attack, seizure, stroke, fit.

delicacy, loss of health, invalidation, cachexy; cachexia[Med], atrophy, marasmus; indigestion, dyspepsia; decay &c. (deterioration) 659; decline, consumption, palsy, paralysis, prostration.

taint, pollution, infection, sepsis, septicity, infestation; epidemic, pandemic, endemic, epizootic; murrain, plague, pestilence, pox.

sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple, wen &c. (swelling) 250; carbuncle, gathering, imposthume, peccant humor, issue; rot, canker, cold sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease, malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene, sphacelus, sphacelation, leprosy; eruption, rash, breaking out.

fever, temperature, calenture; inflammation.

ague, angina pectoris[Lat], appendicitis; Asiatic cholera, spasmodic cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic plague, pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia, blennorrhoea; blood poisoning, bloodstroke, bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever, dengue fever, malarial fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest, cardiomyopathy[Med]; hardening of the arteries, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis; bronchocele[Med], canker rash, cardialgia[Med], carditis[Med], endocarditis[Med]; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis, chorea, cynanche, dartre[Fr]; enanthem, enanthema; erysipelas; exanthem, exanthema; gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness; grip, grippe, influenza, flu; hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture, hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes, itch, king's evil, lockjaw; measles, mumps, polio; necrosis, pertussis, phthisis, pneumonia, psora, pyaemia, pyrosis[Med], quinsy, rachitis, ringworm, rubeola, St. Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula, seasickness, struma, syntexis, tetanus, tetter, tonsillitis, tonsilitis, tracheocele[Med], trachoma, trismus[Med], varicella[Med], varicosis[Med], variola[Med], water qualm, whooping cough; yellow fever, yellow jack.

fatal disease &c. (hopeless) 859; dangerous illness, galloping consumption, churchyard cough; general breaking up, break up of the system.

[Disease of mind] idiocy &c. 499; insanity &c. 503.

martyr to disease; cripple; " the halt the lame and the blind"; valetudinary, valetudinarian; invalid, patient, case; sickroom, sick- chamber.

[Science of disease] pathology, etiology, nosology.

[Veterinary] anthrax, bighead; blackleg, blackquarter; cattle plague, glanders, mange, scrapie, milk sickness; heartworm, feline leukemia, roundworms; quarter-evil, quarter-ill; rinderpest.

[disease-causing agents] virus, bacterium, bacteria.

[types of viruses] DNA virus; RNA virus.

[RNA viruses] rhinovirus; rhabdovirus; picornavirus.

[DNA viruses] herpesvirus; cytomegalovirus, CMV; human immunodefficiency virus, HIV.

V. be ill &c. adj.; ail, suffer, labor under, be affected with, complain of, have; droop, flag, languish, halt; sicken, peak, pine; gasp.

keep one's bed; feign sickness &c. (falsehood) 544.

lay by, lay up; take a disease, catch a disease &c. n., catch an infection; break out.

Adj. diseased; ailing &c. v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with; indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with illness, afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden, invalided, in hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts; under the weather [U. S.]; valetudinary.

unsound, unhealthy; sickly, morbid, morbose, healthless, infirm, chlorotic[Med], unbraced. drooping, flagging, lame, crippled, halting.

morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned, tabid, mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten at the core; withered, palsied, paralytic;dyspeptic; luetic, pneumonic, pulmonic[Med], phthisic, rachitic; syntectic, syntectical; tabetic, varicose.

touched in the wind, broken-winded, spavined, gasping; hors de combat &c. (useless) 645[Fr].

weakly, weakened &c. (weak) 160; decrepit; decayed &c. (deteriorated) 659; incurable &c. (hopeless) 859; in declining health; cranky; in a bad way, in danger, prostrate; moribund &c. (death) 360.

morbific &c. 657; epidemic, endemic; zymotic.

656. Salubrity[edit]

N. salubrity; healthiness &c. Adj. fine air, fine climate; eudiometer.

[Preservation of health] hygiene; valetudinarian, valetudinarianism; sanitarian; sanitarium, sanitOrium.

V. be salubrious &c. Adj.; agree with; assimilate &c. 23.

Adj. salubrious, salutary, salutiferous; wholesome; healthy, healthful; sanitary, prophylactic, benign, bracing, tonic, invigorating, good for, nutritious; hygeian, hygienic.

innoxious, innocuous, innocent; harmless, uninjurious, uninfectious.

sanative &c. (remedial) 662; restorative &c. (reinstate) 660; useful &c. 644.

657. Insalubrity[edit]

N. insalubrity; unhealthiness &c. Adj.; nonnaturals; plague spot; malaria &c. (poison) 663; death in the pot, contagion; toxicity.

Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome; morbific, morbiferous; mephitic, septic, azotic, deleterious; pestilent, pestiferous, pestilential; virulent, venomous, envenomed; poisonous, toxic, toxiferous, teratogenic; narcotic.

contagious, infectious, catching, taking, epidemic, zymotic; epizootic.

innutritious, indigestible, ungenial; uncongenial &c. (disagreeing) 24.

deadly &c. (killing) 361.

658. Improvement[edit]

N. improvement; amelioration, melioration; betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c. v.; advancement; advance &c. (progress) 282; ascent &c. 305; promotion, preferment; elevation &c. 307; increase &c. 35; cultivation, civilization; culture, march of intellect; menticulture; race-culture, eugenics.

reform, reformation; revision, radical reform; second thoughts, correction, limoe labor[Lat], refinement, elaboration; purification &c. 652; oxidation; repair &c. (restoration) 660; recovery &c. 660.

revise, new edition.

reformer, radical.

V. improve; be better, become better, get better; mend, amend.

advance &c. (progress) 282; ascend &c. 305; increase &c. 35; fructify, ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable turn; turn over a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow one's wild oats; recover &c. 660.

be better &c. adj., be improved by; turn to right account, turn to good account, turn to best account; profit by, reap the benefit of; make good use of, make capital out of; place to good account.

render better, improve, mend, amend, better; ameliorate, meliorate; correct; decrassify.

improve upon, refine upon; rectify; enrich, mellow, elaborate, fatten.

promote, cultivate, advance, forward, enhance; bring forward, bring on; foster &c. 707; invigorate &c. (strengthen) 159.

touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up, brighten up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to advantage; prune; repair &c. (restore) 660; put in order &c. (arrange) 60.

review, revise; make -corrections,make improvements &c. n.; doctor &c. (remedy) 662; purify,&c. 652.

relieve, refresh, infuse new blood into, recruit.

reform, remodel, reorganize; new model.

view in a new light, think better of, appeal from Philip drunk to Philip sober.

palliate, mitigate; lessen an evil &c. 36 .

Adj. improving &c. v.; progressive, improved &c. v.; better, better off, better for; all the better for; better advised.

reformatory, emendatory; reparatory &c. (restorative) 660; remedial &c. 662.

corrigible, improvable; accultural.

adv. on consideration, on reconsideration, on second thoughts, on better advice; ad melius inquirendum[Lat].

phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit[Lat].

659. Deterioration[edit]

N. deterioration, debasement; wane, ebb; recession &c. 287; retrogradation &c. 283; decrease &c. 36.

degeneracy, degeneration, degenerateness; degradation; depravation, depravement; devolution; depravity &c. 945; demoralization, retrogression; masochism.

impairment, inquination|, injury, damage, loss, detriment, delaceration|, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath; perversion, prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution, defoedation|, poisoning, venenation|, leaven, contamination, canker, corruption, adulteration, alloy.

decline, declension, declination; decadence, decadency; falling off &c. v.; caducity, decrepitude.

decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion, erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight, marasmus, atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c. (destruction)[Fr]. 162; aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron; vinefretter, vinegrub.

wreck, mere wreck, honeycomb, magni nominis umbra[Lat]; jade, plug, rackabones [U. S.], skate [U. S.]; tackey, tacky [U. S.].

V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c. Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c. (decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c. 283- decline, droop; go down &c. (sink) 306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare worse; jump out of the frying pan into the fire.

run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale|, sweal|; lapse, be the worse for; sphacelate: break, break down; spring a leak, crack, start; shrivel &c. (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot, rankle, decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; " fall into the sear and yellow leaf", rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish &c. 162; die &c. 360.

[Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c. 160; put back, set back; taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison, envenom, canker, corrupt, exulcerate|, pollute, vitiate, inquinate|; debase, embase|; denaturalize, denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave, degrade; ulcerate; stain &c. (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate, sophisticate, tamper with, prejudice.

pervert, prostitute, demoralize, brutalize; render vicious &c. 945.

embitter, acerbate, exacerbate, aggravate.

injure, impair, labefy, damage, harm, hurt, shend|, scath|, scathe, spoil, mar, despoil, dilapidate, waste; overrun; ravage; pillage &c. 791.

wound, stab, pierce, maim, lame, surbate|, cripple, hough, hamstring, hit between wind and water, scotch, mangle, mutilate, disfigure, blemish, deface, warp.

blight, rot; corrode, erode; wear away, wear out; gnaw, gnaw at the root of; sap, mine, undermine, shake, sap the foundations of, break up; disorganize, dismantle, dismast; destroy &c. 162.

damnify &c. (aggrieve) 649; do one's worst; knock down; deal a blow to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief with, play the deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among, play sad havoc among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among, play the very devil among; decimate.

Adj. unimproved &c. (improve &c. 658); deteriorated &c. v.; altered, altered for the worse; injured &c. v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c. v.; on the wane, on the decline; tabid; degenerate; marescent; worse; the worse for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune; imperfect &c. 651; the worse for wear; battered; weathered, weather-beaten; stale, passe, shaken, dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby, secondhand, threadbare; worn, worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to the stump, worn to rags; reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky [U. S.*].

decayed &c. v.; moth-eaten, worm-eaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy, spotted, seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted, crumbling, moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c. (vicious) 945; decrepid, decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of commission, hors de combat[Fr], out of action, broken down; done, done for, done up; worn out, used up, finished; beyond saving, fit for the dust hole, fit for the wastepaper basket, past work &c. (useless) 645.

at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined, deciduous; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162; tottering &c,. (dangerous) 665: past cure &c. (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c. 688; retrograde &c. (retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c. 649.

Phr. out of the frying pan into the fire; agrescit medendo[Latin]; "what a falling off was there! " [Hamlet].

660. Restoration[edit]

N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement, replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution, reconstruction; reproduction &c. 163; renovation, renewal; revival, revivessence, reviviscence; refreshment &c. 689; resuscitation, reanimation, revivification, reviction|; Phenix; reorganization.

renaissance, second youth, rejuvenescence,. new birth; regeneration, regeneracy, regenerateness; palingenesis, reconversion.

redress, retrieval, reclamation, recovery; convalescence; resumption, resumption; sanativeness. recurrence &c. (repetition) 104; rechauffe[Fr], rifacimento[It].

cure, recure|, sanation|; healing &c. v.; redintegration; rectification; instauration.

repair, reparation, remanufacture; recruiting &c. v.; cicatrization; disinfection; tinkering.

reaction; redemption &c. (deliverance) 672; restitution &c. 790; relief &c. 834.

tinker, cobbler; vis medicatrix &c. (remedy) 662. curableness.

V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to, come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be oneself again; get well,get round, get the better of, get over, get about; rise from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c. (outlive) 110; resume, reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise again.

heal, skin over, cicatrize; right itself.

restore, put back, place in statu quo[Lat]; reinstate, replace, reseat, rehabilitate, reestablish, reestate, reinstall.

reconstruct, rebuild, reorganize, reconstitute; reconvert; renew, renovate; regenerate; rejuvenate.

redeem, reclaim, recover, retrieve; rescue &c. (deliver) 672.

redress, recure; cure, heal, remedy, doctor, physic, medicate; break of; bring round, set on one's legs.

resuscitate, revive, reanimate, revivify, recall to life; reproduce &c. 163; warm up; reinvigorate, refresh &c. 689.

make whole, redintegrate; recoup &c. 790; make good, make all square; rectify, correct; put right, put to rights, set right, set to rights, set straight; set up; put in order &c. (arrange) 60; refit, recruit; fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce.

repair; put in repair, remanufacture, put in thorough repair, put in complete repair; retouch, refashion, botch|, vamp, tinker, cobble; do up, patch up, touch up, plaster up, vamp up; darn, finedraw, heelpiece; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk, careen, splice, bind up wounds.

Adj. restored &c. v.; redivivus[Lat], convalescent; in a fair way; none the worse; rejuvenated.

restoring &c. v.; restorative, recuperative; sanative, reparative, sanatory, reparatory; curative, remedial.

restorable, recoverable, sanable, remediable, retrievable, curable.

Adv. in statu quo[Lat]; as you were. phr. revenons a nos moutons[Fr]; medecin[Fr], gueris-toi toi-meme[Fr]; vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat][Horace].

661. Relapse[edit]

N. relapse, lapse; falling back &c. v.; retrogradation &c. (retrogression) 283; deterioration &c. 659.

[Return to, or recurrence of a bad state] backsliding, recidivation |; recidivism, recidivity; recrudescence.

V. relapse, lapse; fall back, slide back, sink back; return; retrograde &c. 283; recidivate; fall off again &c. 659 .

662. Remedy[edit]

N. remedy, help, cure, redress; medicine, medicament; diagnosis, medical examination; medical treatment; surgery; preventive medicine.

[medical devices] clinical thermometer, stethoscope, X-ray machine.

anthelmintic[Med]; antidote, antifebrile[Med], antipoison, counterpoison, antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer, faith cure, placebo; helminthagogue, lithagogue, pick-meup, stimulant, tonic; vermifuge, prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c. 174; palliative; febrifuge; alterant, alterative; specific; antiseptic, emetic, analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive[Med], antiinflammatory[Med], antibiotic, antiviral[Med], antifungal[Med], carminative; Nepenthe, Mithridate.

cure, treatment, regimen; radical cure, perfect cure, certain cure; sovereign remedy.

examination, diagnosis, diagnostics; analysis, urinalysis, biopsy, radiology.

medicine, physic, Galenicals, simples, drug, pharmaceutical, prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion, drip, suppository, electuary; linctus, lincture; medicament; pharmacon.

nostrum, receipt, recipe, prescription; catholicon, panacea, elixir, elixir vitae, philosopher's stone; balm, balsam, cordial, theriac, ptisan.

agueweed, arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset, calomel, catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts[Chem]; feverroot, feverwort; friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac, ipecacuanha; jonquil, mercurous chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine, quinquina; sassafras, yarrow.

salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster; epithem, embrocation, liniment, cataplasm, sinapism, arquebusade, traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic, poultice, collyrium, depilatory; emplastrum; eyewater, vesicant, vesicatory[Med].

compress, pledget; bandage &c. (support) 215.

treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis medicatrix, vis medicatrix naturae[Lat]; medecine expectante[Fr]; bloodletting, bleeding, venesection[Med], phlebotomy, cupping, sanguisae, leeches; operation, surgical operation; transfusion, infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter, feeding tube;

prevention, preventative medicine, immunization, inoculation, vaccination, vaccine, shot, booster, gamma globulin.

pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary; acology, Materia Medica[Lat], therapeutics, posology; homeopathy, allopathy, heteropathy[Med], osteopathy, hydropathy[Med]; cold water cure; dietetics; surgery, chirurgery[Med], chirurgy; healing art, leechcraft;

orthopedics, orthopedy, orthopraxy; pediatrics; dentistry, midwifery, obstetrics, gynecology; tocology; sarcology.

hospital, infirmary; pesthouse, lazarhouse; lazaretto; lock hospital; maison de sante[Fr]; ambulance.

dispensary; dispensatory, drug store, pharmacy, apothecary, druggist, chemist.

Hotel des Invalides; sanatorium, spa, pump room, well; hospice; Red Cross.

doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general practitioner, specialist ; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist; leech; osteopath, osteopathist; optometrist, ophthalmologist; internist, oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist[Med], public health specialist; dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor, shaman, faith healer, quack, exorcist; Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Galen; accoucheur[Fr], accoucheuse[Fr], midwife, oculist, aurist; operator; nurse, registered nurse, practical nurse, monthly nurse, sister; nurse's aide, candystriper; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist, pharmacist, druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist.

V. apply a remedy &c. n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to, attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c. 706; relieve &c. 834; palliate &c. 658; restore &c. 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup, let blood; manicure.

operate, excise, cut out; incise.

Adj. remedial; restorative &c. 660; corrective, palliative, healing; sanatory, sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing; salutiferous &c. (salutary) 656; medical, medicinal; therapeutic, chirurgical[Med], epulotic|, paregoric, tonic, corroborant, analeptic, balsamic, anodyne, hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative, lenitive, demulcent|, emollient; depuratory; detersive, detergent; abstersive, disinfectant, febrifugal, alterative; traumatic, vulnerary.

allopathic, heteropathic, homeopathic, hydropathic[Med]; anthelmintic[Med]; antifebrile[Med], antiluetic; aperient, chalybeate, deobstruent, depurative, laxative, roborant.

dietetic, alimentary; nutritious, nutritive; peptic; alexipharmic, alexiteric; remediable, curable.

phr. aux grands maux les grands remedes[Fr]; Dios que da la llaga da la medicina[Sp]; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte[Sp]; temporis ars medicina fere est [Lat][Ovid]; " the remedy is worse than the disease " [Dryden]; " throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it " [Macbeth].

663. Bane[edit]

N. bane, curse; evil &c. 619; hurtfulness &c. (badness) 649; painfulness &c. (cause of pain) 830; scourge &c. (punishment) 975; damnosa hereditas[Lat]; white elephant.

sting, fang, thorn, tang, bramble, brier, nettle.

poison, toxin; teratogen; leaven, virus venom; arsenic; antimony, tartar emetic; strychnine, nicotine; miasma, miasm, mephitis, malaria, azote, sewer gas; pest.

[poisonous substances, examples] Albany hemp, arsenious oxide, arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury; carbonic acid, carbonic gas; choke damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp; hydrocyanic acid, cyanide, Prussic acid[ISA:chemsubcfp], hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux vomica[Lat], ratsbane.

[poisonous plants] hemlock, hellebore, nightshade, belladonna, henbane, aconite; banewort, bhang, ganja, hashish; Upas tree.

[list of poisonous substances(on-line)] Toxline.

rust, worm, helminth[Med], moth, moth and rust, fungus, mildew; dry rot; canker, cankerworm; cancer; torpedo; viper &c. (evil doer) 913; demon &c. 980.

[Science of poisons] toxicology.

Adj. baneful &c. (bad) 649; poisonous &c. (unwholesome) 657.

phr. bibere venenum in auro[Lat].

Contingent Subservience[edit]

664. Safety[edit]

N. safety, security, surety, impregnability; invulnerability, invulnerableness &c. Adj.; danger past, danger over; storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c. 671; means of escape; blow valve, safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard, palladium.

guardianship, wardship, wardenship; tutelage, custody, safekeeping; preservation &c. 670; protection, auspices.

safe-conduct, escort, convoy; guard, shield &c. (defense) 717; guardian angel; tutelary god, tutelary deity, tutelary saint; genius loci.

protector, guardian; warden, warder; preserver, custodian, duenna[Sp], chaperon, third person.

watchdog, bandog; Cerberus; watchman, patrolman, policeman; cop, dick, fuzz, smokey, peeler|, zarp|[all slang]; sentinel, sentry, scout &c. (warning) 668; garrison; guardship.

[Means of safety] refuge &c. anchor &c. 666; precaution &c. (preparation) 673; quarantine, cordon sanitaire[Fr]. confidence &c. 858[Sense of security].

V. be safe &c. Adj.; keep one's head above water, tide over, save one's bacon; ride out the storm, weather the storm; light upon one's feet, land on one's feet; bear a charmed life; escape &c. 671.

make safe , render safe &c. Adj.; protect; take care of &c. (care) 459; preserve &c. 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward; guard &c. (defend) 717; secure &c. (restrain) 751; entrench, intrench, fence round &c. (circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge of.

escort, convoy; garrison; watch, mount guard, patrol.

make assurance doubly sure &c. (caution) 864; take up a loose thread; take precautions &c. (prepare for) 673; double reef topsails.

seek safety; take shelter, find shelter &c. 666.

Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side; under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger, out of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed, unscathed; on sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water; unthreatened, unmolested; protected &c. v.; cavendo tutus[Lat]; panoplied &c. (defended) 717.

snug, seaworthy; weatherproof, waterproof, fireproof.

defensible, tenable, proof against, invulnerable; unassailable, unattackable, impenetrable; impregnable, imperdible|; inexpugnable; Achillean.

safe and sound &c. (preserved) 670;scathless &c. (perfect) 650; unhazarded; not dangerous &c. 665.

unthreatening, harmless; friendly (cooperative) 709.

protecting, protective &c. v.; guardian, tutelary; preservative &c. 670; trustworthy &c 939.

adv. ex abundanti cautela[Lat]; with impunity.

phr. all's well; salva res est[Lat]; suave mari magno[Lat]; a couvert[Fr]; e terra alterius spectare laborem [Lat][Lucretius]; Dieu vous garde[Fr].

665. Danger[edit]

N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard, venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c. 149; defenselessness &c. Adj. exposure &c. (liability) 177; vulnerability; vulnerable point, heel of Achilles; forlorn hope &c. (hopelessness) 859.

[Dangerous course] leap in the dark &c. (rashness) 863; road to ruin, faciles descensus Averni [Lat][Vergil], hairbreadth escape.

cause for alarm; source of danger &c. 667. rock ahead[Approach of danger], breakers ahead; storm brewing; clouds in the horizon, clouds gathering; warning &c. 668; alarm &c. 669.

[Sense of danger] apprehension &c. 860.

V. be in danger &c. Adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur danger, encounter danger &c. n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c. (liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel the ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances against one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep trouble, be between a rock and a hard place.

hang by a thread, totter; sleep on a volcano, stand on a volcano; sit on a barrel of gunpowder, live in a glass house.

bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger , place in jeopardy, put in jeopardy &c. n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil; jeopard, jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c. (rash) 863.

adventure, risk, hazard, venture, stake, set at hazard; run the gauntlet &c. (dare) 861; engage in a forlorn hope.

threaten danger &c. 909; run one hard; lay a trap for &c. (deceive) 545.

Adj. in danger &c. n.; endangered &c. v.; fraught with danger; dangerous, hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous|; unsafe, unprotected &c. (safe, protect &c. 664);insecure, . untrustworthy; built upon.sand, on a sandy basis; wildcat.

defenseless, fenceless, guardless, harborless; unshielded; vulnerable, expugnable, exposed; open to &c. (liable) 177.

aux abois[Fr], at bay; on the wrong side of the wall, on a lee shore, on the rocks.

at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery, slippy; hanging by a thread &c. v.; with a halter round one's neck; between the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between a rock and a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea, between two fires; on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a precipice, on the verge of a precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in the lion's den, on slippery ground, under fire; not out of the wood.

unwarned, unadmonished, unadvised, unprepared &c. 674; off one's guard &c. (inexpectant) 508.

tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown, ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless; in a bad way; reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the balance; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162. threatening &c. 909; ominous, illomened; alarming &c. (fear) 860; explosive.

adventurous &c. (rash) 863, (bold) 861.

Phr. incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim[Lat]; nam tua res agitur paries dum proximus ardet[Lat].

666. Refuge[edit]

[Means of safety.]

N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat, fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c. 752; asylum, ark, home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse; hiding place &c. (ambush) 530; sanctum sanctorum &c. (privacy) 893[Lat].

roadstead, anchorage; breakwater, mole, port, haven; harbor, harbor of refuge; seaport; pier, jetty, embankment, quay.

covert, cover, shelter, screen, lee wall, wing, shield, umbrella; barrier; dashboard, dasher [U.S.].

wall &c. (inclosure) 232; fort &c. (defense) 717.

anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick; mainstay; support &c. 215; cheek &c. 706; ballast. jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp; lightning rod, lightning conductor; safety belt, airbag, seat belt; antilock brakes, antiskid tires, snow tires.

means of escape &c. (escape) 671 lifeboat, lifejacket, life buoy, swimming belt, cork jacket; parachute, plank, steppingstone; emergency landing.

safeguard &c. (protection) 664.

V. seek refuge, take refuge, find refuge &c. n.; seek safety, find safety &c. 664; throw oneself into the arms of; break for taller timber [U. S.].

create a diversion.

Phr. any port in a storm; bibere venenum in auro[Lat]; valet anchora virtus.

667. Pitfall[edit]

[Source of danger.]

N. rocks, reefs, coral reef, sunken rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt|, syrtis|; Goodwin sands, sandy foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf, flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead.

precipice; maelstrom, volcano; ambush &c. 530; pitfall, trapdoor; trap &c. (snare) 545.

sword of Damocles; wolf at the door, snake in the grass, death in the pot; latency &c. 526.

ugly customer, dangerous person, le chat qui dort[Fr]; firebrand, hornet's nest.

Phr. latet anquis in herba [Lat][Vergil]; proximus ardet Ucalegon [Lat][Vergil].

668. Warning[edit]

N. warning, early warning, caution, caveat; notice &c. (information) 527; premonition, premonishment; prediction &c. 511; contraindication, lesson, dehortation; admonition, monition; alarm &c. 669.

handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag, yellow flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice, Cassandra, signs of the times, Mother Cary's chickens, stormy petrel, bird of ill omen, gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch.

watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c. (indication of locality) 550. sentinel, sentry,; watch, watchman; watch and ward; watchdog, bandog, housedog; patrol, patrolman, vedette, picket, bivouac, scout, spy, spial|; undercover agent, mole, plainclothesman; advanced guard, rear guard; lookout.

cautiousness &c. 864.

monitor, guard camera,

radar, AWACS, spy satellite, spy-in-the-sky, U2 plane, spy plane.

V. warn, caution; forewarn, prewarn; admonish, premonish; give notice, give warning, dehort; menace &c. (threaten) 909; put on one's guard; sound the alarm &c. 669; croak.

beware, ware; take warning, take heed at one's peril; keep watch and ward &c. (care) 459.

Adj. warning &c. v.; premonitory, monitory, cautionary; admonitory, admonitive; sematic[Biol].

warned, forewarned &c. v.; on one's guard &c. (careful) 459, (cautious) 864.

Adv. in terrorem[Lat] &c. (threat) 909.

Int. beware! ware! take care! look out! fore![golf], mind what you are about!, take care what you are about! mind!

Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort [French: don't wake a sleeping cat]; foenum habet in cornu[Lat]; caveat actor; le silence du people est la legon des rois[Fr]; verbum sat sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; un averti en vaut deux[Fr].

669. Alarm[edit]

[Indication of danger.] 

N. alarm; alarum, larum, alarm bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm, hue and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war- whoop; warning &c. 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal; red light, red flag; fire bell; police whistle.

false alarm, cry of wolf; bug-bear, bugaboo.

V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the alarm, beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn in an alarm, beat an alarm &c. n.; alarm; warn &c. 668; ring the tocsin; battre la generale[Fr]; cry wolf.

Adj. alarming &c. v.

Int. sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every man for himself]; qui vive? [Fr].

670. Preservation[edit]

N. preservation; safe-keeping; conservation &c. (storage) 636; maintenance, support, susteritation, conservatism; vis conservatrix; salvation &c. (deliverance) 672.

[Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative, additive; antibiotics, antifungals[Med], biocide; hygiastics, hygiantics; cover, drugget; cordon sanitaire[Fr]; canning; ensilage; tinned goods, canned goods.

[Superstitious remedies] snake oil, spider webs, cure-all; laetrile; charm &c. 993.

V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep alive; refrigerate, keep on ice;not willingly let die; bank up; nurse; save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c. 664; take care of &c. (care) 459; guard &c. (defend) 717.

stare super antiquas vias [Lat][Bacon]; hold one's own; hold one's ground, stand one's ground &c. (resist) 719.

embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize|, bottle, pot, tin, can; sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize[Chem], freeze-dry, concentrate, evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband &c. (store) 636.

Adj. preserving &c. v.; conservative; prophylactic; preservatory, preservative; hygienic.

preserved &c. v.; unimpaired, unbroken, uninjured, unhurt, unsinged, unmarred; safe, safe and sound; intact, with a whole skin.

Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat].

671. Escape[edit]

N.escape, scape; avolation|, elopement, flight; evasion &c. (avoidance) 623; retreat; narrow escape, hairbreadth escape; close call; come off, impunity.

[Means of escape] loophole &c. (opening) 260; path &c. 627; refuse &c. 666; vent, vent peg; safety valve; drawbridge, fire escape.

reprieve &c. (deliverance) 672; liberation &c. 750. refugee &c. (fugitive) 623.

V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of; echapper belle[Fr], save one's bacon, save one's skin; weather the storm &c. (safe) 664; escape scot-free.

elude &c., make off &c. (avoid) 623;. march off &c. (go away) 293; give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers; slip the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break loose from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a hole to creep out of.

disappear, vanish.

Adj..escaping, escaped &c. v. stolen away, fled.

Phr. the bird has flown the coop.

672. Deliverance[edit]

N. deliverance, extrication, rescue; reprieve, reprieval; respite; liberation &c. 750; emancipation; redemption, salvation; riddance; gaol delivery; redeemableness.

V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring off,bring through; tirer d'affaire[Fr], get the wheel out of the rut, snatch from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve &c. (restore) 660; be rid of, get rid of.

Adj. saved &c. v. extricable, redeemable, rescuable.

Int. to the rescue!

3. Precursory Measures[edit]

673. Preparation[edit]

N. preparation; providing &c. v.; provision, providence; anticipation &c. (foresight) 510; precaution, preconcertation, predisposition; forecast &c. (plan) 626; rehearsal, note of preparation.

[Putting in order] arrangement &c. 60; clearance; adjustment &c. 23; tuning; equipment, outfit, accouterment, armament, array.

ripening &c. v.; maturation, evolution; elaboration, concoction, digestion; gestation, batching, incubation, sitting.

groundwork, first stone, cradle, stepping-stone; foundation, scaffold &c. (support) 215; scaffolding, echafaudage[Fr].

[Preparation of men] training &c. (education) 537; inurement &c. (habit) 613; novitiate; cooking[ Preparation of food], cookery; brewing, culinary art; tilling[ Preparation of the soil], plowing, sowing; semination, cultivation.

[State of being prepared] preparedness, readiness, ripeness, mellowness; maturity; un impromptu fait a loisir[Fr].

[Preparer] preparer, trainer; pioneer, trailblazer; avant- courrier[Fr], avant-coureur[Fr]; voortrekker[Afrikaans]; sappers and miners, pavior, navvy; packer, stevedore; warming pan.

V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation. set in order, put in order &c. (arrange) 60; forecast &c. (plan) 626 prepare the ground, plow the ground, dress the ground; till the soil, cultivate the soil; predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a mine; lay the groundwork, fix the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the basis, lay the foundations, fix the foundations; dig the foundations, erect the scaffolding; lay the first stone &c. (begin) 66.

roughhew; cut out work; block out, hammer out; lick into shape &c. (form) 240.

elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity; nurture &c. (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt; barbecue; infumate|; maturate. equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress, garnish, betrim, accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish up, brush up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils, set, prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up; adjust &c. (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in working order, put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack.

train &c. (teach) 537; inure &c. (habituate) 613; breed; prepare &c. for; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the door to &c. (facilitate) 705.

set one's house in order, make all snug; clear the decks, clear for action; close one's ranks; shuffle the cards.

prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c. (learn) 539; lay oneself out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's armor, reculer pour mieux sauter[Fr], prime and load, shoulder arms, get the steam up, put the horses to.

guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for the evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day, feather one's nest; lay in provisions &c. 637; make investments; keep on foot.

be prepared, be ready &c. Adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep one's powder dry; lie in wait for &c. (expect) 507; anticipate &c. (foresee) 510; principiis obstare[Lat]; veniente occurrere morbo[Lat].

Adj. preparing &c. v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c. (plan) 626; brewing, batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve.

precautionary, provident; preparative, preparatory; provisional, inchoate, under revision; preliminary &c. (precedent) 62.

prepared &c. v.; in readiness; ready, ready to one's band, ready made, ready cut and dried: made to one's hand, handy, on the table; in gear; in working order,in working gear; snug; in practice.

ripe, mature, mellow; pukka; practiced &c. (skilled) 698; labored, elaborate, highly-wrought, smelling of the lamp, worked up.

in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness; in the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms; armed at all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in hand; booted and spurred.

in utrumque paratus[Lat], semper paratus[Lat]; on the alert &c. (vigilant) 459; at one's post.

Adv. in preparation, in anticipation of; against, for; abroach.

Phr. a bove majori discit arare minor[Lat]; "looking before and after " [Hamlet], si vis pacem para bellum[Lat].

674. Nonpreparation[edit]

N. non-preparation, absence of preparation, want of preparation; inculture|, inconcoction|, improvidence.

immaturity, crudity; rawness &c. Adj.; abortion; disqualification.

[Absence of art] nature, state of nature; virgin soil, unweeded garden; neglect &c. 460.

rough copy &c. (plan) 626; germ &c. 153; raw material &c. 635.

improvisation &c. (impulse) 612.

V. be unprepared &c. Adj.; want preparation, lack preparation; lie fallow; s'embarquer sans biscuits[Fr]; live from hand to mouth.

[Render unprepared] dismantle &c. (render useless) 645; undress &c. 226. extemporize, improvise, ad lib.

Adj. unprepared &c. [prepare &c. 673]; without preparation &c. 673; incomplete &c. 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe, kachcha, raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the rough; unhewn, unformed, unfashioned, unwrought, unlabored, unblown, uncooked, unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished.

unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured, unlicked, untaught, uneducated, uncultivated,. untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised; deckle-edged; precocious, premature; undigested, indigested; unmellowed, unseasoned, unleavened.

unrehearsed, unscripted, extemporaneous, improvised, spontaneous, ad lib, ad libitem [Latin].

fallow; unsown, untilled; natural, in a state of nature; undressed; in dishabille, en deshabille[Fr].

unqualified, disqualified; unfitted; ill-digested; unbegun, unready, unarranged, unorganized, unfurnished, unprovided, unequipped, untrimmed; out of gear, out of order; dismantled &c. v.

shiftless, improvident, unthrifty, thriftless, thoughtless, unguarded; happy-go-lucky; caught napping &c. (inexpectant) 508; unpremeditated &c. 612.

Adv. extempore &c. 612.

675. Essay[edit]

N. essay, trial, endeavor, attempt; aim, struggle, venture, adventure, speculation, coup d'essai[Fr], debut; probation &c. (experiment) 463.

V. try, essay; experiment &c. 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt, make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance, tempt fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use one's endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way.

try hard, push, make a bold push, use one's best endeavor; do one's best &c. (exertion) 686.

Adj. essaying &c. v.; experimental &c. 463; tentative, empirical, probationary.

Adv. experimentally &c. Adj.; on trial, at a venture; by rule of thumb. if one may be so bold.

Phr. aut non tentaris aut perfice [Lat][Ovid]; chi non s'arrischia non guadagna[Fr].

676. Undertaking[edit]

N. undertaking; compact &c. 769; adventure, venture; engagement &c. (promise) 768; enterprise, emprise; pilgrimage; matter in hand &c. (business ) 625; move; first move &c. (beginning) 66.

V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into; volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c. (promise) 768; contract &c. 769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c. (determination) 604.

take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall to, set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in execution; set forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put one's hand to, put one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to, go to do; begin &c. 66; broach, institute &c. one's (originate) 153; put one's hand to the plow, lay one's hand to the plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel.

have in hand &c. (business) 625; have many irons in the fire &c. (activity) 682.

Adj. undertaking &c. v.; on the anvil &c. 625.

Int. here goes!

677. Use[edit]

N. use; employ, employment; exercise, exercitation; application, appliance; adhibition, disposal; consumption; agency &c. (physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c. 644; benefit; recourse, resort, avail.

[Conversion to use] utilization, service, wear.

[Way of using] usage.

V. use,.make use of, employ, put to use; put in action, put in operation, put in practice; set in motion, set to work.

ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert, exercise, practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have recourse to, recur to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take advantage of; lay one's hands on, try.

render useful &c. 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert to use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into the service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply, adhibit, dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of.

fall back upon, make a shift with; make the most of, make the best of.

use up, swallow up; consume, absorb, expend; tax, task, wear, put to task.

Adj. in use; used &c. v.; well-worn, well-trodden.

useful &c. 644; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.

678. Disuse[edit]

N. forbearance, abstinence; disuse; relinquishment &c. 782; desuetude &c. (want of habit) 614; disusage.

V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear, abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve. lay up, lay by, lay on the shelf, keep on the shelf,lay up in ordinary; lay up in a napkin; shelve; set aside, put aside, lay aside; disuse, leave off, have done with; supersede; discard &c. (eject) 297; dismiss, give warning.

throw aside &c. (relinquish) 782; make away with &c. (destroy) 162; cast overboard , heave overboard , throw overboard; cast to the dogs, cast to the winds; dismantle &c. (Render useless) 645.

lie unemployed , remain unemployed &c. Adj.

Adj. not used &c. v.; unemployed, unapplied, undisposed of, unspent, unexercised, untouched, untrodden, unessayed, ungathered, unculled; uncalled for, not required.

disused &c. v.; done with.

679. Misuse[edit]

N. misuse, misusage, misemployment, misapplication, misappropriation.

abuse, profanation, prostitution, desecration; waste &c. 638.

V. misuse, misemploy, misapply, misappropriate.

desecrate, abuse, profane, prostitute: waste &c. 638; overtask, overtax, overwork: squander &c. 818.

cut blocks with a razor, employ a steam engine to crack a nut; catch at a straw.

Adj. misused &c. v.

Phr. ludere cum sacris[Lat].

Section III. Voluntary Action[edit]

1. Simple Voluntary Action[edit]

680. Action[edit]

N. action, performance; doing, &c. v.; perpetration; exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c. (exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c. (conduct) 692; handicraft; business &c. 625; agency &c. (power at work) 170.

deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction, job, doings, dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage, move, stroke, blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat[Fr]; tour de force &c. (display) 882; feat, exploit; achievement &c. (completion) 729; handiwork, workmanship; manufacture; stroke of policy &c. (plan) 626.

actor &c. (doer) 690.

V. do, perform, execute; achieve &c. (complete) 729; transact, enact; commit, perpetrate, inflict; exercise, prosecute, carry on, work, practice, play.

employ oneself, ply one's task; officiate, have in hand &c. (business) 625; labor &c. 686; be at work; pursue a course; shape one's course &c. (conduct) 692.

act, operate; take action, take steps; strike a blow, lift a finger, stretch forth one's hand; take in hand &c. (undertake) 676; put oneself in motion; put in practice; carry into execution &c. (complete) 729; act upon.

be an actor &c. 690; take a part in, act a part in, play a part in, perform a part in; participate in; have a hand in, have a finger in the pie; have to do with; be a party to, be a participator in; bear a hand, lend a hand; pull an oar, run in a race; mix oneself up with &c. (meddle) 682.

be in action; come into operation &c. (power at work) 170.

Adj. doing &c. v.; acting; in action; in harness; on duty; in operation &c. 170.

Adv. in the act, in the midst of, in the thick of; red-handed, in flagrante delicto[Lat]; while one's hand is in.

Phr. "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; actions speak louder than words; actum aiunt ne agas [Lat][Terence]; "awake, arise, or be forever fall'n" [Paradise Lost]; dii pia facta vident [Lat][Ovid]; faire sans dire[Fr]; fare fac[It]; fronte capillata post est occasio calva[Lat]; " our deeds are sometimes better than our thoughts" [Bailey]; "the great end of life is not knowledge but action " [Huxley]; "thought is the soul of act" [R. Browning]; vivre-ce nest pas respirer c'est agir[Fr]; "we live in deeds not years" [Bailey].

681. Inaction[edit]

N. inaction, passiveness, abstinence from action; noninterference, nonintervention; Fabian policy, conservative policy; neglect &c. 460.

inactivity &c. 683; rest &c. (repose) 687; quiescence &c. 265; want of occupation, inoccupation; idle hours, time hanging on one's hands, dolce far niente[It]; sinecure, featherbed, featherbedding, cushy job, no- show job; soft snap, soft thing.

V. not do, not act, not attempt; be inactive &c. 683; abstain from doing, do nothing, hold, spare; not stir, not move, not lift a finger, not lift a foot, not lift a peg; fold one's arms, fold one's hands; leave alone, let alone; let be, let pass, let things take their course, let it have its way, let well alone, let well enough alone; quieta non movere[Lat]; stare super antiquas vias[Lat]; rest and be thankful, live and let live; lie rest upon one's oars; laisser aller[Fr], faire[Fr]; stand aloof; refrain &c. (avoid) 623 keep oneself from doing; remit one's efforts, relax one's efforts; desist &c. (relinquish) 624; stop &c. (cease) 142; pause &c. (be quiet) 265.

wait, lie in wait, bide one's time, take time, tide it over.

cool one's heels, kick one's heels; while away the time, while away tedious hours; pass the time, fill up the time, beguile the time; talk against time; let the grass grow under one's feet; waste time &c. (inactive) 683.

lie by, lie on the shelf, lie in ordinary, lie idle, lie to, lie fallow; keep quiet, slug; have nothing to do, whistle for want of thought.

undo, do away with; take down, take to pieces; destroy &c. 162.

Adj. not doing &c. v.; not done &c. v.; undone; passive; unoccupied, unemployed; out of employ, out of work; fallow; desaeuvre[Fr].

Adv. re infecta[Lat], at a stand, les bras croisis[Fr], with folded arms; with the hands in the pockets, with the hands behind one's back; pour passer le temps[Fr].

Int. so let it be! stop! &c. 142; hands off!

Phr. cunctando restituit rem "If it ain't broke don't fix it" [Lat][Bert Lance]; stare decisis [Latin: (Law) let the decision stand];.

682. Activity[edit]

N. activity; briskness, liveliness &c. adj.; animation, life, vivacity, spirit, dash, energy; snap, vim.

nimbleness, agility; smartness, quickness &c. adj.; velocity, &c. 274; alacrity, promptitude; despatch, dispatch; expedition; haste &c. 684; punctuality &c. (early) 132.

eagerness, zeal, ardor, perfervidum aingenium[Lat], empressement[Fr], earnestness, intentness; abandon; vigor &c. (physical energy) 171; devotion &c. (resolution) 604; exertion &c. 686.

industry, assiduity; assiduousness &c. adj.; sedulity; laboriousness; drudgery &c. (labor) 686; painstaking, diligence; perseverance &c. 604a; indefatigation|; habits of business.

vigilance &c. 459; wakefulness; sleeplessness, restlessness; insomnia; pervigilium, insomnium; racketing.

movement, bustle, stir, fuss, ado, bother, pottering, fidget, fidgetiness; flurry &c. (haste) 684.

officiousness; dabbling, meddling; interference, interposition, intermeddling; tampering with, intrigue.

press of business, no sinecure, plenty to do, many irons in the fire, great doings, busy hum of men, battle of life, thick of the action.

housewife, busy bee; new brooms; sharp fellow, sharp blade; devotee, enthusiast, zealot, meddler, intermeddler, intriguer, busybody, pickthank; hummer, hustler, live man [U.S.], rustler * [U. S.].

V. be active &c. adj.; busy oneself in; stir, stir about, stir one's stumps; bestir oneself, rouse oneself; speed, hasten, peg away, lay about one, bustle, fuss; raise up, kick up a dust; push; make a push, make a fuss, make a stir; go ahead, push forward; fight one's way, elbow one's way; make progress &c. 282; toll &c. (labor) 686; plod, persist &c. (persevere) 604a; keep up the ball, keep the pot boiling.

look sharp; have all one's eyes about one &c. (vigilance) 459; rise, arouse oneself, hustle, get up early, be about, keep moving, steal a march, kill two birds with one stone; seize the opportunity &c. 134 lose no time, not lose a moment, make the most of one's time, not suffer the grass to grow under one's feet, improve the shining hour, make short work of; dash off; make haste &c. 684; do one's best take pains &c. (exert oneself) 686; do wonders, work wonders.

have many irons in the fire, have one's hands full, have much on one's hands; have other things to do, have other fish to fry; be busy; not have a moment to spare, not have a moment that one can call one's own.

have one's fling, run the round of; go all lengths, stick at nothing, run riot.

outdo; overdo, overact, overlay, overshoot the mark; make a toil of a pleasure.

have a hand in &c. (act in) 680; take an active part, put in one's oar, have a finger in the pie, mix oneself up with, trouble, one's head about, intrigue; agitate.

tamper with, meddle, moil; intermeddle, interfere, interpose; obtrude; poke one's nose in, thrust one's nose in.

Adj. active, brisk, brisk as a lark, brisk as a bee; lively, animated, vivacious; alive, alive and kicking; frisky, spirited, stirring.

nimble, nimble as a squirrel; agile; light-footed, nimble-footed; featly, tripping.

quick, prompt, yare, instant, ready, alert, spry, sharp, smart; fast &c. (swift) 274; quick as a lamplighter, expeditious; awake, broad awake; go-ahead, live wide-awake &c. (intelligent) 498[U.S.].

forward, eager, strenuous, zealous, enterprising, in earnest; resolute &c. 604.

industrious, assiduous, diligent, sedulous, notable, painstaking; intent &c. (attention) 457; indefatigable &c. (persevering) 604a; unwearied; unsleeping, never tired; plodding, hard-working &c. 686; businesslike, workaday.

bustling; restless, restless as a hyena; fussy, fidgety, pottering; busy, busy as hen with one chicken.

working, at work, on duty, in harness; up in arms; on one's legs, at call; up and doing, up and stirring.

busy, occupied; hard at work, hard at it; up to one's ears in, full of business, busy as a bee, busy as a one-armed paperhanger.

meddling &c. v.; meddlesome, pushing, officious, overofficious, intrigant.

astir, stirring; agoing, afoot; on foot; in full swing; eventful; on the alert, &c. (vigilant) 459.

Adv. actively &c. adj.; with life and spirit, with might and main &c. 686,with haste &c. 684, with wings; full tilt, in mediis rebus[Lat].

Int. be alive, look alive, look sharp! move on, push on! keep moving! go ahead! stir your stumps! age quod agis[Lat]! jaldi! karo! step lively!

Phr. carpe diem &c. (opportunity) 134[Latin: seize the day]; nulla dies sine linea [Latin][Pliny]; nec mora nec requies [Latin][Vergil]; the plot thickens; No sooner said than done &c. (early) 132; "veni vidi vici" [Lat][Suetonius]; catch a weasel asleep; abends wird der Faule fleissig [German]; dictum ac factum [Lat][Terence]; schwere Arbeit in der Jugend ist sanfte Ruhe im Alter[German: hard work in youth means soft rest in age]; "the busy hum of men " [Milton].

683. Inactivity[edit]

N. inactivity; inaction &c. 681; inertness &c. 172; obstinacy &c. 606. lull &c. (cessation) 142; quiescence &c. 265; rust, rustiness.

idleness, remissness &c. adj.; sloth, indolence, indiligence; dawdling &c. v. ergophobia, otiosity.

dullness &c. adj.; languor; segnity|, segnitude|; lentor; sluggishness &c. (slowness) 275; procrastination &c. (delay) 133; torpor, torpidity, torpescence; stupor &c. (insensibility) 823; somnolence; drowsiness &c. adj.; nodding &c. v.; oscitation, oscitancy; pandiculation, hypnotism, lethargy; statuvolence heaviness, heavy eyelids.

sleep, slumber; sound sleep, heavy sleep, balmy sleep; Morpheus; Somnus; coma, trance, ecstasis, dream, hibernation, nap, doze, snooze, siesta, wink of sleep, forty winks, snore; hypnology.

dull work; pottering; relaxation &c. (loosening) 47; Castle of Indolence.

[Cause of inactivity] lullaby, sedative, tranquilizer, hypnotic, sleeping pill, relaxant, anaesthetic, general anaesthetic &c. 174; torpedo.

[person who is inactive] idler, drone, droil, dawdle, mopus; do-little faineant[Fr], dummy, sleeping partner; afternoon farmer; truant &c. (runaway) 623: bummer|!, loafer, goldbrick, goldbicker, lounger, lazzarone[It]; lubber, lubbard; slow coach &c. (slow.) 275; opium eater, lotus eater; slug; lag|!, sluggard, slugabed; slumberer, dormouse, marmot; waiter on Providence, fruges consumere natus[Lat].

V. be inactive &c. adj.; do nothing &c. 681; move slowly &c. 275; let the grass grow under one's feet; take one's time, dawdle, drawl, droil, lag, hang back, slouch; loll, lollop; lounge, poke, loaf, loiter; go to sleep over; sleep at one's post, ne battre que d'une aile[Fr].

take it easy, take things as they come; lead an easy life, vegetate, swim with the stream, eat the bread of idleness; loll in the lap of luxury, loll in the lap of indolence; waste time, consume time, kill time, lose time; burn daylight, waste the precious hours.

idle away time, trifle away time, fritter away time, fool away time; spend time in, take time in; peddle, piddle; potter, pudder, dabble, faddle fribble, fiddle-faddle; dally, dilly-dally.

sleep, slumber, be asleep; hibernate; oversleep; sleep like a top, sleep like a log, sleep like a dormouse; sleep soundly, heavily; doze, drowze, snooze, nap; take a nap &c. n.; dream; snore one's best; settle to sleep, go to sleep, go off to sleep; doze off, drop off; fall asleep; drop asleep; close the eyes, seal up the eyes, seal up eyelids; weigh down the eyelids; get sleep, nod, yawn; go to bed, turn; get some z's, stack z's [coll.].

languish, expend itself, flag, hang fire; relax.

render idle &c. adj.; sluggardize; mitigate &c. 174.

Adj. inactive; motionless &c. 265; unoccupied &c. (doing nothing) 681 unbusied.

indolent, lazy, slothful, idle, lusk, remiss, slack, inert, torpid, sluggish, otiose, languid, supine, heavy, dull, leaden, lumpish; exanimate, soulless; listless; drony, dronish; lazy as Ludlam's dog.

dilatory, laggard; lagging &c. v.; slow &c. 275; rusty, flagging; lackadaisical, maudlin, fiddle-faddle; pottering &c. v.;shilly-shally &c. (irresolute) 605.

sleeping, &c. v.; asleep; fast asleep, dead asleep, sound asleep; in a sound sleep; sound as a top, dormant, comatose; in the arms of Morpheus, in the lap of Morpheus.

sleepy, sleepful; dozy, drowsy, somnolent, torpescent, lethargic, lethargical; somnifacient; statuvolent, statuvolic; heavy, heavy with sleep; napping; somnific, somniferous; soporous, soporific, soporiferous; hypnotic; balmy, dreamy; unawakened, unawakened.

sedative &c. 174.

Adv. inactively &c. adj.; at leisure &c. 685.

Phr. the eyes begin to draw straws; "bankrupt of life yet prodigal of ease" [Dryden]; " better 50 years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay" [Tennyson]; "idly busy rolls their world away " [Goldsmith]; "the mystery of folded sleep" [Tennyson]; "the timely dew of sleep" [Milton]; "thou driftest gently down the tides of sleep" [Longfellow]; "tired Nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep" [Young].

684. Haste[edit]

N. haste, urgency,; despatch, dispatch; acceleration, spurt, spirt, forced march, rush, dash; speed, velocity &c. 274; precipitancy, precipitation, precipitousness &c. adj.; impetuosity; brusquerie; hurry, drive, scramble, bustle, fuss, fidget, flurry, flutter, splutter.

V. haste, hasten; make haste, make a dash &c. n.; hurry on, dash on, whip on, push on, press on, press forward; hurry, skurry, scuttle along, barrel along, bundle on, dart to and fro, bustle, flutter, scramble; plunge, plunge headlong; dash off; rush &c. (violence) 173; express.

bestir oneself &c. (be active) 682; lose no time, lose not a moment, lose not an instant; make short work of; make the best of one's time, make the best of one's way.

be precipitate &c. adj.; jump at, be in haste, be in a hurry &c. n.; have no time, have not a moment to lose, have not a moment to spare; work against time.

quicken &c. 274; accelerate, expedite, put on, precipitate, urge, whip; railroad.

Adj. hasty, hurried, brusque; scrambling, cursory, precipitate, headlong, furious, boisterous, impetuous, hotheaded; feverish, fussy; pushing.

in haste, in a hurry &c. n.; in hot haste, in all haste; breathless, pressed for time, hard pressed, urgent.

Adv. with haste, with all haste, with breathless speed; in haste &c. adj.; apace &c. (swiftly) 274; amain; all at once &c. (instantaneously) 113; at short notice &c., immediately &c. (early) 132; posthaste; by cable, by express, by telegraph, by forced marches.

hastily, precipitately &c. adj.; helter-skelter, hurry-skurry, holus-bolus; slapdash, slap-bang; full-tilt, full drive; heels over head, head and shoulders, headlong, a corps perdu[Fr].

by fits and starts, by spurts; hop skip and jump.

Phr. sauve qui peut[French: every man for himself][panic], devil take the hindmost, no time to be lost; no sooner said than done &c. (early) 132; a word and a blow; haste makes waste, maggiore fretta minore atto [Italian]; ohne Hast aber ohne Rast [German][Goethe's motto]; "stand not upon the order of your going but go at once" [Macbeth]; "swift, swift, you dragons of the night" [Cymbeline].

685. Leisure[edit]

N. leisure; convenience; spare time, spare hours, spare moments; vacant hour; time, time to spare, time on one's hands; holiday, relaxation &c. (rest) 687; otium cum dignitate [Lat][Cic.], ease.

no hurry; no big rush; no deadline.

V. have leisure &c. n.; take one's time, take one's leisure, take one's ease; repose &c. 687; move slowly &c. 275; while away the time &c. (inaction) 681; be master of one's time, be an idle man.

Adj. leisure, leisurely; slow &c. 275; deliberate, quiet, calm, undisturbed; at leisure, at one's ease, at loose ends, at a loose end.

Adv. unhurriedly, deliberately, without undue haste; anytime.

Phr. time hanging heavy on one's hands; eile mit Weile[Ger].

686. Exertion[edit]

N. exertion, effort, strain, tug, pull, stress, throw, stretch, struggle, spell, spurt, spirt; stroke of work, stitch of work.

"a strong pull a long pull and a pull all together"; dead lift; heft; gymnastics; exercise, exercitation; wear and tear; ado; toil and trouble; uphill work, hard work, warm work; harvest time.

labor, work, toil, travail, manual labor, sweat of one's brow, swink, drudgery, slavery, fagging, hammering; limae labor[Lat]; industry, industriousness, operoseness, operosity.

trouble, pains, duty; resolution &c. 604; energy &c. (physical) 171.

V. exert oneself; exert one's energies, tax one's energies; use exertion.

labor, work, toil, moil, sweat, fag, drudge, slave, drag a lengthened chain, wade through, strive, stretch a long arm; pull, tug, ply; ply the oar, tug at the oar; do the work; take the laboring oar

bestir oneself (be active) 682; take trouble, trouble oneself.

work hard; rough it; put forth one's strength, put forth a strong arm; fall to work, bend the bow; buckle to, set one's shoulder to the wheel &c. (resolution) 604; work like a horse, work like a cart horse, work like a galley slave, work like a coal heaver; labor day and night, work day and night; redouble one's efforts; do double duty; work double hours, work double tides; sit up, burn the candle at both ends; stick to &c. (persevere) 604a; work one's way, fight one's way,; lay about one, hammer at.

take pains; do one's best, do one's level best, do one's utmost; give one hundred percent, do the best one can, do all one can, do all in one's power, do as much as in one lies, do what lies in one's power; use one's best endeavor, use one's utmost endeavor; try one's best, try one's utmost; play one's best card; put one's best leg foremost, put one's right leg foremost; have one's whole soul in his work, put all one's strength into, strain every nerve; spare no efforts, spare no pains; go all lengths; go through fire and water &c. (resolution) 604; move heaven and earth, leave no stone unturned.

Adj. laboring &c. v.

laborious, operose, elaborate; strained; toilsome, troublesome, wearisome; uphill; herculean, gymnastic, palestric.

hard-working, painstaking; strenuous, energetic.

hard at work, on the stretch.

Adv. laboriously &c. adj.; lustily; pugnis et calcibus[Lat]; with might and main, with all one's might, with a strong hand, with a sledge hammer, with much ado; to the best of one's abilities, totis viribus[Lat], vi et armis[Lat], manibus pedibusque[Lat], tooth and nail, unguibus et rostro[Lat], hammer and tongs, heart and soul; through thick and thin &c. (perseverance) 604a.

by the sweat of one's brow, suo Marte.

Phr. aide-toi le ciel t'aidera[Fr];" and still be doing, never done" [Butler]; buen principio la mitad es hecha [Sp]; cosa ben fatta e' fatta due volie [It];" it is better to wear out than to rust out" [Bp. Hornel]; labor omnia vincit "labor, wide as the earth, has its summit in Heaven" [Lat][Vergil][Carlyle]; le travail du corps delivre des peines de l'esprit [Fr][fr]; manu forti[Lat]; ora et labora[Lat].

687. Repose[edit]

N. repose, rest, silken repose; sleep &c. 683.

relaxation, breathing time; halt, stay, pause &c. (cessation) 142; respite.

day of rest, dies non, Sabbath, Lord's day, holiday, red-letter day, vacation, recess.

V. repose; rest, rest and be thankful; take a rest, take one's ease, take it easy.

relax, unbend, slacken; take breath &c. (refresh) 689; rest upon one's oars; pause &c. (cease) 142; stay one's hand.

lie down; recline, recline on a bed of down, recline on an easy chair; go to rest, go to bed, go to sleep &c. 683.

take a holiday, shut up shop; lie fallow &c. (inaction) 681.

Adj. reposing &c. v[of people].; relaxed &c. v.; unstrained.

[of materials and people] unstressed.

Adv. at rest.

Phr."the best of men have ever loved repose" [Thompson]; "to repair our nature with comforting repose" [Henry VIII].

688. Fatigue[edit]

N. fatigue; weariness &c. 841; yawning, drowsiness &c. 683; lassitude, tiredness, fatigation|, exhaustion; sweat; dyspnoea.

anhelation, shortness of breath; faintness; collapse, prostration, swoon, fainting, deliquium[Lat], syncope, lipothymy; goneness.

V. be fatigued &c. adj.; yawn &c. (get sleepy) 683; droop, sink, flag; lose breath, lose wind; gasp, pant, puff, blow, drop, swoon, faint, succumb.

fatigue, tire, weary, irk, flag, jade, harass, exhaust, knock up, wear out, prostrate.

tax, task, strain; overtask, overwork, overburden, overtax, overstrain.

Adj. fatigued, tired &c. v.; weary &c. 841; drowsy &c. 683; drooping &c. v.; haggard; toilworn, wayworn:, footsore, surbated|, weather- beaten; faint; done up, used up, knocked up; bushed * [U.S.]; exhausted, prostrate, spent; overtired, overspent, overfatigued; unrefreshed, unrestored.

worn, worn out; battered, shattered, pulled down, seedy, altered.

breathless, windless; short of breath, out of breath, short of wind; blown, puffing and blowing; short-breathed; anhelose; broken winded, short-winded; dyspnaeal, dyspnaeic.

ready to drop, all in, more dead than alive, dog-weary, walked off one's legs, tired to death, on one's last legs, played out, hors de combat[Fr].

fatiguing &c v.; tiresome, irksome, wearisome; weary, trying.

689. Refreshment[edit]

N. bracing &c. v.; recovery of strength, recuperation &c. 159; restoration, revival &c. 660; repair, refection, refocillation|, refreshment, regalement, bait; relief &c. 834.

break, spell.

refreshment stand; refreshments; ice cream[list], cold soda, soda pop, hot dogs (food) .

V. brace &c. (strengthen) 159; reinvigorate; air, freshen up, refresh, recruit; repair &c. (restore) 660; fan, refocillate|; refresh the inner man.

breathe, respire; drink in the ozone;